Special Issue "Silicon Photonics – Emerging Devices and Applications"

A special issue of Applied Sciences (ISSN 2076-3417). This special issue belongs to the section "Optics and Lasers".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 October 2019.

Special Issue Editors

Dr. Carlos Alberto Alonso-Ramos
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Centre de Nanosciences et de Nanotechnologies, Orsay, France
Interests: Si photonics; hybrid silicon photonics; mid-infrared photonics; sub-wavelength engineering; nonlinear optics; datacom; sensing; quantum photonics
Prof. Dr. Delphine Marris-Morini
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Centre de Nanosciences et de Nanotechnologies, Orsay, France
Interests: silicon photonics; nanophotonics; advanced devices for telecom/datacom applications (complex modulation format, etc.); radio over fiber and opto-RF applications; mid IR spectroscopy; chemical and biological sensing

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The impressive development of silicon photonics in recent years has made it the preferred platform for the on-chip integration of high performing photonic devices. For instance, silicon photonics is widely recognized as an enabling technology for next generation datacom applications, as it holds the promise to leverage already-existing CMOS facilities for the large-volume production of ultra-compact and low-power consumption optoelectronic transceivers, delivering unprecedented data rates. Nevertheless, this enormous technological development has created a myriad of exciting new opportunities for Si photonics beyond datacom. Indeed, a remarkable effort is being devoted, both, at academic and industrial levels, to develop silicon photonic circuits for applications as diverse as chemical and biological sensing, radio-over-fiber and microwave photonics and quantum cryptography and computing. This Special Issue focuses on the latest research and development of silicon photonics, targeting cutting edge performance devices and systems.

Dr. Carlos Alberto Alonso-Ramos
Prof. Dr. Delphine Marris-Morini
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Applied Sciences is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1500 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • nanophotonics
  • opto-electronics
  • datacom
  • sensing
  • radio-over-fiber
  • quantum

