Special Issue "Advanced Research in Seismic Resilience of Structures and Infrastructures"

A special issue of Applied Sciences (ISSN 2076-3417). This special issue belongs to the section "Civil Engineering".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 May 2021).

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Dr. Felice Carlo Ponzo
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
School of Engineering, University of Basilicata, Potenza, Italy
Interests: civil engineering; earthquake engineering; passive control; structural health monitoring; base isolation; energy dissipation; wooden structures; vulnerability evaluation and retrofitting; seismic risk analysis; mitigation strategies; resilience and sustainability; experimental laboratory research and activities; smart structures; nonlinear structural analysis; seismic retrofitting
Dr. Antonio Di Cesare
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
School of Engineering, University of Basilicata, Potenza, Italy
Interests: earthquake engineering; structural dynamics; base isolation; energy dissipation; seismic design of structures and infrastructures; seismic assessment and retrofitting of existing structures; fragility analysis; earthquake resilience of structures; experimental tests; nonlinear numerical analysis
Dr. Rocco Ditommaso
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
School of Engineering, University of Basilicata, Potenza, Italy
Interests: earthquake engineering; structural dynamics; smart structures; structural health monitoring; structural damage detection; performance-based design; dynamic soil–structure interaction; nonlinear analyses; nonstructural elements; seismic assessment and retrofitting of existing structures; experimental tests

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

In recent years, several countries have experienced heavy damages produced by earthquakes on existing structures designed considering only gravity loads. In some cases, new structures designed according to recent international seismic codes have also exhibited inadequate levels of seismic performance, especially in terms of serviceability limit state. Moreover, most economic loss associated to earthquakes is often strongly correlated to damage of nonstructural elements. As structural vulnerability contributes to raising the seismic risk, a comprehensive model to quantify seismic resilience of structures is needed in order to estimate the capacity of integrated systems to rebound after severe earthquakes.

This Special Issue aims to collect high-quality papers on advanced research on seismic resilience of structures and infrastructures (including buildings, bridges, cultural heritage, strategic life lines, etc.) dealing with different topics. In particular, recent research on seismic input definition, influence of dynamic soil–structure interaction, structural retrofit, passive control of structures, structural health monitoring, damage detection, and new structural systems toward earthquake-resilient structures is welcome for this interdisciplinary Special Issue.

Prof. Dr. Felice Carlo Ponzo
Dr. Antonio Di Cesare
Dr. Rocco Ditommaso
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • Damage detection
  • Earthquake resilience
  • Expected annual loss
  • Fragility curves
  • Non structural elements
  • Seismic input definition
  • Seismic retrofit of structures
  • Seismic risk analyses
  • Soil structures interaction
  • Structural health monitoring

Published Papers (11 papers)

