Special Issue "Clean Energy and Fuel (Hydrogen) Storage"

A special issue of Applied Sciences (ISSN 2076-3417). This special issue belongs to the section "Energy".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 December 2018

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Elias K. Stefanakos

Professor of Electrical Engineering and Director, Clean Energy Research Center, College of Engineering, University of South Florida, 4202 East Fowler Avenue, ENB118, Tampa, FL 33620, USA
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Interests: solar energy conversion (photovoltaics, rectennas, etc.); fuel cells; hydrogen production and storage; energy systems; electric/hybrid vehicles—alternative fuels; thermal storage; photocatalysis
Guest Editor
Dr. Sesha S. Srinivasan

Assistant Professor of Physics, Florida Polytechnic University, 4700 Research Way, Lakeland, Florida 33805, USA
Website | E-Mail
Interests: hydrogen production; hydrogen storage; fuel cells; nanotechnology; multifunctional materials; photocatalysis; material synthesis and characterization

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Clean energy and fuel storage is often required for both stationary and automotive applications. Some of these clean energy and fuel storage technologies, currently under extensive research and development, are hydrogen storage, direct electric storage, mechanical energy storage, solar-thermal energy storage, electrochemical (batteries), and thermochemical storage. The gravimetric and volumetric storage capacity, energy storage density, power output, operating temperature and pressure, cycle life, recyclability and cost of clean energy or fuel storage are some of the factors that govern efficient energy and fuel storage technologies for potential deployment in energy harvesting (solar and wind farms) stations and on-board vehicular transportation. This Special Issue, thus, serves the need to promote exploratory research and development on clean energy and fuel storage technologies while addressing their challenges to a practical and sustainable infrastructure. We invite contributions in topics that include but not limited to various state-of-the-art energy and alternative fuel storage technologies.

Prof. Dr. Elias K. Stefanakos
Dr. Sesha S. Srinivasan
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • Hydrogen Production and Storage

