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Advances in Wood Engineering and Forestry

A special issue of Applied Sciences (ISSN 2076-3417). This special issue belongs to the section "Materials Science and Engineering".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 March 2022) | Viewed by 25199

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Department: Wood Processing and Design od Wood Products, Transilvania University of Brasov, 500036 Brasov, Romania
Interests: wood; biomass; briquettes; pellets; composites; forestry; wood structure; quality
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Wood Processing and Design od Wood Products, Transilvania University of Brasov, 500036 Brasov, Romania
Interests: furniture; lignocellulosic composites; wood; design; wood civilization
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Advances in Wood Engineering and Forestry is a particularly and important topic dealing with the development of various analytical procedures and methods by determining the properties of wood and its constituents. It all starts from the fact that wood has accompanied humans since ancient times, and at present wood is always with us, providing its functionality, warmth, color and aesthetics. Because wood comes from trees, some aspects of forestry activities and management must be considered. Given that the products obtained from wood are increasingly diversified, new methods of wood processing and machining are identified, as well as elements of interior and exterior design using raw wood and superior wood products. By increasing the need for energy and limiting fossil energy resources, wood biomass becomes increasingly sought after, especially in the form of residues from primary wood processing and superior products such as briquettes, pellets, charcoal, wood gas, and so on. By using wood in environments hostile to good functioning and especially in humid environments, it is heat treated, properly finished, covered with protective foils, or combined with other materials, thus resulting in other superior composite materials. The wood processing adds new value, and the appearance of machines with numerical control led to high productivity, superior quality of the processed surfaces, the reduction of the manufacturing remains, and finally to superior-quality products. Therefore, the objective of this Special Issue is to promote the knowledge about wood, superior wood processing in order to obtain new products of superior quality and to compete in the market economy by integrating all specialists in the field in some congruent and efficient actions and activities.     

Prof. Dr. Aurel Lunguleasa
Prof. Dr. Camelia Cosereanu
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2400 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • wood
  • forestry
  • furniture
  • wood machining
  • composites
  • wood chemistry
  • wood drying
  • wood protection
  • wood coating

Published Papers (10 papers)

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Research

14 pages, 2449 KiB  
Article
Effect of Variable Conditions of Exposure on the Physical and Mechanical Properties of Blockboards
by Octavia Zeleniuc and Camelia Coșereanu
Appl. Sci. 2022, 12(2), 609; https://doi.org/10.3390/app12020609 - 9 Jan 2022
Viewed by 1340
Abstract
The growing demand for wood and the continued increase of the raw material price have resulted in companies using more efficient wood resources in wood-based products such as blockboard. These boards are used in the field of interior design, especially. The aim of [...] Read more.
The growing demand for wood and the continued increase of the raw material price have resulted in companies using more efficient wood resources in wood-based products such as blockboard. These boards are used in the field of interior design, especially. The aim of this research was to evaluate the effect of variable environmental conditions on the physical and mechanical properties of blockboard (BK). Two types of commercial BK were exposed in variable environmental conditions (kitchen, bathroom and climatic chamber) for three months. The BK structures were composed of veneer (V) and high-density fibreboards (HDF) for the face sheets and glued, solid wood, resinous strips for the core. The temperature and relative humidity of the air (RH) ranged from 18 °C to 25 °C and from 25% to 90%, respectively. In the climatic chamber (CC), the dynamics of the parameter variations were different than in the other two exposure climates, being determined by the programmed cyclic changes in RH. The changes observed on physical and mechanical properties were more extreme for the blockboards tested in the CC than in the kitchen (K) and bathroom (Ba). After 3 months of exposure in the CC, the thickness and weight of the boards increased by 1.8 and 1.1 times, respectively, for veneered BK, and by 4.4 and 0.4 times, for BK with HDF faces, compared to values recorded in the kitchen. The panels exposed in the CC exhibited the highest increase in moisture content (MC): 41% for veneered BK and 82% for BK with HDF faces after three months of exposure, followed by those exposed in the bathroom and kitchen. Increases in MC determined decreases of flexural properties and soundness surfaces, more evident for HDF face structures compared to V ones. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Wood Engineering and Forestry)
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17 pages, 3058 KiB  
Article
Research on Tracking the Behavior of the Ciobanus Forest Road over a Season Time through Specific Tests and Analysis
by Ioan Bitir, Rudolf Derczeni, Aurel Lunguleasa, Cosmin Spirchez and Valentina Ciobanu
Appl. Sci. 2022, 12(1), 459; https://doi.org/10.3390/app12010459 - 4 Jan 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1162
Abstract
Forest roads are of great economic importance as they ensure the transport of logs and forest biomass toward collection and processing centers, which is why they should be evaluated periodically, in order to establish the degree of degradation and periodicity and rehabilitation methodology [...] Read more.
