Special Issue "Science at X-ray Free Electron Lasers"

A special issue of Applied Sciences (ISSN 2076-3417). This special issue belongs to the section "Optics and Lasers".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 15 October 2019.

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Kiyoshi Ueda Website E-Mail
Institute of Multidisciplinary Research for Advanced Materials, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8577, Japan
Interests: electron dynamics; molecular dynamics; atoms, molecules and clusters; ultrafast phenomena; photoionization; molecular imaging; electron spectroscopy; many particle spectroscopy; coherent control; free electron lasers

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

X-ray Free Electron Lasers (FELs) deliver coherent x-ray pulses, combining unprecedented power densities of up to 1020W/cm2 and extremely short pulse durations down to hundreds of attoseconds. Such intense XFEL pulses make single-shot diffraction of nanometer-size objects, tiny protein crystals, and non-crystalized biomolecules a tangible reality. Such ultrashort XFEL pulses allow us to visualize femtosecond-scale temporal variations of charge and structure that may occur upon photoexcitation in any form of matter. Also, since the X-ray FEL pulses give access to a new regime of x-ray intensities, they open new venues in studying the interaction between intense X-rays and various forms of matter. Understanding the ultrafast reactions induced by the X-ray FEL pulses is of fundamental interest, as well as of crucial importance, for X-ray FEL applications.

Currently, there are six X-ray FEL facilities in operation in the world. The first FEL facility FLASH (the Free Electron LASer in Hamburg) in Germany started operation for users in 2005. It provides FEL pulses in the range of extreme ultraviolet to soft X-rays. The first hard X-ray FEL facility LCLS (the Linac Coherent Light Source) in the United States started user operation in 2009. In 2012, the second hard X-ray FEL SACLA (the Spring-8 Angstrom Compact free electron LAser) in Japan and the first fully coherent seeded FEL FERMI (the Free Electron laser Radiation for Multidisciplinary Investigations) in Italy started user operation. In 2016, another hard X-ray XFEL, PAL-XFEL (the Pohang Accelerator Laboratory X-ray Free Electron Laser) in Korea, started operation. Last year, European XFEL (European X-ray Free Electron Laser) and SwissFEL (Swiss X-ray Free Electron Laser) started operations. One can find status reports and future plans for these facilities, as well as on-going science, in the Special Issue of the journal Applied Sciences “X-ray free electron laser” (https://www.mdpi.com/journal/applsci/special_issues/x_ray_fel).

Following the success of the first Special Issue “X-ray free electron laser”, we will launch the second Special Issue “Science at X-ray free electron lasers”. This Special Issue aims to cover recent developments in science at all XFELs, as well as relevant theoretical studies.

Prof. Dr. Kiyoshi Ueda
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Applied Sciences is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1500 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Published Papers (1 paper)

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Open AccessArticle
Probing Attosecond Electron Coherence in Molecular Charge Migration by Ultrafast X-Ray Photoelectron Imaging
Appl. Sci. 2019, 9(9), 1941; https://doi.org/10.3390/app9091941 - 11 May 2019
Electron coherence is a fundamental quantum phenomenon in today’s ultrafast physics and chemistry research. Based on attosecond pump–probe schemes, ultrafast X-ray photoelectron imaging of molecules was used to monitor the coherent electron dynamics which is created by an XUV pulse. We performed simulations [...] Read more.
Electron coherence is a fundamental quantum phenomenon in today’s ultrafast physics and chemistry research. Based on attosecond pump–probe schemes, ultrafast X-ray photoelectron imaging of molecules was used to monitor the coherent electron dynamics which is created by an XUV pulse. We performed simulations on the molecular ion H 2 + by numerically solving time-dependent Schrödinger equations. It was found that the X-ray photoelectron angular and momentum distributions depend on the time delay between the XUV pump and soft X-ray probe pulses. Varying the polarization and helicity of the soft X-ray probe pulse gave rise to a modulation of the time-resolved photoelectron distributions. The present results provide a new approach for exploring ultrafast coherent electron dynamics and charge migration in reactions of molecules on the attosecond time scale. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Science at X-ray Free Electron Lasers)
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Planned Papers

The below list represents only planned manuscripts. Some of these manuscripts have not been received by the Editorial Office yet. Papers submitted to MDPI journals are subject to peer-review.

Title: Time-resolved serial femtosecond protein crystallography at SACLA
Authors: Eriko Nango, Minoru Kubo, So Iwata

Title: Ultrafast X-ray Chemistry at European XFEL
Authors: Christian Bressler's Group

Title: Attosecond x-ray pulse generation and science applications at LCLS
Authors: James Cryan, Agostino Marinelli, and collaborators

Title: Atomic, molecular and cluster science at FLASH
Authors: Benjamin Erk and Robert Moshammer

TitleEarly structural biology results at European XFEL
Authors: Adrian Mancuso's group

Title: Atomic Multi-photon Spectroscopy at the SQS Instrument of the European XFEL
Authors: Michael Meyer's group

Title: Opportunities for two-color experiments in the soft X-ray regime at the European XFEL
Authors: Gianluca Geloni, Michael Meyer's group

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