  • Thermal Energy Storage

  • Direct Electrical Energy Storage

  • Direct Mechanical Energy Storage

  • Electrochemical Energy Storage

  • Thermochemical Energy Storage

  • Other Clean Energy and Fuel Storage Options

Published Papers (12 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle Optimization of Battery Energy Storage System Capacity for Wind Farm with Considering Auxiliary Services Compensation
Appl. Sci. 2018, 8(10), 1957; https://doi.org/10.3390/app8101957
Received: 27 September 2018 / Revised: 10 October 2018 / Accepted: 15 October 2018 / Published: 17 October 2018
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Abstract
An optimal sizing model of the battery energy storage system (BESS) for large-scale wind farm adapting to the scheduling plan is proposed in this paper. Based on the analysis of the variability and uncertainty of wind output, the cost of auxiliary services of
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An optimal sizing model of the battery energy storage system (BESS) for large-scale wind farm adapting to the scheduling plan is proposed in this paper. Based on the analysis of the variability and uncertainty of wind output, the cost of auxiliary services of systems that are eased by BESS is quantized and the constraints of BESS accounting for the effect of wind power on system dispatching are proposed. Aiming to maximum the benefits of wind-storage union system, an optimal capacity model considering BESS investment costs, wind curtailment saving, and auxiliary services compensation is established. What’s more, the effect of irregular charge/discharge process on the life cycle of BESS is considered into the optimal model by introducing an equivalent loss of the cycle life. Finally, based on the typical data of a systems, results show that auxiliary services compensation can encourage wind farm configuration BESS effectively. Various sensitivity analyses are performed to assess the effect of the auxiliary services compensation, on-grid price of wind power, investment cost of BESS, cycle life of BESS, and wind uncertainty reserve level of BESS on this optimal capacity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Clean Energy and Fuel (Hydrogen) Storage)
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Open AccessArticle Numerical Investigation of Energy Saving Characteristic in Building Roof Coupled with PCM Using Lattice Boltzmann Method with Economic Analysis
Appl. Sci. 2018, 8(10), 1739; https://doi.org/10.3390/app8101739
Received: 10 September 2018 / Revised: 20 September 2018 / Accepted: 25 September 2018 / Published: 26 September 2018
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Abstract
Due to their characteristics of high energy storage density and a nearly constant melting temperature, phase change materials (PCMs) could be inserted into the roof of green buildings in order to reduce the energy consumption and ameliorate the room thermal comfort. In this
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Due to their characteristics of high energy storage density and a nearly constant melting temperature, phase change materials (PCMs) could be inserted into the roof of green buildings in order to reduce the energy consumption and ameliorate the room thermal comfort. In this paper, an enthalpy based multiple-relaxation-time (MRT) lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) was developed to calculate the transient phase change conjugate heat transfer with solar radiation inside the green building’s PCM roof in the hot summer and cold winter areas of China. The effect of the PCM melting temperature on the variation of the roof internal temperature was investigated and the energy saving characteristic of the PCM roof under an intermittent energy utilization condition was also analyzed by comparing with the performance of the roof filled with sensible insulating materials (SIMs). Then, the life cycle incremental costs and incremental benefits of a PCM roof and SIM roof were studied by using the comprehensive incremental benefit model so that the green building roof could be economically evaluated. The results indicate that a temperature rise inside the roof during summer cooling time could be delayed due to the latent heat of the PCMs. It was also found that the melting temperature and the thickness of the PCM layer should be chosen appropriately for enhancing the energy saving amount of a PCM roof. Based on this, the PCM roof could have a better energy saving capability than the SIM roof. During the winter heating time, as the environment temperature and the room temperature are both below the PCM melting temperature, the PCM roof does not have a latent heat characteristic so that it performs like a SIM roof. Furthermore, due to the high price of PCMs, the incremental cost of green building is increased, which makes the PCM roof have a negative comprehensive incremental benefit. Under this circumstance, developing PCMs with a low price and stable chemical properties is a key scientific bottleneck for a wider application of PCM roofs in the architecture engineering field. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Clean Energy and Fuel (Hydrogen) Storage)
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Open AccessArticle A State of Charge Estimator Based Extended Kalman Filter Using an Electrochemistry-Based Equivalent Circuit Model for Lithium-Ion Batteries
Appl. Sci. 2018, 8(9), 1592; https://doi.org/10.3390/app8091592
Received: 22 August 2018 / Revised: 1 September 2018 / Accepted: 6 September 2018 / Published: 8 September 2018
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Abstract
In this paper, an improved equivalent circuit model (ECM) considering partial electrochemical properties is developed for accurate state-of-charge (SOC). In the proposed model, the solid-phase diffusion process is calculated by a simple equation about particle surface SOC, and the double layer is simulated