Forest roads are of great economic importance as they ensure the transport of logs and forest biomass toward collection and processing centers, which is why they should be evaluated periodically, in order to establish the degree of degradation and periodicity and rehabilitation methodology and procedures. The main purpose of the paper is to follow the behavior of the Ciobanus forest road through specific tests over a difficult season of 5 months, in order to diagnose the degree of surface wear and structure degradation. Regarding the traffic on this forest road, an exhaustive study was made during the 2013–2017 period, and for in situ or in laboratory tests a more complex study during the year 2018, in the March-June period was also made. Out of the total of 20 tests that evaluated the Ciobanus forest road, 5 of them were classified as appropriate and 15 unsuitable for traffic, meaning the forest road had to be completely rehabilitated. Moreover, it has been shown that this forest road is part of the category of secondary forest roads and needs a total overhaul to cope with the increasing traffic or tonnage of trucks. Through the methodology and the obtained results, the paper supports the specialists in the field of forest roads to be able to diagnose or evaluate such a road, and to realize a program and its timing for maintenance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Wood Engineering and Forestry)
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16 pages, 5696 KiB  
Article
Signature Modes of Old and New Violins with Symmetric Anatomical Wood Structure
by Mircea Mihălcică, Mariana Domnica Stanciu, Silviu Marian Nastac, Florin Dinulică, Alina Maria Nauncef, Ioan Călin Roșca and Adriana Savin
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(23), 11297; https://doi.org/10.3390/app112311297 - 29 Nov 2021
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 5370
Abstract
The paper aims to investigate old and new violins from the perspective of the correlation between the anatomical structure of spruce and maple wood, and the dynamic response of violins. Thus, in the first stage, for each violin, the characteristics of the annual [...] Read more.
The paper aims to investigate old and new violins from the perspective of the correlation between the anatomical structure of spruce and maple wood, and the dynamic response of violins. Thus, in the first stage, for each violin, the characteristics of the annual rings were measured on the entire width of the top plate, determining the degree of symmetry of the face with respect to the longitudinal axis of the violin body. Then, each violin was dynamically tested with the impact hammer, determining its own frequency spectrum, mainly the so-called “signature” mode and quality factors. The most important findings consist of identification of the first five modes for old violins, (known as provenance), current new violins, and violins whose origin is unknown, but which could correlate with anatomical, constructive and dynamic characteristics, in order to be able establish origins, and also the measurement of anatomical features of top and back plates in the violins’ construction. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Wood Engineering and Forestry)
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12 pages, 3121 KiB  
Article
Physico-Mechanical Properties of Particleboards Produced from Macadamia Nutshell and Gum Arabic
by Derrick Mirindi, Richard O. Onchiri and Joseph Thuo
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(23), 11138; https://doi.org/10.3390/app112311138 - 24 Nov 2021
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 4010
Abstract
Due to the rising prices and high demand for panels and the fact that formaldehyde—a known carcinogen—is used to manufacture conventional particleboard, this study investigated the suitability of particleboard formed from ground macadamia nutshells mixed with 50%, 40%, 30%, and 20% of gum [...] Read more.
Due to the rising prices and high demand for panels and the fact that formaldehyde—a known carcinogen—is used to manufacture conventional particleboard, this study investigated the suitability of particleboard formed from ground macadamia nutshells mixed with 50%, 40%, 30%, and 20% of gum Arabic and determined its physical and mechanical properties. The specific gravity, the bulk density, the x-ray fluorescence, and the scanning electron microscopy analysis of the two materials were analyzed. After production, the particleboards were cured for 56 days in an acclimatized room; then, the physical and mechanical properties were evaluated. Particleboards mixed with 50% gum Arabic and 50% macadamia nutshell showed good results in terms of the lowest average values of water absorption (9.42%) and thickness swelling (6.22%) after 24 h of immersion in distilled water as well as the highest density (1219.20 kg/m3), modulus of rupture (12.21 MPa), modulus of elasticity (1.81 GPa), internal bond strength (1.25 MPa), and compressive strength (22.54 MPa). According to ANSI/A208.1-1999, the particleboards produced met the standard for general-purpose boards except for water absorption (WA) and thickness swelling (TS) characteristics, which were above the maximum of 8% and 3%, respectively. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Wood Engineering and Forestry)
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16 pages, 4483 KiB  
Article
Mechanical Properties and Formaldehyde Release of Particleboard Made with Lignin-Based Adhesives
by Gabriela Balea Paul, Maria Cristina Timar, Octavia Zeleniuc, Aurel Lunguleasa and Camelia Coșereanu
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(18), 8720; https://doi.org/10.3390/app11188720 - 18 Sep 2021
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2029
Abstract
The aim of this research was to evaluate the potential of magnesium lignosulfonate as adhesive in particleboard manufacturing. Diphenylmethane diisocyanate (PMDI) between 1% and 3% and glucose (1% of the lignosulfonate content) were added as potential cross-linkers in the adhesive formulations. Mixed beech [...] Read more.