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Research

Article
Transport Infrastructure SHM Using Integrated SAR Data and On-Site Vibrational Acquisitions: “Ponte Della Musica–Armando Trovajoli” Case Study
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(14), 6504; https://doi.org/10.3390/app11146504 - 15 Jul 2021
Viewed by 310
Abstract
This work presents the first results obtained by applying in situ and remote-sensing methodologies to monitor the Ponte della Musica-Armando Trovajoli located in Rome, within the activities of the WP6 “Structural Health Monitoring and Satellite Data” 2019-21 Reluis Project. In particular, the use [...] Read more.
This work presents the first results obtained by applying in situ and remote-sensing methodologies to monitor the Ponte della Musica-Armando Trovajoli located in Rome, within the activities of the WP6 “Structural Health Monitoring and Satellite Data” 2019-21 Reluis Project. In particular, the use of remote-sensing Differential Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) Interferometry (DInSAR) measurements provided a spatial map of the displacement of the investigated infrastructure and the corresponding time-series, with the aim of monitoring deformation phenomena, focusing on the local scale analysis, which produces suitable results for urban monitoring and damage assessment. The DInSAR results have been integrated with the identification of the dynamic characteristics of the bridge, performed through an experimental campaign of ambient vibration measurements carried out in October 2020 and with the local-scale definition of the engineering geological setting of the foundation soil. The subsoil of the bridge is constituted by more than 50 m of recent alluvial deposits resting on Pliocene stiff clay acting as a geological bedrock. A substantially stable behavior of the bridge structural elements has been observed based on the analysis of both satellite and velocimetric data. This case represents a good example about how the integration of in situ sensors with remotely sensed data and the exploitation of a detailed knowledge regarding the on-site conditions represent a key factor for a sustainable structural and infrastructural monitoring and can support the planning both of maintenance and safety management. Full article
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Article
Damage Detection and Localization on Real Structures Subjected to Strong Motion Earthquakes Using the Curvature Evolution Method: The Navelli (Italy) Case Study
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(14), 6496; https://doi.org/10.3390/app11146496 - 14 Jul 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 378
Abstract
In recent years, structural health monitoring (SHM) has received increasing interest from both research and professional engineering communities. This is due to the limitations related to the use of traditional methods based on visual inspection for a rapid and effective assessment of structures [...] Read more.
In recent years, structural health monitoring (SHM) has received increasing interest from both research and professional engineering communities. This is due to the limitations related to the use of traditional methods based on visual inspection for a rapid and effective assessment of structures and infrastructures when compared with the great potential offered by newly developed automatic systems. Most of these kinds of systems allow the continuous estimation of structural modal properties that are strictly correlated to the mechanical characteristics of the monitored structure. These can change as a result of material deterioration and structural damage related to earthquake shaking. Furthermore, a suitable configuration of a dense sensor network in a real-time monitoring system can allow to detect and localize structural and non-structural damage by comparing the initial and a final state of the structure after a critical event, such as a relevant earthquake. In this paper, the modal curvature evaluation method, used for damage detection and localization on framed structures, considering the mode curvature variation due to strong earthquake shaking, is further developed. The modified approach is validated by numerical and experimental case studies. The extended procedure, named “Curvature Evolution Method” (CEM), reduces the required computing time and the uncertainties in the results. Furthermore, in this work, an empirical relationship between curvature variation and damage index has been defined for both bare and infilled frames. Full article
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Article
Computer-Aided Decision Making for Regional Seismic Risk Mitigation Accounting for Limited Economic Resources
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(12), 5539; https://doi.org/10.3390/app11125539 - 15 Jun 2021
Viewed by 323
Abstract
Seismic risk mitigation levels for an existing building are a balance between the reduction of risk and the cost of rehabilitation. Evidently, the more that is paid the more risk is reduced; however, due to limited public budgets a practical approach is needed [...] Read more.