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In this paper, an improved equivalent circuit model (ECM) considering partial electrochemical properties is developed for accurate state-of-charge (SOC). In the proposed model, the solid-phase diffusion process is calculated by a simple equation about particle surface SOC, and the double layer is simulated by two resistance-capacitance (RC) networks. To improve the global accuracy of the model, a subarea parameter-identification method based on particle swarm optimization is proposed, in order to determine the optimal model parameters in the entire SOC area. Then, an SOC estimator is developed based on extended kalman filter. The comparative study shows that a model considering solid-phase diffusion with two RC networks is the best choice. Finally, experimental results show that the accuracy of the proposed model is one times higher than that of the traditional ECM in the low SOC area, and is able to estimate SOC with errors less than 1% in the entire SOC area. Furthermore, estimation results of two types of batteries under two working conditions indicate that the developed model and SOC estimator have satisfactory global accuracy and guaranteed robustness with low computational complexity, which can be applied in real-time situations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Clean Energy and Fuel (Hydrogen) Storage)
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Open AccessArticle Power to Fuels: Dynamic Modeling of a Slurry Bubble Column Reactor in Lab-Scale for Fischer Tropsch Synthesis under Variable Load of Synthesis Gas
Appl. Sci. 2018, 8(4), 514; https://doi.org/10.3390/app8040514
Received: 23 February 2018 / Revised: 24 March 2018 / Accepted: 25 March 2018 / Published: 28 March 2018
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Abstract
This research developed a comprehensive computer model for a lab-scale Slurry Bubble Column Reactor (SBCR) (0.1 m Dt and 2.5 m height) for Fischer–Tropsch (FT) synthesis under flexible operation of synthesis gas load flow rates. The variable loads of synthesis gas are
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This research developed a comprehensive computer model for a lab-scale Slurry Bubble Column Reactor (SBCR) (0.1 m Dt and 2.5 m height) for Fischer–Tropsch (FT) synthesis under flexible operation of synthesis gas load flow rates. The variable loads of synthesis gas are set at 3.5, 5, 7.5 m3/h based on laboratory adjustments at three different operating temperatures (483, 493 and 503 K). A set of Partial Differential Equations (PDEs) in the form of mass transfer and chemical reaction are successfully coupled to predict the behavior of all the FT components in two phases (gas and liquid) over the reactor bed. In the gas phase, a single-bubble-class-diameter (SBCD) is adopted and the reduction of superficial gas velocity through the reactor length is incorporated into the model by the overall mass balance. Anderson Schulz Flory distribution is employed for reaction kinetics. The modeling results are in good agreement with experimental data. The results of dynamic modeling show that the steady state condition is attained within 10 min from start-up. Furthermore, they show that step-wise syngas flow rate does not have a detrimental influence on FT product selectivity and the dynamic modeling of the slurry reactor responds quite well to the load change conditions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Clean Energy and Fuel (Hydrogen) Storage)
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Open AccessArticle The Effect of Magnetic Field on Thermal-Reaction Kinetics of a Paramagnetic Metal Hydride Storage Bed
Appl. Sci. 2017, 7(10), 1006; https://doi.org/10.3390/app7101006
Received: 4 August 2017 / Accepted: 7 September 2017 / Published: 29 September 2017
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Abstract
A safe and efficient method for storing hydrogen is solid state storage through a chemical reaction in metal hydrides. A good amount of research has been conducted on hydrogenation properties of metal hydrides and possible methods to improve them. Background research shows that
[...] Read more.
A safe and efficient method for storing hydrogen is solid state storage through a chemical reaction in metal hydrides. A good amount of research has been conducted on hydrogenation properties of metal hydrides and possible methods to improve them. Background research shows that heat transfer is one of the reaction rate controlling parameters in a metal hydride hydrogen storage system. Considering that some very well-known hydrides like lanthanum nickel (LaNi5) and magnesium hydride (MgH2) are paramagnetic materials, the effect of an external magnetic field on heat conduction and reaction kinetics in a metal hydride storage system with such materials needs to be studied. In the current paper, hydrogenation properties of lanthanum nickel under magnetism were studied. The properties which were under consideration include reaction kinetics, hydrogen absorption capacity, and hydrogenation time. Experimentation has proven the positive effect of applying magnetic fields on the heat conduction, reaction kinetics, and hydrogenation time of a lanthanum nickel bed. However, magnetism did not increase the hydrogenation capacity of lanthanum nickel, which is evidence to prove that elevated hydrogenation characteristics result from enhanced heat transfer in the bed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Clean Energy and Fuel (Hydrogen) Storage)
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Open AccessArticle Synthetic Rock Analogue for Permeability Studies of Rock Salt with Mudstone
Appl. Sci. 2017, 7(9), 946; https://doi.org/10.3390/app7090946
Received: 28 July 2017 / Revised: 5 September 2017 / Accepted: 11 September 2017 / Published: 14 September 2017
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Abstract
Knowledge about the permeability of surrounding rock (salt rock and mudstone interlayer) is an important topic, which acts as a key parameter to characterize the tightness of gas storage. The goal of experiments that test the permeability of gas storage facilities in rock
[...] Read more.
