Special Issue "Plasma Science and Technology"

A special issue of Applied Sciences (ISSN 2076-3417). This special issue belongs to the section "Applied Physics".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (25 February 2022) | Viewed by 6100

Special Issue Editor

Dr. Mohammed Koubiti
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Physics of Ionic and Molecular Interactions (PIIM), UMR7345, Aix-Marseille Université—CNRS, Centre Saint Jérôme, Case 232, CEDEX 20, 13397 Marseille, France
Interests: plasma physics; plasma spectroscopy; stark broadening; Zeeman effect; magnetic fusion; diagnostics; machine learning
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Plasmas are everywhere in the Universe (e.g., stars including the Sun). They are also present in our daily life (e.g., lighting lamps) and in a range of devices and machines used in the medical and industrial domains. Because of the large density and temperature domains covered by plasmas, they are divided into low-temperature or cold plasmas and high-temperature plasmas, each category having its specific characteristics and different applications. Plasmas are also generated using different techniques such as discharges using Direct Current (DC) or Radio Frequency (RF) waves, the latter being inductively or capacitively coupled to the medium (matter). However, one can still find some common points to all laboratory plasmas through the methods used for their diagnostics or some of their applications. The objective of this Special Issue of Applied Sciences, entitled “Plasma Science and Technology”, is to summarize in a single issue the major and latest techniques that are used to produce plasma and their applications as well as various scientific studies related to laboratory plasmas. This Special Issue is not limited to plasma physics and chemistry but is open to other scientific fields and to interdisciplinary researchers. Therefore, this Special Issue welcomes original manuscripts concerning plasma diagnostics, plasma physics and plasma chemistry, plasma science, plasma production and technology, and plasma applications. In addition to laboratory plasmas, manuscripts devoted to astrophysical plasmas will also be considered.

Dr. Mohammed KOUBITI
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Applied Sciences is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2300 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • plasma physics
  • plasma chemistry
  • plasma science
  • plasma technologies
  • low-temperature plasmas
  • high-temperature plasmas
  • low-density plasmas
  • high-density plasmas
  • laboratory plasmas
  • astrophysical plasmas
  • magnetic fusion plasmas
  • plasma diagnostics
  • plasma applications (medical, industrial, agronomical)

Published Papers (8 papers)

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Editorial

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Editorial
On the Omnipresence and Potential of Plasma Technology
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(20), 9707; https://doi.org/10.3390/app11209707 - 18 Oct 2021
Viewed by 457
Abstract
Even though plasma is the most common state of aggregation in the known universe, its complex chemistry and physics, as well as its specifics and particular characteristics, are not yet fully understood [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plasma Science and Technology)

