Special Issue "Nanomaterials in Medical Engineering"

A special issue of Applied Sciences (ISSN 2076-3417). This special issue belongs to the section "Nanotechnology and Applied Nanosciences".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (10 December 2021) | Viewed by 7737

Special Issue Editor

Dr. Morgan Hamon
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
School of Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles, LA 90007, USA
Interests: biomedical engineering; tissue engineering; regenerative medicine; biomaterials; developmental engineering; microfluidics
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The “Nanomaterials in Medical Engineering” section of Applied Sciences covers an important domain of research and development. As the field of biomedical engineering advances, the demand for highly functionalized biomaterials increases. In recent years, nanomaterials have become increasingly useful in biomedicine, with noteworthy applications in various domains, including diagnosis, drug delivery systems, prostheses, and implants.

This Special Issue intends to gather original scientific peer-reviewed articles and review articles featuring important and recent developments or achievements in nanomaterial research, with an emphasis on medical applications and potential applications. Authors who are well-known experts in their domain are invited to submit their contribution at any time until the end of June 2021. Papers can cover either the experimental or theoretical aspect, or both aspects, of nanomaterials (organic, inorganic, or hybrid) in medical applications, including diagnosis, drug delivery, tissue engineering, regenerative medicine, prostheses, and implants.

Dr. Morgan Hamon
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

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Published Papers (6 papers)

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Research

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Article
Graphene Nanoplatelets: In Vivo and In Vitro Toxicity, Cell Proliferative Activity, and Cell Gene Expression
Appl. Sci. 2022, 12(2), 720; https://doi.org/10.3390/app12020720 - 12 Jan 2022
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 662
Abstract
Multi-layer graphene (2–10 layers), also called graphene nanoplatelets (GNPs), is a carbon-based nanomaterial (CBN) type with excellent properties desirable for many biomedical applications. Despite the promising advantages reported of GNPs, nanoscale materials may also present a potential hazard to humans. Therefore, in this [...] Read more.
Multi-layer graphene (2–10 layers), also called graphene nanoplatelets (GNPs), is a carbon-based nanomaterial (CBN) type with excellent properties desirable for many biomedical applications. Despite the promising advantages reported of GNPs, nanoscale materials may also present a potential hazard to humans. Therefore, in this study, the in vivo toxicity of these nanomaterials at a wide range of concentrations from 12.5 to 500 µg/mL was evaluated in the Caenorhabditis elegans model for 24 h (acute toxicity) and 72 h (chronic toxicity). Furthermore, their in vitro toxicity (from 0 to 10 µg/mL for 12 and 24 h), proliferative activity at 72 and 96 h, and their effect on the expression of thirteen genes in human keratinocytes HaCaT cells were studied. The physico-chemical and morphological aspects of the GNPs used in this study were analyzed by Raman scattering spectroscopy, electron microscopy, zeta potential as a function of pH, and particle size measurements by dynamic light scattering. The results of this study showed that GNPs showed in vivo non-toxic concentrations of 25 and 12.5 µg/mL for 24 h, and at 12.5 µg/mL for 72 h. Moreover, GNPs present time-dependent cytotoxicity (EC50 of 1.142 µg/mL and 0.760 µg/mL at 12 h and 24 h, respectively) and significant proliferative activity at the non-toxic concentrations of 0.005 and 0.01 μg/mL in the HaCaT cell line. The gene expression study showed that this multi-layer-graphene is capable of up-regulating six of the thirteen genes of human keratinocytes (SOD1, CAT, TGFB1, FN1, CDH1, and FBN), two more genes than other CBNs in their oxidized form such as multi-layer graphene oxide. Therefore, all these results reinforce the promising use of these CBNs in biomedical fields such as wound healing and skin tissue engineering. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanomaterials in Medical Engineering)
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Article
Enhancement of Antimicrobial Activity of Alginate Films with a Low Amount of Carbon Nanofibers (0.1% w/w)
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(5), 2311; https://doi.org/10.3390/app11052311 - 05 Mar 2021
Cited by 16 | Viewed by 1221
Abstract
The World Health Organization has called for new effective and affordable alternative antimicrobial materials for the prevention and treatment of microbial infections. In this regard, calcium alginate has previously been shown to possess antiviral activity against the enveloped double-stranded DNA herpes simplex virus [...] Read more.
The World Health Organization has called for new effective and affordable alternative antimicrobial materials for the prevention and treatment of microbial infections. In this regard, calcium alginate has previously been shown to possess antiviral activity against the enveloped double-stranded DNA herpes simplex virus type 1. However, non-enveloped viruses are more resistant to inactivation than enveloped ones. Thus, the viral inhibition capacity of calcium alginate and the effect of adding a low amount of carbon nanofibers (0.1% w/w) were explored here against a non-enveloped double-stranded DNA virus model for the first time. The results of this study showed that neat calcium alginate films partly inactivated this type of non-enveloped virus and that including that extremely low percentage of carbon nanofibers (CNFs) significantly enhanced its antiviral activity. These calcium alginate/CNFs composite materials also showed antibacterial properties against the Gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus bacterial model and no cytotoxic effects in human keratinocyte HaCaT cells. Since alginate-based materials have also shown antiviral activity against four types of enveloped positive-sense single-stranded RNA viruses similar to SARS-CoV-2 in previous studies, these novel calcium alginate/carbon nanofibers composites are promising as broad-spectrum antimicrobial biomaterials for the current COVID-19 pandemic. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanomaterials in Medical Engineering)
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Review