Knowledge about the permeability of surrounding rock (salt rock and mudstone interlayer) is an important topic, which acts as a key parameter to characterize the tightness of gas storage. The goal of experiments that test the permeability of gas storage facilities in rock salt is to develop a synthetic analogue to use as a permeability model. To address the permeability of a mudstone/salt layered and mixed rock mass in Jintan, Jiangsu Province, synthetic mixed and layered specimens using the mudstone and the salt were fabricated for permeability testing. Because of the gas “slippage effect”, test results are corrected by the Klinkenberg method, and the permeability of specimens is obtained by regression fitting. The results show that the permeability of synthetic pure rock salt is 6.9 × 10−20 m2, and its porosity is 3.8%. The permeability of synthetic mudstone rock is 2.97 × 10−18 m2, with a porosity 17.8%. These results are close to those obtained from intact natural specimens. We also find that with the same mudstone content, the permeability of mixed specimens is about 40% higher than for the layered specimens, and with an increase in the mudstone content, the Klinkenberg permeability increases for both types of specimens. The permeability and mudstone content have a strong exponential relationship. When the mudstone content is below 40%, the permeability increases only slightly with mudstone content, whereas above this threshold, the permeability increases rapidly with mudstone content. The results of the study are of use in the assessment of the tightness of natural gas storage facilities in mudstone-rich rock salt formations in China. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Clean Energy and Fuel (Hydrogen) Storage)
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Open AccessArticle Structure and Capacitance of Electrical Double Layers at the Graphene–Ionic Liquid Interface
Appl. Sci. 2017, 7(9), 939; https://doi.org/10.3390/app7090939
Received: 25 August 2017 / Revised: 6 September 2017 / Accepted: 6 September 2017 / Published: 12 September 2017
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Abstract
Molecular dynamics simulations are carried out to investigate the structure and capacitance of the electrical double layers (EDLs) at the interface of vertically oriented graphene and ionic liquids [EMIM]+/[BF4]. The distribution and migration of the ions in
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Molecular dynamics simulations are carried out to investigate the structure and capacitance of the electrical double layers (EDLs) at the interface of vertically oriented graphene and ionic liquids [EMIM]+/[BF4]. The distribution and migration of the ions in the EDL on the rough and non-rough electrode surfaces with different charge densities are compared and analyzed, and the effect of the electrode surface morphology on the capacitance of the EDL is clarified. The results suggest that alternate distributions of anions and cations in several consecutive layers are formed in the EDL on the electrode surface. When the electrode is charged, the layers of [BF4] anions experience more significant migration than those of [EMIM]+ cations. These ion layers can be extended deeper into the bulk electrolyte solution by the stronger interaction of the rough electrode, compared to those on the non-rough electrode surface. The potential energy valley of ions on the neutral electrode surface establishes a potential energy difference to compensate the energy cost of the ion accumulation, and is capable of producing a potential drop across the EDL on the uncharged electrode surface. Due to the greater effective contact area between the ions and electrode, the rough electrode possesses a larger capacitance than the non-rough one. In addition, it is harder for the larger-sized [EMIM]+ cations to accumulate in the narrow grooves on the rough electrode, when compared with the smaller [BF4]. Consequently, the double-hump-shaped C–V curve (which demonstrates the relationship between differential capacitance and potential drop across the EDL) for the rough electrode is asymmetric, where the capacitance increases more significantly when the electrode is positively charged. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Clean Energy and Fuel (Hydrogen) Storage)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Investigation of Catalytic Effects and Compositional Variations in Desorption Characteristics of LiNH2-nanoMgH2
Appl. Sci. 2017, 7(7), 701; https://doi.org/10.3390/app7070701
Received: 9 June 2017 / Revised: 28 June 2017 / Accepted: 4 July 2017 / Published: 7 July 2017
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Abstract
LiNH2 and a pre-processed nanoMgH2 with 1:1 and 2:1 molar ratios were mechano-chemically milled in a high-energy planetary ball mill under inert atmosphere, and at room temperature and atmospheric pressure. Based on the thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) experiments, 2LiNH2-nanoMgH2
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LiNH2 and a pre-processed nanoMgH2 with 1:1 and 2:1 molar ratios were mechano-chemically milled in a high-energy planetary ball mill under inert atmosphere, and at room temperature and atmospheric pressure. Based on the thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) experiments, 2LiNH2-nanoMgH2 demonstrated superior desorption characteristics when compared to the LiNH2-nanoMgH2. The TGA studies also revealed that doping 2LiNH2-nanoMgH2 base material with 2 wt. % nanoNi catalyst enhances the sorption kinetics at lower temperatures. Additional investigation of different catalysts showed improved reaction kinetics (weight percentage of H2 released per minute) of the order TiF3 > nanoNi > nanoTi > nanoCo > nanoFe > multiwall carbon nanotube (MWCNT), and reduction in the on-set decomposition temperatures of the order nanoCo > TiF3 > nanoTi > nanoFe > nanoNi > MWCNT for the base material 2LiNH2-nanoMgH2. Pristine and catalyst-doped 2LiNH2-nanoMgH2 samples were further probed by X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, transmission and scanning electron microscopies, thermal programmed desorption and pressure-composition-temperature measurements to better understand the improved performance of the catalyst-doped samples, and the results are discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Clean Energy and Fuel (Hydrogen) Storage)
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Open AccessArticle Experimental Study on the Physical Simulation of Water Invasion in Carbonate Gas Reservoirs
Appl. Sci. 2017, 7(7), 697; https://doi.org/10.3390/app7070697
Received: 6 June 2017 / Revised: 27 June 2017 / Accepted: 29 June 2017 / Published: 7 July 2017
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Abstract