Published Papers (8 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle
Polarization-Insensitive Phase Modulators Based on an Embedded Silicon-Graphene-Silicon Waveguide
Appl. Sci. 2019, 9(3), 429; https://doi.org/10.3390/app9030429 - 28 Jan 2019
Abstract
A polarization-insensitive phase modulator concept is presented, based on an embedded silicon-graphene-silicon waveguide. Simulation results show that the effective mode index of both transverse electric (TE) and transverse magnetic (TM) modes in the silicon-graphene-silicon waveguide undergoes almost the same variations under different biases [...] Read more.
A polarization-insensitive phase modulator concept is presented, based on an embedded silicon-graphene-silicon waveguide. Simulation results show that the effective mode index of both transverse electric (TE) and transverse magnetic (TM) modes in the silicon-graphene-silicon waveguide undergoes almost the same variations under different biases across a broad wavelength range, in which the real-part difference is less than 1.2 × 10−3. Based on that, a polarization-insensitive phase modulator is demonstrated, with a 3-dB modulation bandwidth of 135.6 GHz and a wavelength range of over 500 nm. Moreover, it has a compact size of 60 μm, and a low insertion loss of 2.12 dB. The proposed polarization-insensitive waveguide structure could be also applied to Mach-Zehnder modulators and electro-absorption modulators. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Silicon Photonics – Emerging Devices and Applications)
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Open AccessArticle
A Versatile Silicon-Silicon Nitride Photonics Platform for Enhanced Functionalities and Applications
Appl. Sci. 2019, 9(2), 255; https://doi.org/10.3390/app9020255 - 11 Jan 2019
Cited by 3
Abstract
Silicon photonics is one of the most prominent technology platforms for integrated photonics and can support a wide variety of applications. As we move towards a mature industrial core technology, we present the integration of silicon nitride (SiN) material to extend the capabilities [...] Read more.
Silicon photonics is one of the most prominent technology platforms for integrated photonics and can support a wide variety of applications. As we move towards a mature industrial core technology, we present the integration of silicon nitride (SiN) material to extend the capabilities of our silicon photonics platform. Depending on the application being targeted, we have developed several integration strategies for the incorporation of SiN. We present these processes, as well as key components for dedicated applications. In particular, we present the use of SiN for athermal multiplexing in optical transceivers for datacom applications, the nonlinear generation of frequency combs in SiN micro-resonators for ultra-high data rate transmission, spectroscopy or metrology applications and the use of SiN to realize optical phased arrays in the 800–1000 nm wavelength range for Light Detection And Ranging (LIDAR) applications. These functionalities are demonstrated using a 200 mm complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS)-compatible pilot line, showing the versatility and scalability of the Si-SiN platform. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Silicon Photonics – Emerging Devices and Applications)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Wideband Ge-Rich SiGe Polarization-Insensitive Waveguides for Mid-Infrared Free-Space Communications
Appl. Sci. 2018, 8(7), 1154; https://doi.org/10.3390/app8071154 - 16 Jul 2018
Cited by 4
Abstract
The recent development of quantum cascade lasers, with room-temperature emission in the mid-infrared range, opened new opportunities for the implementation of ultra-wideband communication systems. Specifically, the mid-infrared atmospheric transparency windows, comprising wavelengths between 3–5 µm and 8–14 µm, have great potential for free-space [...] Read more.
The recent development of quantum cascade lasers, with room-temperature emission in the mid-infrared range, opened new opportunities for the implementation of ultra-wideband communication systems. Specifically, the mid-infrared atmospheric transparency windows, comprising wavelengths between 3–5 µm and 8–14 µm, have great potential for free-space communications, as they provide a wide unregulated spectrum with low Mie and Rayleigh scattering and reduced background noise. Despite the great efforts devoted to the development of mid-infrared sources and detectors, little attention is dedicated to the management of polarization for signal processing. In this work, we used Ge-rich SiGe alloys to build a wideband and polarization-insensitive mid-infrared photonic platform. We showed that the gradual index change in the SiGe alloys enabled the design of waveguides with remarkably low birefringence, below 2 × 10−4, over ultra-wide wavelength ranges within both atmospheric transparency windows, near wavelengths of 3.5 µm and 9 µm. We also report on the design of a polarization-independent multimode interference device achieving efficient power splitting in an unprecedented 4.5-µm bandwidth at around 10-µm wavelength. The ultra-wideband polarization-insensitive building blocks presented here pave the way for the development of high-performance on-chip photonic circuits for next-generation mid-infrared free-space communication systems. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Silicon Photonics – Emerging Devices and Applications)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Ultra-Low-Loss Silicon Waveguides for Heterogeneously Integrated Silicon/III-V Photonics
Appl. Sci. 2018, 8(7), 1139; https://doi.org/10.3390/app8071139 - 13 Jul 2018
Cited by 11
Abstract
Integrated ultra-low-loss waveguides are highly desired for integrated photonics to enable applications that require long delay lines, high-Q resonators, narrow filters, etc. Here, we present an ultra-low-loss silicon waveguide on 500 nm thick Silicon-On-Insulator (SOI) platform. Meter-scale delay lines, million-Q resonators [...] Read more.
Integrated ultra-low-loss waveguides are highly desired for integrated photonics to enable applications that require long delay lines, high-Q resonators, narrow filters, etc. Here, we present an ultra-low-loss silicon waveguide on 500 nm thick Silicon-On-Insulator (SOI) platform. Meter-scale delay lines, million-Q resonators and tens of picometer bandwidth grating filters are experimentally demonstrated. We design a low-loss low-reflection taper to seamlessly integrate the ultra-low-loss waveguide with standard heterogeneous Si/III-V integrated photonics platform to allow realization of high-performance photonic devices such as ultra-low-noise lasers and optical gyroscopes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Silicon Photonics – Emerging Devices and Applications)
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Review