The aim of this research was to evaluate the potential of magnesium lignosulfonate as adhesive in particleboard manufacturing. Diphenylmethane diisocyanate (PMDI) between 1% and 3% and glucose (1% of the lignosulfonate content) were added as potential cross-linkers in the adhesive formulations. Mixed beech and spruce wood, 30% beech wood and 70% spruce wood, were employed for the configuration of the panel structure. The density, mechanical properties and formaldehyde emission of single-layer particleboard were investigated. Spectroscopic analysis (FTIR) revealed structural changes brought by oxidation that may indicate depolymerization by the splitting of C-O-C bonds and formation of carbonyl groups. Mechanical properties were improved, and the highest average values were recorded for panels having as adhesives oxidized lignin with cross-linkers as follow: 15 N/mm2 (MOR), 3320 N/mm2 (MOE) and 0.48 N/mm2 (IB). The density profile presented higher values for faces in case of oxidized lignin panels. Changes were observed for oxidized lignin with cross-linker panels wherein the core had higher values. The results showed that the panels manufactured with adhesives composed of oxidized lignosulfonate (20% of the dried wood particles weight) and the addition of PMDI and glucose in various percentages have a positive influence on their formaldehyde release and mechanical properties requested by EN 312 (2004) standard. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Wood Engineering and Forestry)
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16 pages, 3718 KiB  
Article
The Ball Response on the Beech Parquet Floors Used for Basketball Halls
by Aurel Lunguleasa, Cosmin Spirchez, Loredana Radulescu and Minerva Turcas Diaconu
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(17), 7816; https://doi.org/10.3390/app11177816 - 25 Aug 2021
Viewed by 1952
Abstract
In recent years, with the occurrence of standards in the field, the realization of parquet floors in basketball halls acquires new values that take into account, among other factors, the response of the ball to touching the floor. That is why the paper [...] Read more.
In recent years, with the occurrence of standards in the field, the realization of parquet floors in basketball halls acquires new values that take into account, among other factors, the response of the ball to touching the floor. That is why the paper aims to test four beech parquet floor structures in order to find optimal solutions for these sports activities. Each structure with an area of 1 m × 1 m includes beech parquet with friezes glued together with vinyl adhesive, fixed on a support of longitudinal spruce slats 20 mm thick in the case of structure A, fixed on a spruce frame in the case of structure B, fixed on a spruce frame and beech taggers in the case of structure C, and fixed on a spruce frame and rubber taggers in the case of structure D. The results of laboratory tests showed the clear advantages of type B structures, of type C structures with a large number of beech shock pads, and D-type structures with a small number of rubber shock pads. All tests were based on the antagonism of the elasticity and rigidity properties of the beech wood. Through methodology and experiment, the research contributes to the construction of beech parquet floors used in basketball halls, in terms of the ball’s response to touching the floor. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Wood Engineering and Forestry)
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16 pages, 95095 KiB  
Article
Comparative Surface Quality of Larch (Larix decidua Mill.) Fretwork Patterns Cut through by CNC Routing and by Laser
by Lidia Gurău, Camelia Coşereanu and Iulian Paiu
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(15), 6875; https://doi.org/10.3390/app11156875 - 26 Jul 2021
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1689
Abstract
Fretwork, as a decorating technique, can today be performed with modern means by laser or CNC routing, but the tool influence on the surface quality must be well understood for further optimization of the cutting parameters. The paper presents an experimental work for [...] Read more.
Fretwork, as a decorating technique, can today be performed with modern means by laser or CNC routing, but the tool influence on the surface quality must be well understood for further optimization of the cutting parameters. The paper presents an experimental work for the determination of the influence of the cutting angle with respect to the grain on the surface quality of larch wood (Larix decidua Mill.) cut through by laser and CNC routing at different feed speeds. The research considered geometric fretwork patterns derived from triangle, where the cutting angles with respect to the wood grain were 0°, 15°, 30°, 45°, 60°, 75° and 90°. The feed speeds of the CNC routing were set for 2, 2.5, 3, 3.5 and 4 m/min. The surface quality was analyzed by a range of roughness, waviness and primary profile parameters combined with stereomicroscopic images. Although the principle of cutting and interaction with wood of the two processing tools, laser and CNC, is very different, the analysis with roughness parameters has revealed that the cutting angle with respect to the grain has an essential influence, whatever the cutting tool. The surface quality decreases with an increase in the feed speed of the CNC router and processing at 15° and 60° appears to be the worst option from all angle variants for both types of processing. Cutting by laser is melting wood in latewood areas resulting in a smoothing effect. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Wood Engineering and Forestry)
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12 pages, 7702 KiB  
Article
Comparative Study on Wood CNC Routing Methods for Transposing a Traditional Motif from Romanian Textile Heritage into Furniture Decoration
by Antonela Lungu, Mihai Ispas, Luminiţa-Maria Brenci, Sergiu Răcăşan and Camelia Coşereanu
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(15), 6713; https://doi.org/10.3390/app11156713 - 22 Jul 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2751
Abstract
This paper presents experimental research on the Computer Numerical Control (CNC) routing of a traditional motif collected from Ţara Bârsei (Transylvania region) using two methods, namely, engraving (Engrave) and carving (V-Carve). The analysis of the CNC router processes includes the calculation of the [...] Read more.
