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Special Issue "State-of-the-Art Renewable Energy in Korea"

A special issue of Applied Sciences (ISSN 2076-3417). This special issue belongs to the section "Energy".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 December 2019).

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Dr. Zong Woo Geem
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
College of Information Technology, Gachon University, Seongnam-daero 1342, Korea
Interests: harmony search; optimization; evolutionary algorithm; phenomenon mimicking algorithm; artificial neural network; human-experience derivative; energy; hydrosystem; sustainability; music inspiration
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals
Prof. Dr. Junhee Hong
E-Mail
Guest Editor
Department of Energy IT, Gachon University, 1342 Seongnam Daero, Seongnam 13120, Korea
Interests: renewable energy; smart grid; energy-efficient reverse osmosis; smart water grid; electrical demand response
Dr. Woohyun Hwang
E-Mail
Guest Editor
Jeju Headquarter, Korea Electric Power Corporation, 36 Munyeon Ro, Jeju 63121, Korea
Interests: smart grid; smart city; electric vehicle; renewable energy; AMI; V2G; energy storage system

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

South Korea was the world’s ninth-largest energy consuming country in 2015 and heavily depends on imports for its fossil fuel (liquefied natural gas, coal, and crude oil) usage. Because of recent public awareness regarding the polluted air issue, which produces huge external costs related to public health, pressure to reduce its dependency on fossil fuels is increasing. Also, the Fukushima nuclear disaster made the government support the nuclear phase-out policy. Thus, more developments of various renewable energies (PV, wind, geothermal, hydro, biomass, fuel cell, etc.) are currently required, and this effort also helped the country’s pledge at the 2015 Paris Climate Conference to cut its carbon dioxide emission by 37% below the business-as-usual (BAU) level by 2030.

The objective of this Special Issue is to gather all of the state-of-the-art research and practical applications of various renewable energies held in South Korea. We expect keen interest from peer researchers and practical engineers in this field.

Prof. Dr. Zong Woo Geem
Prof. Dr. Junhee Hong
Dr. Woohyun Hwang
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Applied Sciences is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • solar energy
  • wind energy
  • hydro power
  • fuel cell
  • energy storage system
  • electric vehicle
  • renewable portfolio standard
  • optimization

Published Papers (9 papers)

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Editorial

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Editorial
Special Issue on State-of-the-Art Renewable Energy in Korea
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(10), 4401; https://doi.org/10.3390/app11104401 - 12 May 2021
Viewed by 304
Abstract
Nowadays, renewable energy plays an important role in nationwide power systems [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue State-of-the-Art Renewable Energy in Korea)