Seismic risk mitigation levels for an existing building are a balance between the reduction of risk and the cost of rehabilitation. Evidently, the more that is paid the more risk is reduced; however, due to limited public budgets a practical approach is needed to manage the risk reduction program when a portfolio of buildings is concerned. Basically, decision makers face a challenge when there are a large number of vulnerable buildings and there is no plan for how to allocate the appointed budget. This study develops a technological platform that implements a decision-making procedure to establish how to optimally distribute the budget in order to achieve the maximum possible portfolio risk reduction. Decisions are made based on various presumed intervention strategies dependent on building’s level of risk. The technological platform provides an interactive, user-friendly tool, available online, that supports stakeholders and decision makers in understanding what the best economic resource allocation will be after selecting the available budget for a specific portfolio of buildings. In addition, the ease of use enables the user to analyze the extent of risk reduction achievable for different budget levels. Therefore, the web platform represents a powerful tool to accomplish two challenging tasks, namely optimal budget selection and optimal budget allocation to gain territorial seismic risk mitigation. Full article
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Article
Sharing Soil and Building Geophysical Data for Seismic Characterization of Cities Using CLARA WebGIS: A Case Study of Matera (Southern Italy)
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(9), 4254; https://doi.org/10.3390/app11094254 - 07 May 2021
Viewed by 432
Abstract
In the context of seismic risk, studying the characteristics of urban soils and of the built environment means adopting a holistic vision of the city, taking a step forward compared to the current microzonation approach. Based on this principle, CLARA WebGIS aims to [...] Read more.
In the context of seismic risk, studying the characteristics of urban soils and of the built environment means adopting a holistic vision of the city, taking a step forward compared to the current microzonation approach. Based on this principle, CLARA WebGIS aims to collect, organize, and disseminate the available information on soils and buildings in the urban area of Matera. The geodatabase is populated with (i) 488 downloadable geological, geotechnical, and geophysical surveys; (ii) geological, geomorphological, and seismic homogeneous microzone maps; and (iii) a new Digital Surface Model. The CLARA WebGIS is the first publicly available database that reports for the whole urban area the spatial distribution of the fundamental frequencies for soils and the overlying 4043 buildings, along with probability levels of soil-building resonance. The WebGIS is aimed at a broad range of end users (local government, engineers, geologists, etc.) as a support to the implementation of seismic risk mitigation strategies in terms of urban planning, seismic retrofitting, and management of post-earthquake crises. We recommend that the database be managed by local administrators, who would also have the task of deciding on future developments and continuous updating as new data becomes available. Full article
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Article
Influence of Maxwell Stiffness in Damage Control and Analysis of Structures with Added Viscous Dampers
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(7), 3089; https://doi.org/10.3390/app11073089 - 30 Mar 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 445
Abstract
Viscous damping systems are often implemented in structures to reduce seismic damage. The stiffness of these elements is dominated by the most flexible part of the set including brace extender, auxiliary mounting elements and damping unit. Existing experimental data are used in this [...] Read more.
Viscous damping systems are often implemented in structures to reduce seismic damage. The stiffness of these elements is dominated by the most flexible part of the set including brace extender, auxiliary mounting elements and damping unit. Existing experimental data are used in this study to show that the actual stiffness of the set is about 25% to 50% of the value generally adopted in current engineering practice, which is based solely on the brace extender. A numerical study shows that this reduction has large implications for several variables related to damage control: residual drift ratio, storey acceleration and plastic strain energy dissipated by the frame members. Other variables, such as member forces and rotations, can experience large variations, particularly for non-linear dampers and high damping levels, especially in the top part of the building and more conspicuously for moderate earthquake intensities. In the absence of accurate data, Maxwell stiffness for analysis based on brace extender properties should be substantially reduced, with recommended factors between 0.25 and 0.50. Given the scarcity of experimental data, these results should be considered preliminary. Full article
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Article
Seismic Performance Evaluation of Steel Buildings with Oil Dampers Using Capacity Spectrum Method
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(6), 2687; https://doi.org/10.3390/app11062687 - 17 Mar 2021
Viewed by 438
Abstract
This study proposes a capacity spectrum Method (CSM)-based procedure to estimate the maximum seismic performance of steel buildings passively controlled with bilinear oil dampers. In the proposed CSM, the maximum seismic response of a building was estimated, in the acceleration-displacement response spectrum, as [...] Read more.