Water invasion in carbonate gas reservoirs often results in excessive water production, which limits the economic life of gas wells. This is influenced by reservoir properties and production parameters, such as aquifer, fracture, permeability and production rate. In this study, seven full diameter
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Water invasion in carbonate gas reservoirs often results in excessive water production, which limits the economic life of gas wells. This is influenced by reservoir properties and production parameters, such as aquifer, fracture, permeability and production rate. In this study, seven full diameter core samples with dissolved pores and fractures were designed and an experimental system of water invasion in gas reservoirs with edge and bottom aquifers was established to simulate the process of water invasion. Then the effects of the related reservoir properties and production parameters were investigated. The results show that the edge and bottom aquifers supply the energy for gas reservoirs with dissolved pores, which delays the decline of bottom-hole pressure. The high water aquifer defers the decline of water invasion in the early stage while the big gas production rate accelerates water influx in gas reservoirs. The existence of fractures increases the discharge area of gas reservoirs and the small water influx can result in a substantial decline in recovery factor. With the increase of permeability, gas production rate has less influence on recovery factor. These results can provide insights into a better understanding of water invasion and the effects of reservoir properties and production parameters so as to optimize the production in carbonate gas reservoirs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Clean Energy and Fuel (Hydrogen) Storage)
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Open AccessArticle Simulation Investigation on Combustion Characteristics in a Four-Point Lean Direct Injection Combustor with Hydrogen/Air
Appl. Sci. 2017, 7(6), 619; https://doi.org/10.3390/app7060619
Received: 5 May 2017 / Revised: 5 June 2017 / Accepted: 12 June 2017 / Published: 14 June 2017
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Abstract
To investigate the combustion characteristics in multi-point lean direct injection (LDI) combustors with hydrogen/air, two swirl–venturi 2 × 2 array four-point LDI combustors were designed. The four-point LDI combustor consists of injector assembly, swirl–venturi array and combustion chamber. The injector, swirler and venturi
[...] Read more.
To investigate the combustion characteristics in multi-point lean direct injection (LDI) combustors with hydrogen/air, two swirl–venturi 2 × 2 array four-point LDI combustors were designed. The four-point LDI combustor consists of injector assembly, swirl–venturi array and combustion chamber. The injector, swirler and venturi together govern the rapid mixing of hydrogen and air to form the mixture for combustion. Using clockwise swirlers and anticlockwise swirlers, the co-swirling and count-swirling swirler arrays LDI combustors were achieved. Using Reynolds-Averaged Navier–Stokes (RANS) code for steady-state reacting flow computations, the four-point LDI combustors with hydrogen/air were simulated with an 11 species and 23 lumped reaction steps H2/Air reaction mechanism. The axial velocity, turbulence kinetic energy, total pressure drop coefficient, outlet temperature, mass fraction of OH and emission of pollutant NO of four-point LDI combustors, with different equivalence ratios, are here presented and discussed. As the equivalence ratios increased, the total pressure drop coefficient became higher because of increasing heat loss. Increasing equivalence ratios also corresponded with the rise in outlet temperature of the four-point LDI combustors, as well as an increase in the emission index of NO EINO in the four-point LDI combustors. Along the axial distance, the EINO always increased and was at maximum at the exit of the dump. Along the chamber, the EINO gradually increased, maximizing at the exit of chamber. The total temperature of four-point LDI combustors with different equivalence ratios was identical to the theoretical equilibrium temperature. The EINO was an exponential function of the equivalence ratio. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Clean Energy and Fuel (Hydrogen) Storage)
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Open AccessArticle Dual Functionalized Freestanding TiO2 Nanotube Arrays Coated with Ag Nanoparticles and Carbon Materials for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells
Appl. Sci. 2017, 7(6), 576; https://doi.org/10.3390/app7060576
Received: 21 March 2017 / Revised: 21 May 2017 / Accepted: 30 May 2017 / Published: 2 June 2017
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Abstract
Highly ordered, freestanding TiO2 nanotube arrays (TiO2 NTAs) were prepared using an electrochemical method. The barrier layer was etched to open the bottom of each array, aptly named “open-ended TiO2 NTAs”. These arrays were coated with silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs)
[...] Read more.
Highly ordered, freestanding TiO2 nanotube arrays (TiO2 NTAs) were prepared using an electrochemical method. The barrier layer was etched to open the bottom of each array, aptly named “open-ended TiO2 NTAs”. These arrays were coated with silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) and/or carbon materials to enhance electron generation and transport. The energy conversion efficiency of the resulting dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) with open-ended freestanding TiO2 NTAs, when coated with Ag NPs, increased from 5.32% to 6.14% (by 15%) due to plasmonic interactions. Meanwhile, coating the open-ended freestanding TiO2 NTAs with carbon materials increased the energy conversion efficiency from 5.32% to 6.07% (by 14%), due to π-π conjugation. When the Ag NPs and carbon materials were simultaneously applied to the open-ended freestanding TiO2 NTAs, the energy conversion efficiency increased from 5.32% to 6.91%—an enhancement of 30%, due to the additive effects of plasmonics and π-π conjugation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Clean Energy and Fuel (Hydrogen) Storage)
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Review