This paper presents experimental research on the Computer Numerical Control (CNC) routing of a traditional motif collected from Ţara Bârsei (Transylvania region) using two methods, namely, engraving (Engrave) and carving (V-Carve). The analysis of the CNC router processes includes the calculation of the path lengths, an assessment of the processing time and wood mass loss, and an evaluation of the tool wearing by investigating the tool cutting edge on a Stereo Microscope NIKON SMZ 18 before and after processing the ornament on wood. An aesthetic evaluation of the ornament routed on wood, using both the engraving and carving methods, is also conducted, whilst a microscopic analysis of the processed areas highlights the defects that occurred on the wood surface depending on the tool path. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Wood Engineering and Forestry)
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9 pages, 1005 KiB  
Article
The Influence of Wood Moisture Content on the Processes of Freezing and Heating
by Ivan Klement, Peter Vilkovský and Tatiana Vilkovská
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(13), 6099; https://doi.org/10.3390/app11136099 - 30 Jun 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1695
Abstract
In wood processing, wood is exposed to an environmental temperature of less than 0 °C for some time, which mainly occurs during the air drying of wood in the winter months, or when lumber is stored in wood piles outdoors before the kiln [...] Read more.
In wood processing, wood is exposed to an environmental temperature of less than 0 °C for some time, which mainly occurs during the air drying of wood in the winter months, or when lumber is stored in wood piles outdoors before the kiln drying process. In these cases, the wood freezing process increases the degree of freezing of the wood, subsequently significantly affecting the process of its heating during further processing (for example, in the cutting process). The most common method is heating by humid air, during the hot air drying of wood. We analyzed the temperature profiles on a cross-section of wood and moisture losses due to the freezing process and the size of moisture gradients. We compared theoretical calculations of the time required for defrosting and heating of wood with the experimentally measured values. The results show that the moisture content (MC) of wood has a remarkable effect on the wood freezing process. In samples with an average MC of 35.47%, the temperature drop was faster. After 10 h, the temperatures on the entire cross-section of the samples reached the lowest value of −13.2 °C. In samples with an average initial MC of 81.38%, three stages of temperature reduction in the wood were observed. The temperature dropped and the lowest temperature of −20.11 °C was reached after 24 h. The defrosting and heating process of samples with lower MC was significantly easier. The desired temperature of 65 °C in the middle of the samples was reached in 2 h and 20 min. The total time to defrost and heat the second group of samples (MC > FSP) was 3 h 30 min. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Wood Engineering and Forestry)
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14 pages, 1818 KiB  
Article
Evaluation of Oak-Specific Consumption, Efficiency, and Losses from an Aesthetic Veneer Factory
by Gneorghe Cosmin Spirchez, Aurel Lunguleasa and Valentina Doina Ciobanu
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(9), 4300; https://doi.org/10.3390/app11094300 - 10 May 2021
Viewed by 1655
Abstract
The paper aimed to investigate the losses on the manufacturing flow of an aesthetic veneer factory, in order to know their value and to take measures to limit or use them efficiently. For the analysis, the oak species (Quercus robur) was [...] Read more.
The paper aimed to investigate the losses on the manufacturing flow of an aesthetic veneer factory, in order to know their value and to take measures to limit or use them efficiently. For the analysis, the oak species (Quercus robur) was taken into account, through 25 analyzed logs. Statistical investigation has used the Minitab 18 program, for a 95% confidence interval. Minimum values of losses were obtained for the sectioning-grooming operations with 0.6% and debarking with 4.9%, and the highest values were obtained when cutting veneers with 15.9% and formatting veneers with 22.8%. Based on the losses on the manufacturing flow of 67.3%, the specific consumption index of 2.75 m3/m3 or 1.84 m3/1000 m2 of veneer was determined when the average thickness of the veneers was 0.67 mm. The paper highlights the methodology and the values resulting from the investigation of the technological losses and of the specific consumption from an aesthetic veneer factory. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Wood Engineering and Forestry)
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