This study proposes a capacity spectrum Method (CSM)-based procedure to estimate the maximum seismic performance of steel buildings passively controlled with bilinear oil dampers. In the proposed CSM, the maximum seismic response of a building was estimated, in the acceleration-displacement response spectrum, as the intersection between the capacity curve and the damping-adjusted demand curves, using the equivalent linearization method. The building equivalent damping ratio was determined by the sum of the inherent damping, and the square root of sum of squares (SRSS) of the hysteretic damping and the viscous damping of the supplemental oil devices. The calculation steps of the proposed CSM are explained in detail based on the equivalent single degree of freedom (ESDOF) system, and its accuracy was examined by comparison with time history analysis (THA) results. Two model steel buildings of 4 and 10 stories, uniformly equipped with oil dampers along the height, were subjected to six selected earthquake ground motions scaled to be compatible with Level-2 earthquakes, as defined in the Japanese Building Standard Law. The seismic performance of the buildings was estimated by the proposed CSM procedure and compared with the results of nonlinear THA in terms of the maximum story displacements and the shear forces. It was observed that the proposed CSM scheme provided a satisfactory accuracy to assess the maximum nonlinear response of steel buildings passively controlled with oil dampers. Full article
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Article
Advanced Modelling and Risk Analysis of RC Buildings with Sliding Isolation Systems Designed by the Italian Seismic Code
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(4), 1938; https://doi.org/10.3390/app11041938 - 23 Feb 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 421
Abstract
Double Curved Concave Surface Sliders (DCCSS) are seismic isolators based on the pendulum principle widely used worldwide. Coherently with European code, DCCSS do not include any mechanical elements as end-stopper. In case of displacement higher than those associated with the design earthquakes, the [...] Read more.
Double Curved Concave Surface Sliders (DCCSS) are seismic isolators based on the pendulum principle widely used worldwide. Coherently with European code, DCCSS do not include any mechanical elements as end-stopper. In case of displacement higher than those associated with the design earthquakes, the inner slider runs on the edge of the sliding surfaces beyond their geometric displacement capacity keeping the ability to support gravity loads. In this paper, the advanced modelling and risk analysis of reinforced concrete (RC) base-isolated buildings designed for medium and high seismicity zones according to the Italian code has been assessed considering new construction and existing structures retrofitted using the seismic isolation technique. Pushover analyses and nonlinear dynamic analyses including inelastic superstructure behaviour and the over-stroke displacement of the isolation system have been carried out. Annual rates of failure are computed for Usability-Preventing Damage (UPD) related to the superstructure inter-storey drift and for Global Collapse (GC) associated with the ultimate displacement of the DCCSS. Moreover, the ultimate displacement is assumed with an extra-displacement of more than 30% of the maximum geometrical displacement. Results pointed out that in the case of new buildings the GC and UPD conditions occur almost at the same seismic intensity, while for the cases of the existing building, the UPD is the dominant limit state, being reached at an intensity level lower than GC. Full article
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Article
Shaking Table Test on the Response of a Cross Interchange Metro Station under Harmonic Excitations Refers to a Single Two-Storey Metro Station
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(4), 1551; https://doi.org/10.3390/app11041551 - 08 Feb 2021
Viewed by 451
Abstract
Interchange is essential in a metro network. Regarding the seismic performance, a series of large-scale shaking table tests were performed on an interchange station. The interchange station was composed of a two-story section rigidly connected to a perpendicular three-story section, leading to an [...] Read more.
Interchange is essential in a metro network. Regarding the seismic performance, a series of large-scale shaking table tests were performed on an interchange station. The interchange station was composed of a two-story section rigidly connected to a perpendicular three-story section, leading to an abrupt change of stiffness in the conjunction area. Synthetic model soil (a mixture of sand and sawdust) and granular concrete with galvanized steel wires were used to model the soil–structure system. The seismic motion was input along the transversal direction of the two-story structure, including white noise and sinusoidal seismic excitations. Parallel tests of a single two-story station were correspondingly carried out as a contrast. Test data recorded by accelerometers and strain gauges are presented. The bending strains of the columns measured in the interchange station were found to be smaller than those in the single station. The concentration of the longitudinal strain was observed near the conjunction. Insights on the seismic response of the interchange station are provided. Full article
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Article
Dynamic Seismic Response of Nonlinear Displacement Dependent Devices versus Testing Required by Codes: Experimental Case Studies
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(24), 8857; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10248857 - 10 Dec 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 464
Abstract
Passive energy dissipation systems are one of the most resilient solutions to mitigate the seismic risk of structures. In case of strong motions, they can confine the eventual damages into easily replaceable anti-seismic devices. The performance characteristics of nonlinear displacement dependent devices (NLD) [...] Read more.
