Special Issue "Biochemical Composition of Food"

A special issue of Applied Sciences (ISSN 2076-3417). This special issue belongs to the section "Food Science and Technology".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (20 November 2022) | Viewed by 5673

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Dr. Pranas Viskelis
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Institute of Horticulture, Lithuanian Research Centre for Agriculture and Forestry, Laboratory of Biochemistry and Technology, Kauno Str. 30, Babtai, LT-54333 Kaunas distr., Lithuania
Interests: biochemistry; food science; agronomy; technological sciences; chemical engineering; physical chemistry
Dr. Dalia Urbonaviciene
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Institute of Horticulture, Lithuanian Research Centre for Agriculture and Forestry, Laboratory of Biochemistry and Technology, Kauno St. 30, Babtai, LT-54333 Kaunas distr., Lithuania
Interests: chemical composition; quality assessment of fruits, berries and vegetables; modelling and optimization of extraction parameters of biologically active compounds; creation of functional food products
Dr. Jonas Viskelis
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Institute of Horticulture, Lithuanian Research Centre for Agriculture and Forestry, Laboratory of Biochemistry and Technology, Kauno St. 30, Babtai, LT-54333 Kaunas distr., Lithuania
Interests: bioactive compounds in plant materials; infrared and visible light spectroscopy; chemical composition; processing and storage of plant materials

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

 

We invite you to contribute to a Special Issue entitled “Biochemical Composition of Food”, which aims to present recent findings on the biologically active compounds in foods and detailed composition of foods that have beneficial effects on human health—the food we eat ends up becoming part of our body and mind.

In recent years, the principles and knowledge of food biochemistry have become indispensable in practically all major disciplines of food science, including food processing, food engineering, food technology, and food safety. The aim of the research is to reach an understanding of health-promoting compounds in plant- and animal-based foods and the possibility to utilize their characteristic chemical features and reactions to improve food quality from a nutritional, technological, or sensory point of view. The goals of the research are met by bridging traditional gaps between food components and their end products after reactions, and the possibility to steer those reactions in desired directions. Key activities of the research should include the utilization of modern methods for analyzing food components, model systems to study their reactions, and efficient statistical tools for data analysis to get the maximum informative value out of the data obtained.

Potential topics include, but are not limited to, the following:

  • Biochemical composition of food and raw materials;
  • Fermentation;
  • Food authentication and traceability;
  • Innovations for food processing;
  • Modelling and optimization of food processing and storage;
  • Quality of food;
  • Functional food;
  • Food safety.

Prof. Dr. Pranas Viskelis
Dr. Dalia Urbonaviciene
Dr. Jonas Viskelis
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Applied Sciences is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2300 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • biochemistry
  • biologically active compounds
  • chemical composition
  • fermentation
  • food quality
  • food safety
  • functional food

Published Papers (5 papers)