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Review
Electrospinning of Chitosan for Antibacterial Applications—Current Trends
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(24), 11937; https://doi.org/10.3390/app112411937 - 15 Dec 2021
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 1716
Abstract
Chitosan is a natural biopolymer that can be suitable for a wide range of applications due to its biocompatibility, rigid structure, and biodegradability. Moreover, it has been proven to have an antibacterial effect against several bacteria strains by incorporating the advantages of the [...] Read more.
Chitosan is a natural biopolymer that can be suitable for a wide range of applications due to its biocompatibility, rigid structure, and biodegradability. Moreover, it has been proven to have an antibacterial effect against several bacteria strains by incorporating the advantages of the electrospinning technique, with which tailored nanofibrous scaffolds can be produced. A literature search is conducted in this review regarding the antibacterial effectiveness of chitosan-based nanofibers in the filtration, biomedicine, and food protection industries. The results are promising in terms of research into sustainable materials. This review focuses on the electrospinning of chitosan for antibacterial applications and shows current trends in this field. In addition, various aspects such as the parameters affecting the antibacterial properties of chitosan are presented, and the application areas of electrospun chitosan nanofibers in the fields of air and water filtration, food storage, wound treatment, and tissue engineering are discussed in more detail. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanomaterials in Medical Engineering)
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Review
Nanotechnology, Nanomedicine, and the Kidney
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(16), 7187; https://doi.org/10.3390/app11167187 - 04 Aug 2021
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 1258
Abstract
The kidneys are vital organs performing several essential functions. Their primary function is the filtration of blood and the removal of metabolic waste products as well as fluid homeostasis. Renal filtration is the main pathway for drug removal, highlighting the importance of this [...] Read more.
The kidneys are vital organs performing several essential functions. Their primary function is the filtration of blood and the removal of metabolic waste products as well as fluid homeostasis. Renal filtration is the main pathway for drug removal, highlighting the importance of this organ to the growing field of nanomedicine. The kidneys (i) have a key role in the transport and clearance of nanoparticles (NPs), (ii) are exposed to potential NPs’ toxicity, and (iii) are the targets of diseases that nanomedicine can study, detect, and treat. In this review, we aim to summarize the latest research on kidney-nanoparticle interaction. We first give a brief overview of the kidney’s anatomy and renal filtration, describe how nanoparticle characteristics influence their renal clearance, and the approaches taken to image and treat the kidney, including drug delivery and tissue engineering. Finally, we discuss the future and some of the challenges faced by nanomedicine. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanomaterials in Medical Engineering)
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Review
Nanoarchitectures in Management of Fungal Diseases: An Overview
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(15), 7119; https://doi.org/10.3390/app11157119 - 31 Jul 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1079
Abstract
Fungal infections, from mild itching to fatal infections, lead to chronic diseases and death. Antifungal agents have incorporated chemical compounds and natural products/phytoconstituents in the management of fungal diseases. In contrast to antibacterial research, novel antifungal drugs have progressed more swiftly because of [...] Read more.
Fungal infections, from mild itching to fatal infections, lead to chronic diseases and death. Antifungal agents have incorporated chemical compounds and natural products/phytoconstituents in the management of fungal diseases. In contrast to antibacterial research, novel antifungal drugs have progressed more swiftly because of their mild existence and negligible resistance of infections to antifungal bioactivities. Nanotechnology-based carriers have gained much attention due to their magnificent abilities. Nanoarchitectures have served as excellent carriers/drug delivery systems (DDS) for delivering antifungal drugs with improved antifungal activities, bioavailability, targeted action, and reduced cytotoxicity. This review outlines the different fungal diseases and their treatment strategies involving various nanocarrier-based techniques such as liposomes, transfersomes, ethosomes, transethosomes, niosomes, spanlastics, dendrimers, polymeric nanoparticles, polymer nanocomposites, metallic nanoparticles, carbon nanomaterials, and nanoemulsions, among other nanotechnological approaches. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanomaterials in Medical Engineering)
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Review
Electrospun Nanofibrous Membranes for Tissue Engineering and Cell Growth
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(15), 6929; https://doi.org/10.3390/app11156929 - 28 Jul 2021
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 1184
Abstract
In biotechnology, the field of cell cultivation is highly relevant. Cultivated cells can be used, for example, for the development of biopharmaceuticals and in tissue engineering. Commonly, mammalian cells are grown in bioreactors, T-flasks, well plates, etc., without a specific substrate. Nanofibrous mats, [...] Read more.
In biotechnology, the field of cell cultivation is highly relevant. Cultivated cells can be used, for example, for the development of biopharmaceuticals and in tissue engineering. Commonly, mammalian cells are grown in bioreactors, T-flasks, well plates, etc., without a specific substrate. Nanofibrous mats, however, have been reported to promote cell growth, adhesion, and proliferation. Here, we give an overview of the different attempts at cultivating mammalian cells on electrospun nanofiber mats for biotechnological and biomedical purposes. Starting with a brief overview of the different electrospinning methods, resulting in random or defined fiber orientations in the nanofiber mats, we describe the typical materials used in cell growth applications in biotechnology and tissue engineering. The influence of using different surface morphologies and polymers or polymer blends on the possible application of such nanofiber mats for tissue engineering and other biotechnological applications is discussed. Polymer blends, in particular, can often be used to reach the required combination of mechanical and biological properties, making such nanofiber mats highly suitable for tissue engineering and other biotechnological or biomedical cell growth applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanomaterials in Medical Engineering)
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