Special Issue "Science at X-ray Free Electron Lasers"
Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 April 2020) | Viewed by 19336
Interests: electron dynamics; molecular dynamics; atoms, molecules and clusters; ultrafast phenomena; photoionization; molecular imaging; electron spectroscopy; many particle spectroscopy; coherent control; free electron lasers
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X-ray Free Electron Lasers (FELs) deliver coherent x-ray pulses, combining unprecedented power densities of up to 1020W/cm2 and extremely short pulse durations down to hundreds of attoseconds. Such intense XFEL pulses make single-shot diffraction of nanometer-size objects, tiny protein crystals, and non-crystalized biomolecules a tangible reality. Such ultrashort XFEL pulses allow us to visualize femtosecond-scale temporal variations of charge and structure that may occur upon photoexcitation in any form of matter. Also, since the X-ray FEL pulses give access to a new regime of x-ray intensities, they open new venues in studying the interaction between intense X-rays and various forms of matter. Understanding the ultrafast reactions induced by the X-ray FEL pulses is of fundamental interest, as well as of crucial importance, for X-ray FEL applications.
Currently, there are six X-ray FEL facilities in operation in the world. The first FEL facility FLASH (the Free Electron LASer in Hamburg) in Germany started operation for users in 2005. It provides FEL pulses in the range of extreme ultraviolet to soft X-rays. The first hard X-ray FEL facility LCLS (the Linac Coherent Light Source) in the United States started user operation in 2009. In 2012, the second hard X-ray FEL SACLA (the Spring-8 Angstrom Compact free electron LAser) in Japan and the first fully coherent seeded FEL FERMI (the Free Electron laser Radiation for Multidisciplinary Investigations) in Italy started user operation. In 2016, another hard X-ray XFEL, PAL-XFEL (the Pohang Accelerator Laboratory X-ray Free Electron Laser) in Korea, started operation. Last year, European XFEL (European X-ray Free Electron Laser) and SwissFEL (Swiss X-ray Free Electron Laser) started operations. One can find status reports and future plans for these facilities, as well as on-going science, in the Special Issue of the journal Applied Sciences “X-ray free electron laser” (https://www.mdpi.com/journal/applsci/special_issues/x_ray_fel).
Following the success of the first Special Issue “X-ray free electron laser”, we will launch the second Special Issue “Science at X-ray free electron lasers”. This Special Issue aims to cover recent developments in science at all XFELs, as well as relevant theoretical studies.
Prof. Dr. Kiyoshi Ueda
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