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Research

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Article
The Impact of Eggshell Thickness on the Qualitative Characteristics of Stored Eggs Produced by Three Breeds of Laying Hens of the Cage and Cage-Free Housed Systems
Appl. Sci. 2022, 12(22), 11539; https://doi.org/10.3390/app122211539 - 14 Nov 2022
Viewed by 297
Abstract
The study aimed to compare the physical-chemical attributes of table eggs from three laying hen breeds housed in the cage and cage-free conditions and to characterize the morphological characteristics of the eggshell interior. A morphological and elemental analysis performed by scanning electron microscope [...] Read more.
The study aimed to compare the physical-chemical attributes of table eggs from three laying hen breeds housed in the cage and cage-free conditions and to characterize the morphological characteristics of the eggshell interior. A morphological and elemental analysis performed by scanning electron microscope coupled with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy revealed no abnormalities in the structural integrity of eggshells. The thickness of the eggshell varied in the range from 356.2 to 366.4 µm, with no statistically significant differences between the values. Eggshell membrane thickness was between 20.0 and 59.9 µm, with eggs derived from cage-housed hens, i.e., H/LS/CCE and H/HN/CCE having thinner membrane layers. The results revealed no direct relationships between eggshell and membrane thickness and physical-chemical parameters’ change. However, the presence of thick and long spider-like microcracks on the eggshell surface of eggs from cage-free housed hens H/D/BWE was the main factor that presumably contributed to substantial weight loss during 36 days of egg storage. A noticeable decline in eggshell-breaking strength along with the enlargement of air cells was observed in eggs produced under an enriched cage system H/LS/CCE after 28 days. In contrast, the minor changes in air cell size occurred in eggs from cage-free housed laying hens H/D/BWE. Protein quality indicators such as albumen height and Haugh units were well correlated with each other, and the intensity of their changes during egg storage, to a greater extent, was found to be storage time-dependent. No significant depletion of egg albumen was revealed during the first 15 days of egg storage. According to the United States Department of Agriculture, the quality corresponded to grade A (reasonably firm). However, after 18 days of storage, Haugh unit values were lower than 60, corresponding to grade B (weak and watery). The most apparent reduction in the Haugh unit was observed in eggs produced by enriched cage H/HN/CCE and cage-free H/D/BWE hens. The egg quality was storage time-dependent, and their deterioration rate was primarily associated with the genetic background of laying hens and housing conditions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biochemical Composition of Food)
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Article
Changes in the Biochemical Composition and Physicochemical Properties of Apples Stored in Controlled Atmosphere Conditions
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(13), 6215; https://doi.org/10.3390/app11136215 - 05 Jul 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1257
Abstract
Apples are an important component of the diet and are used in the food industry in the production of food products and beverages. The aim of the study was to determine the changes in the biochemical composition and physicochemical properties of apples stored [...] Read more.
Apples are an important component of the diet and are used in the food industry in the production of food products and beverages. The aim of the study was to determine the changes in the biochemical composition and physicochemical properties of apples stored in a controlled atmosphere. We studied the biochemical composition (sugars, ascorbic acid, soluble solids, and titratable acidity) and physicochemical properties (color coordinates, peel, and flesh firmness) in the apple samples before placing them in the controlled atmosphere chambers and at the end of the experiment 8 months later. The total content of sugars and soluble solids was found to increase in the samples of apples stored in I to VIII conditions. The study showed a decrease in titratable acidity in apple samples of all cultivars stored in I to VIII conditions. The values of C*, L*, a*, and b* co-ordinates of apple colors were evaluated. Apple samples stored in VI conditions were the lightest color, and their lightness was close to that of fresh fruit. The firmness of apple peel samples of the ‘Sampion’ cultivar stored in I and III–VI conditions increased. The study is valuable and proves that, under the studied conditions, it is possible to extend the time of the provision of apples to the consumers with minimal changes in their chemical composition and nutritional value. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biochemical Composition of Food)
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Article
Valuable Nutrients from Ulva rigida: Modulation by Seasonal and Cultivation Factors
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(13), 6137; https://doi.org/10.3390/app11136137 - 01 Jul 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 948
Abstract
Ulva macroalgae species are recognized to be an underexploited source of key nutrients, including proteins, fibers and minerals. The present work evaluated the nutritional value protein, ash, mineral composition, fat, fatty acid profile and dietary fiber of the green macroalgae Ulva rigida produced [...] Read more.
Ulva macroalgae species are recognized to be an underexploited source of key nutrients, including proteins, fibers and minerals. The present work evaluated the nutritional value protein, ash, mineral composition, fat, fatty acid profile and dietary fiber of the green macroalgae Ulva rigida produced in an open land-based integrated multi-trophic aquaculture (IMTA) system, over four seasons. Overall, protein and fat content of the farmed algae ranged between 7.6 and 25.8% DW and between 0.2 and 1.3% DW, respectively, reaching the highest levels during autumn/winter seasons. In turn, total dietary fiber and ashes showed a contrary seasonal tendency, reaching maximum levels in spring (40.9–58.3% DW and 25.5–38.8% DW, respectively). Notably, the latter were particularly characterized by their richness in potassium, magnesium and iron, and a sodium/potassium ratio bellow 1.7. Variable cultivation conditions of stocking density (Sd) and flow rate (Fr) were also tested, allowing to confirm that manipulation of cultivation conditions in an IMTA system may help to improve the nutritional value of this macroalga and to boost its market value through its use as a functional food ingredient. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biochemical Composition of Food)
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Article
Influence of Ozone on the Biochemical Composition of Birch Sap
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(7), 2965; https://doi.org/10.3390/app11072965 - 26 Mar 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 737
Abstract
Studies have shown that ozone is a good oxidizer and a strong disinfectant. There are many uses for ozone in the food industry, but there is relatively little information about the influence of ozone on biochemical composition and the capacity to reduce the [...] Read more.
Studies have shown that ozone is a good oxidizer and a strong disinfectant. There are many uses for ozone in the food industry, but there is relatively little information about the influence of ozone on biochemical composition and the capacity to reduce the number of microorganisms in birch sap. In this study, sap was ozonated at different intervals for 5 min (O3: 0.087 ± 0.009 mg L−1), 10 min, 15 min, 20 min, 25 min, or 30 min (O3: 0.99 ± 0.09 mg L−1). The parameters of the birch sap were studied immediately after the ozone treatment as well as during storage for seven days at 2 °C and for five days at 20 °C. The parameters of ozonated birch sap were compared with the parameters of fresh sap (control). The microbiological analysis included total bacterial count, lactic acid bacterial count, and yeast and mold count. Birch sap color, pH, titratable acidity, and ºBrix values were also determined. Evaluation of monosaccharides, sucrose, total sugars, and ascorbic acid was carried out in fresh sap as well as sap ozonated for 30 min, immediately after ozonation. The results show the statistical significance of the inactivation of microorganisms after treatment in most cases. The microorganism counts gradually reduced with increasing intervals of ozone treatment. The best results were obtained after 25 and 30 min of ozonation. Ozone treatment did not significantly influence the pH, titratable acidity, or °Brix statistically. Values of monosaccharides, sucrose, total sugars, and ascorbic acid were influenced within the margin of error. Ozone had a significant influence on the chroma and hue angle. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biochemical Composition of Food)
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Review

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Review
Biochemical Composition of Eggplant Fruits: A Review
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(15), 7078; https://doi.org/10.3390/app11157078 - 30 Jul 2021
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 1447
Abstract
Eggplant is one of the most important vegetable crops known for its nutritive benefits due to the abundance of various bioactive compounds, which include proteins, vitamins, minerals, carbohydrates, phenolics, and dry matter content. In addition, eggplant has significant pharmaceutical properties that have been [...] Read more.
Eggplant is one of the most important vegetable crops known for its nutritive benefits due to the abundance of various bioactive compounds, which include proteins, vitamins, minerals, carbohydrates, phenolics, and dry matter content. In addition, eggplant has significant pharmaceutical properties that have been recently recognized. Eggplant produces secondary metabolites, including glycoalkaloids, antioxidant compounds, and vitamins, which appear to be the major source of its health benefits. It has been reported that there is a considerable correlation between the regular use of phytochemicals and the defense against diseases. Therefore, researchers must analyze the biochemical composition of eggplants to obtain more information about their nutritional quality and health benefits. In this review, an attempt is made to explain the qualitative and quantitative aspects of different biochemicals present in eggplant, in addition to their beneficial health effects. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biochemical Composition of Food)
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