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Open AccessReview A Review on Nanocomposite Materials for Rechargeable Li-ion Batteries
Appl. Sci. 2017, 7(7), 731; https://doi.org/10.3390/app7070731
Received: 15 June 2017 / Revised: 8 July 2017 / Accepted: 12 July 2017 / Published: 17 July 2017
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (8265 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Li-ion batteries are the key enabling technology in portable electronics applications, and such batteries are also getting a foothold in mobile platforms and stationary energy storage technologies recently. To accelerate the penetration of Li-ion batteries in these markets, safety, cost, cycle life, energy
[...] Read more.
Li-ion batteries are the key enabling technology in portable electronics applications, and such batteries are also getting a foothold in mobile platforms and stationary energy storage technologies recently. To accelerate the penetration of Li-ion batteries in these markets, safety, cost, cycle life, energy density and rate capability of the Li-ion batteries should be improved. The Li-ion batteries in use today take advantage of the composite materials already. For instance, cathode, anode and separator are all composite materials. However, there is still plenty of room for advancing the Li-ion batteries by utilizing nanocomposite materials. By manipulating the Li-ion battery materials at the nanoscale, it is possible to achieve unprecedented improvement in the material properties. After presenting the current status and the operating principles of the Li-ion batteries briefly, this review discusses the recent developments in nanocomposite materials for cathode, anode, binder and separator components of the Li-ion batteries. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Clean Energy and Fuel (Hydrogen) Storage)
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