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Open AccessReview
Si Photonics for Practical LiDAR Solutions
Appl. Sci. 2019, 9(20), 4225; https://doi.org/10.3390/app9204225 - 10 Oct 2019
Abstract
In the article the authors discuss light detection and ranging (LiDAR) for automotive applications and the potential roles Si photonics can play in practice. The authors review published research work on Si photonics optical phased array (OPA) and other relevant devices in the [...] Read more.
In the article the authors discuss light detection and ranging (LiDAR) for automotive applications and the potential roles Si photonics can play in practice. The authors review published research work on Si photonics optical phased array (OPA) and other relevant devices in the past decade with in-depth technical analysis with respect to practical system design considerations. The commercialization status of certain LiDAR technologies is briefly introduced. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Silicon Photonics – Emerging Devices and Applications)
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Open AccessReview
Silicon Meets Graphene for a New Family of Near-Infrared Schottky Photodetectors
Appl. Sci. 2019, 9(18), 3677; https://doi.org/10.3390/app9183677 - 05 Sep 2019
Abstract
In recent years, graphene has attracted much interest due to its unique properties of flexibility, strong light-matter interaction, high carrier mobility and broadband absorption. In addition, graphene can be deposited on many substrates including silicon with which is able to form Schottky junctions, [...] Read more.
In recent years, graphene has attracted much interest due to its unique properties of flexibility, strong light-matter interaction, high carrier mobility and broadband absorption. In addition, graphene can be deposited on many substrates including silicon with which is able to form Schottky junctions, opening the path to the realization of near-infrared photodetectors based on the internal photoemission effect where graphene plays the role of the metal. In this work, we review the very recent progress of the near-infrared photodetectors based on Schottky junctions involving graphene. This new family of device promises to overcome the limitations of the Schottky photodetectors based on metals showing the potentialities to compare favorably with germanium photodetectors currently employed in silicon photonics. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Silicon Photonics – Emerging Devices and Applications)
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Open AccessReview
O-Band and C/L-Band III-V Quantum Dot Lasers Monolithically Grown on Ge and Si Substrate
Appl. Sci. 2019, 9(3), 385; https://doi.org/10.3390/app9030385 - 23 Jan 2019
Cited by 3
Abstract
Direct epitaxial growth of III-V heterostructure on CMOS-compatible silicon wafer offers substantial manufacturing cost and scalability advantages. Quantum dot (QD) devices are less sensitive to defect and temperature, which makes epitaxially grown III-V QD lasers on Si one of the most promising technologies [...] Read more.
Direct epitaxial growth of III-V heterostructure on CMOS-compatible silicon wafer offers substantial manufacturing cost and scalability advantages. Quantum dot (QD) devices are less sensitive to defect and temperature, which makes epitaxially grown III-V QD lasers on Si one of the most promising technologies for achieving low-cost, scalable integration with silicon photonics. The major challenges are that heteroepitaxial growth of III-V materials on Si normally encounters high densities of mismatch dislocations, antiphase boundaries and thermal cracks, which limit the device performance and lifetime. This paper reviews some of the recent developments on hybrid InAs/GaAs QD growth on Ge substrates and highly uniform (111)-faceted hollow Si (001) substrates by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE). By implementing step-graded epitaxial growth techniques, the emission wavelength can be tuned into either an O band or C/L band. Furthermore, microcavity QD laser devices are fabricated and characterized. The epitaxially grown III-V/IV hybrid platform paves the way to provide a promising approach for future on-chip silicon photonic integration. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Silicon Photonics – Emerging Devices and Applications)
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Open AccessReview
Astrophotonic Spectrographs
Appl. Sci. 2019, 9(2), 290; https://doi.org/10.3390/app9020290 - 15 Jan 2019
Abstract
Astrophotonics is the application of photonic technologies to channel, manipulate, and disperse light from one or more telescopes to achieve scientific objectives in astronomy in an efficient and cost-effective way. Utilizing photonic advantage for astronomical spectroscopy is a promising approach to miniaturizing the [...] Read more.
Astrophotonics is the application of photonic technologies to channel, manipulate, and disperse light from one or more telescopes to achieve scientific objectives in astronomy in an efficient and cost-effective way. Utilizing photonic advantage for astronomical spectroscopy is a promising approach to miniaturizing the next generation of spectrometers for large telescopes. It can be primarily attained by leveraging the two-dimensional nature of photonic structures on a chip or a set of fibers, thus reducing the size of spectroscopic instrumentation to a few centimeters and the weight to a few hundred grams. A wide variety of astrophotonic spectrometers is currently being developed, including arrayed waveguide gratings (AWGs), photonic echelle gratings (PEGs), and Fourier-transform spectrometer (FTS). These astrophotonic devices are flexible, cheaper to mass produce, easier to control, and much less susceptible to vibrations and flexure than conventional astronomical spectrographs. The applications of these spectrographs range from astronomy to biomedical analysis. This paper provides a brief review of this new class of astronomical spectrographs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Silicon Photonics – Emerging Devices and Applications)
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