Research

Jump to: Editorial

Article
Implementation of a Demand-Side Management Solution for South Korea’s Demand Response Program
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(5), 1751; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10051751 - 04 Mar 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 768
Abstract
In this paper, we show the development of a demand-side management solution (DSMS) for demand response (DR) aggregator and actual demand response operation cases in South Korea. To show an experience, Korea’s demand response market outline, functions of DSMS, real contracted capacity, and [...] Read more.
In this paper, we show the development of a demand-side management solution (DSMS) for demand response (DR) aggregator and actual demand response operation cases in South Korea. To show an experience, Korea’s demand response market outline, functions of DSMS, real contracted capacity, and payment between consumer and load aggregator and DR operation cases are revealed. The DSMS computes the customer baseline load (CBL), relative root mean squared error (RRMSE), and payments of the customers in real time. The case of 10 MW contracted customers shows 108.03% delivery rate and a benefit of 854,900,394 KRW for two years. The results illustrate that an integrated demand-side management solution contributes by participating in a DR market and gives a benefit and satisfaction to the consumer. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue State-of-the-Art Renewable Energy in Korea)
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Article
Optimal Operational Scheduling of Distribution Network with Microgrid via Bi-Level Optimization Model with Energy Band
Appl. Sci. 2019, 9(20), 4219; https://doi.org/10.3390/app9204219 - 10 Oct 2019
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 821
Abstract
An optimal operation of new distributed energy resources can significantly advance the performance of power systems, including distribution network (DN). However, increased penetration of renewable energy may negatively affect the system performance under certain conditions. From a system operator perspective, the tie-line control [...] Read more.
An optimal operation of new distributed energy resources can significantly advance the performance of power systems, including distribution network (DN). However, increased penetration of renewable energy may negatively affect the system performance under certain conditions. From a system operator perspective, the tie-line control strategy may aid in overcoming various problems regarding increased renewable penetration. We propose a bi-level optimization model incorporating an energy band operation scheme to ensure cooperation between DN and microgrid (MG). The bi-level formulation for the cooperation problem consists of the cost minimization of the DN and profit maximization of the MG. The goal of the upper-level is to minimize the operating costs of the DN by accounting for feedback information, including the operating costs of the MG and energy band. The lower-level aims to maximize the MG profit, simultaneously satisfying the reliability and economic targets imposed in the scheduling requirements by the DN system operator. The bi-level optimization model is solved using an advanced method based on the modified non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm II. Based on simulation results using a typical MG and an actual power system, we demonstrate the applicability, effectiveness, and validity of the proposed bi-level optimization model. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue State-of-the-Art Renewable Energy in Korea)
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Article
Assessing the Benefits of Battery Energy Storage Systems for Frequency Regulation, Based on Electricity Market Price Forecasting
Appl. Sci. 2019, 9(10), 2147; https://doi.org/10.3390/app9102147 - 26 May 2019
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1042
Abstract
In electricity markets, energy storage systems (ESSs) have been widely used to regulate frequency in power system operations. Frequency regulation (F/R) relates to the short-term reserve power used to balance the real-time mismatch of supply and demand. Every alternating current power system has [...] Read more.
In electricity markets, energy storage systems (ESSs) have been widely used to regulate frequency in power system operations. Frequency regulation (F/R) relates to the short-term reserve power used to balance the real-time mismatch of supply and demand. Every alternating current power system has its own unique standard frequency level, and frequency variation occurs whenever there is a mismatch of supply and demand. To cope with frequency variation, generating units—particularly base-loader generators—reduce their power outputs to a certain level, and the reduced generation outputs are used as a generation reserve whenever frequency variation occurs in the power systems. ESSs have recently been implemented as an innovative means of providing the F/R reserve previously provided by base-loader generators, because they are much faster in responding to frequency variation than conventional generators. We assess the economic benefits of ESSs for F/R, based on a new forecast of long-term electricity market price and real power system operation characteristics. For this purpose, we present case studies with respect to the South Korean electricity market as well as simulation results featuring key variables, along with their implications vis-à-vis electricity market operations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue State-of-the-Art Renewable Energy in Korea)
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Article
The Effect of a Renewable Energy Certificate Incentive on Mitigating Wind Power Fluctuations: A Case Study of Jeju Island
Appl. Sci. 2019, 9(8), 1647; https://doi.org/10.3390/app9081647 - 20 Apr 2019
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1301
Abstract
As renewable energy penetration in power systems grows, adequate energy policies are needed to support the system’s operations with flexible resources and to adopt more sustainable energies. A peak-biased incentive for energy storage systems (ESS) using the Korean renewable portfolio standard could make [...] Read more.
As renewable energy penetration in power systems grows, adequate energy policies are needed to support the system’s operations with flexible resources and to adopt more sustainable energies. A peak-biased incentive for energy storage systems (ESS) using the Korean renewable portfolio standard could make power system operations more difficult. For the first time in the research, this study evaluates the effect of imposing a renewable energy certificate incentive in off-peak periods on mitigating wind power fluctuations. We design a coordinated model of a wind farm with an ESS to model the behavior of wind farm operators. Optimization problems are formulated as mixed integer linear programming problems to test the implementation of revenue models under Korean policy. These models are designed to consider additional incentives for discharging the ESS during off-peak periods. The effects of imposing the incentives on wind power fluctuations are evaluated using the magnitude of the renewable energy certificate (REC) multiplier. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue State-of-the-Art Renewable Energy in Korea)