Passive energy dissipation systems are one of the most resilient solutions to mitigate the seismic risk of structures. In case of strong motions, they can confine the eventual damages into easily replaceable anti-seismic devices. The performance characteristics of nonlinear displacement dependent devices (NLD) shall be defined by the force-displacement cyclic behavior, as well as the expected number of cycles related to both the duration of the earthquake and to the fundamental frequency of the structural systems. The aims of this paper are the comparison between the dynamic results of two different experimental campaigns performed on NLDs included in dissipative bracing systems and the assessment of the reliability of quasi-static testing procedures proposed by current seismic codes for type tests and factory production control tests. The number of cycles under the design earthquake of hysteretic dampers were experimentally evaluated through shaking table testing. Two experimental case studies of a two-story steel frame and of a three-story post-tensioned timber frame both with bracing systems including flexural steel dampers, hysteretic dampers (HDs), and U-shaped flexural plates (UFPs) respectively, were analyzed. Controlled-displacement tests of NLDs were performed considering quasi-static loading procedures specified by codes. Shaking table tests were carried out considering almost the same seismic sequence composed by a set of seven natural earthquakes at increasing peak ground acceleration (PGA) levels. More than one hundred inelastic cycles were experimentally recorded from dynamic tests before the failure of devices in both cases. In line with American standards testing requirements, the number of cycles at the design PGA level, estimated from shaking table tests and from non-linear dynamic analyses, shows a decreasing trend with the increase of ductility demand. Full article
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Article
Seismic Analysis of a Large LNG Tank Considering Different Site Conditions
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(22), 8121; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10228121 - 16 Nov 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 618
Abstract
Seismic resilience of critical infrastructure, such as liquefied natural gas (LNG) storage tanks, is essential to the safety and economic well-being of the general public. This paper studies the effect of different ground motions on large LNG storage tanks under four different site [...] Read more.
Seismic resilience of critical infrastructure, such as liquefied natural gas (LNG) storage tanks, is essential to the safety and economic well-being of the general public. This paper studies the effect of different ground motions on large LNG storage tanks under four different site conditions. Key parameters of structural design and dynamic analysis, including von Mises stress of outer and inner tanks, tip displacement, and base shear, are analyzed to directly evaluate the safety performance of the large LNG tanks. Because the size of an LNG tank is too large to perform any experiments on a physical prototype, Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics-Finite Element Method (SPH-FEM) simulation is used as a feasible and efficient method to predict its seismic response. First, the accuracy of the SPH-FEM method is verified by comparing sloshing frequencies obtained from theoretical formulation to experimental results and SPH-FEM models. Then, the seismic response of a real-life 160,000 m3 LNG prestressed storage tank is evaluated with different liquid depths under four site classes. Simulation results show that the tip displacements of the LNG tank at liquid levels of 25% and 50% under site class IV are nearly identical to that of 75% and 100% under site class II. In addition, the maximum von Mises stress of the inner tanks exceeds 500 MPa in all four site classes and jeopardizes the structural integrity of large LNG tanks. As a result, optimization of structural design and the establishment of an early warning system are imperative to the safety of LNG tanks at high liquid levels. Full article
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Article
Simplified Seismic Vulnerability Assessment Methods: A Comparative Analysis with Reference to Regional School Building Stock in Italy
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(19), 6771; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10196771 - 27 Sep 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 681
Abstract
The paper compares several simplified methods proposed in the literature for assessing the seismic vulnerability of existing buildings. Type and number of input and output data, limitations of use for different structural typologies, and complexity of use are examined for each methodology to [...] Read more.
The paper compares several simplified methods proposed in the literature for assessing the seismic vulnerability of existing buildings. Type and number of input and output data, limitations of use for different structural typologies, and complexity of use are examined for each methodology to identify the most suitable for assessing the vulnerability of a given class of buildings, based on the available data, the computational effort, and the type of vulnerability judgment. The selected methods were applied to a sample of school buildings located in the province of Naples (Italy). Data were available due to a digital platform and were used to verify the possibility of providing reliable large scale vulnerability judgments based on a reduced set of information, without carrying out additional surveys. The most simplified methods were applied to a sample of about a thousand of buildings, while more detailed methods, needing more information, were applied to a smaller sample. The comparison between the results obtained from different methods allows highlighting advantages and weaknesses of each, so as to identify the convenience in their use according to the specific available information and the objectives of the analysis, finally to evaluate which is more or less safe. Full article
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