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Communication
Optimal Design of a Residential Photovoltaic Renewable System in South Korea
Appl. Sci. 2019, 9(6), 1138; https://doi.org/10.3390/app9061138 - 18 Mar 2019
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 1052
Abstract
An optimal design model for residential photovoltaic (PV) systems in South Korea was proposed. In the optimization formulation, the objective function is composed of three costs, including the monthly electricity bill, the PV system construction cost (including the government’s subsidy), and the PV [...] Read more.
An optimal design model for residential photovoltaic (PV) systems in South Korea was proposed. In the optimization formulation, the objective function is composed of three costs, including the monthly electricity bill, the PV system construction cost (including the government’s subsidy), and the PV system maintenance cost. Here, because the monthly electricity bill is not differentiable (it is a stepped piecewise linear function), it cannot be solved by using traditional gradient-based approaches. For details considering the residential electric consumption in a typical Korean household, consumption was broken down into four types (year-round electric appliances, seasonal electric appliances, lighting appliances, and stand-by power). For details considering the degree of PV generation, a monthly generation dataset with different PV tilt angles was analyzed. The optimal design model was able to obtain a global design solution (PV tilt angle and PV size) without being trapped in local optima. We hope that this kind of practical approach will be more frequently applied to real-world designs in residential PV systems in South Korea and other countries. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue State-of-the-Art Renewable Energy in Korea)
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Article
Designing a Waterless Toilet Prototype for Reusable Energy Using a User-Centered Approach and Interviews
Appl. Sci. 2019, 9(5), 919; https://doi.org/10.3390/app9050919 - 04 Mar 2019
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1376
Abstract
User-oriented community engagement can reveal insights into ways of improving a community and solving complex public issues, such as natural resource scarcity. This study describes the early process of co-designing a novel, waterless toilet to respond to the water scarcity problem in the [...] Read more.
User-oriented community engagement can reveal insights into ways of improving a community and solving complex public issues, such as natural resource scarcity. This study describes the early process of co-designing a novel, waterless toilet to respond to the water scarcity problem in the Republic of Korea. It presents how we designed a toilet focusing on three factors—a sanitization function, an ergonomic posture, and clean aesthetics—by conducting focus group interviews as part of a user engagement approach to understand what community users want from a toilet and ways of improving their toilet experiences. The results not only supported the development of an experiential service design project to raise community awareness of water scarcity but also supported scientists and engineers in experimenting with and developing new technologies by collaborating closely with designers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue State-of-the-Art Renewable Energy in Korea)
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Article
Eco-Friendly Education Facilities: The Case of a Public Education Building in South Korea
Appl. Sci. 2018, 8(10), 1733; https://doi.org/10.3390/app8101733 - 25 Sep 2018
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1372
Abstract
Since the importance and effects of national energy policies, plans, and roadmaps were presented in South Korea, the role of renewable energy resources has received great attention. Moreover, as there is significant reasoning for reducing and minimizing nuclear and fossil fuel usage in [...] Read more.
Since the importance and effects of national energy policies, plans, and roadmaps were presented in South Korea, the role of renewable energy resources has received great attention. Moreover, as there is significant reasoning for reducing and minimizing nuclear and fossil fuel usage in South Korean national energy plans, several academic scholars and implementers have expended significant effort to present the potential and feasibility of renewable energy resources in South Korea. This study contributes to these efforts by presenting potential sustainable configurations of renewable energy production facilities for a public building in South Korea. Based on economic, environmental, and technical information as well as the presented simulation results, it proposes an environmentally friendly renewable energy production facility configuration that consists of photovoltaic arrays, battery units, and a converter. Subsidies for installing and renovating such facilities are also considered. The potential configuration indicates $0.464 as the cost of energy, 100% of which is renewable. Potential limitations and future research areas are suggested based on the results of these simulations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue State-of-the-Art Renewable Energy in Korea)
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Article
An Optimized Protection Coordination Scheme for the Optimal Coordination of Overcurrent Relays Using a Nature-Inspired Root Tree Algorithm
Appl. Sci. 2018, 8(9), 1664; https://doi.org/10.3390/app8091664 - 15 Sep 2018
Cited by 27 | Viewed by 1866
Abstract
In electrical engineering problems, bio- and nature-inspired optimization techniques are valuable ways to minimize or maximize an objective function. We use the root tree algorithm (RTO), inspired by the random movement of roots, to search for the global optimum, in order to best [...] Read more.
In electrical engineering problems, bio- and nature-inspired optimization techniques are valuable ways to minimize or maximize an objective function. We use the root tree algorithm (RTO), inspired by the random movement of roots, to search for the global optimum, in order to best solve the problem of overcurrent relays (OCRs). It is a complex and highly linear constrained optimization problem. In this problem, we have one type of design variable, time multiplier settings (TMSs), for each relay in the circuit. The objective function is to minimize the total operating time of all the primary relays to avoid excessive interruptions. In this paper, three case studies have been considered. From the simulation results, it has been observed that the RTO with certain parameter settings operates better compared to the other up-to-date algorithms. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue State-of-the-Art Renewable Energy in Korea)
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