Research

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Article
High Density RF-DC Plasma Nitriding under Optimized Conditions by Plasma-Diagnosis
Appl. Sci. 2022, 12(8), 3706; https://doi.org/10.3390/app12083706 - 07 Apr 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 446
Abstract
This paper is concerned with plasma diagnosis on a N2-H2 gas mixture to determine the optimum parameters for the nitriding process. Plasma parameters such as pressure, RF-voltage, and DC-bias were varied for optimization. The active species such as [...] Read more.
This paper is concerned with plasma diagnosis on a N2-H2 gas mixture to determine the optimum parameters for the nitriding process. Plasma parameters such as pressure, RF-voltage, and DC-bias were varied for optimization. The active species such as N2+ and NH were identified in plasma diagnosis. In the N2-H2 gas mixture, hydrogen imposed a great influence on plasma generation. The small addition of a hydrogen molecule into the gas mixture resulted in the highest yield of N2+ ions and NH radicals; the optimum hydrogen content was 20% in the mixture. The austenitic stainless-steel type AISI304 was nitrided at 673 K and 623 K to experimentally demonstrate that hydrogen gas content optimization is necessary to improve the surface hardness and to describe low temperature nitriding under high nitrogen flux at the surface. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plasma Science and Technology)
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Article
Characterization and Optimization of a Conical Corona Reactor for Seed Treatment of Rapeseed
Appl. Sci. 2022, 12(7), 3292; https://doi.org/10.3390/app12073292 - 24 Mar 2022
Viewed by 467
Abstract
Plasma agriculture is a growing field that combines interdisciplinary areas with the aim of researching alternative solutions for increasing food production. In this field, plasma sources are used for the treatment of different agricultural goods in pre- and post-harvest. With the big variety [...] Read more.
Plasma agriculture is a growing field that combines interdisciplinary areas with the aim of researching alternative solutions for increasing food production. In this field, plasma sources are used for the treatment of different agricultural goods in pre- and post-harvest. With the big variety of possible treatment targets, studied reactors must be carefully investigated and characterized for specific goals. Therefore, in the present study, a cone-shaped corona reactor working with argon was adapted for the treatment of small seeds, and its basic properties were investigated. The treatment of rapeseed using different voltage duty cycles led to an increase in surface wettability, possibly contributing to the accelerated germination (27% for 90% duty cycle). The discharge produced by the conical reactor was able to provide an environment abundant with reactive oxygen species that makes the process suitable for seeds treatment. However, operating in direct treatment configuration, large numbers of seeds placed in the reactor start impairing the discharge homogeneity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plasma Science and Technology)
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Article
Influence of Air Cold Plasma Modification on the Surface Properties of Paper Used for Packaging Production
Appl. Sci. 2022, 12(7), 3242; https://doi.org/10.3390/app12073242 - 22 Mar 2022
Viewed by 581
Abstract
In this study, the effect of air plasma on the surface properties of printed and coated cardboard was investigated. The material was activated by low-pressure cold plasma for 1, 10, 20, and 30 s. Wettability changes on the surface were examined by contact [...] Read more.
In this study, the effect of air plasma on the surface properties of printed and coated cardboard was investigated. The material was activated by low-pressure cold plasma for 1, 10, 20, and 30 s. Wettability changes on the surface were examined by contact angle measurements using the sessile droplet technique. The differences in the surface free energy were calculated using the Lifshitz–van der Waals/acid–base and Contact Angle Hysteresis approaches. Optical profilometry was used for the surface roughness evaluation and an X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis was performed to find changes in surface chemistry. Adhesive strength tests were carried out to estimate the adhesion changes after the material’s modification. It was found that the water and formamide contact angles increased after the plasma treatment while the diiodomethane contact angle did not change. As a result of the modification, the surface free energy also increased significantly and the surface roughness increased. The pull-off tests confirmed the improvement in the material’s surface properties. Moreover, it was demonstrated that the optimal effect can be obtained after just 10 s of the plasma process. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plasma Science and Technology)
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Article
A New Technique of Eliminating the Actual Plasma Background When Calibrating Emission Spectrometers with a CCD Recording System
Appl. Sci. 2022, 12(6), 2896; https://doi.org/10.3390/app12062896 - 11 Mar 2022
Viewed by 460
Abstract
This research focuses on the development of a new technique of emission spectral analysis designed to accurately account for the background radiation. The technique enables the evaluation of background radiation while being unaffected by its spectral shape. This is possible through the use [...] Read more.
This research focuses on the development of a new technique of emission spectral analysis designed to accurately account for the background radiation. The technique enables the evaluation of background radiation while being unaffected by its spectral shape. This is possible through the use of standard data obtained in an analytical-line-recording process performed by light-intensity-to-electric-signal converters such as CCDs, PMTs, photodiodes, etc. This technique, when applied at a set RMS deviation of the analytical-line-radiation intensity, reduces the random error of a determined low impure-element concentration due to the optimal calibration-line slope. In areas of high concentrations, an accurate accounting of the background does little to affect the emission spectrometer’s measurement accuracy. This technique also allows the replication of calibration curves in spectrometers of the same type by a linear-intensity conversion with only two standard samples required. The technique was tested on SPAS-02 and SPAS-05 commercial spark spectrometers. The testing fully confirmed the aforementioned advantages of the developed technique. The authors also determined the applicability conditions of the conventional emission-spectrometer-recalibration method by a linear conversion of the analytical-line intensity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plasma Science and Technology)
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Article
Atmospheric Pressure Dielectric Barrier Discharge Plasma-Enhanced Optical Contact Bonding of Coated Glass Surfaces
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(15), 6755; https://doi.org/10.3390/app11156755 - 22 Jul 2021
Viewed by 671
Abstract
This paper reports on plasma-enhanced bonding of optics surfaces coated with highly sensitive functional layers using surface preparation by a dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma. The samples to be bonded were treated with a DBD in diffuse mode at atmospheric pressure for 30 [...] Read more.
This paper reports on plasma-enhanced bonding of optics surfaces coated with highly sensitive functional layers using surface preparation by a dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma. The samples to be bonded were treated with a DBD in diffuse mode at atmospheric pressure for 30 s which is applied directly to the sample surface, then joined with the aid of de-ionised water and cured subsequently. The plasma treatment itself already increased the shear strength achieved by a factor of two compared to classical wringing or direct contacting, while the curing process led to a further increase by a factor of up to five, depending on curing temperature. The observed enhancement of shear strength can be attributed to DBD plasma-induced cleaning and most likely additional activation of the surface as verified by contact angle measurements. Since the impact of the used plasma on the surface is quite gentle in comparison to other bonding processes or other plasma-based processes reported in the literature, a destruction of the treated functional layer is avoided. This advantage makes it possible to bond even optics surfaces coated with sensitive materials. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plasma Science and Technology)
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Article
Characterizations of a Plasma-Water System Generated by Repetitive Microsecond Pulsed Discharge with Air, Nitrogen, Oxygen, and Argon Gases Species
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(13), 6158; https://doi.org/10.3390/app11136158 - 02 Jul 2021
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 916
Abstract
A non-thermal plasma-water system using a microsecond pulsed high-voltage power supply was investigated with air, nitrogen, oxygen, and argon gas feedings individually. Optical emission spectroscopy (OES) was utilized to characterize the primary active species inside the plasmas generated by different gas feedings. The [...] Read more.
A non-thermal plasma-water system using a microsecond pulsed high-voltage power supply was investigated with air, nitrogen, oxygen, and argon gas feedings individually. Optical emission spectroscopy (OES) was utilized to characterize the primary active species inside the plasmas generated by different gas feedings. The OES method was also employed to estimate the neutral gas and electron temperatures. The pH and the oxidation-reduction potential (ORP) of plasma-activated water (PAW) were measured in the liquid phase. An ion chromatography system (ICS) was employed to present the PAW activity, such as nitrite and nitrate species. Moreover, hydrogen peroxide as a secondary active species inside the activated water, generated by the gases mentioned above, was measured by potassium permanganate titration. It was found that the gas species have a noticeable effect on the pH level as well as the ORP of PAW. In the cases of argon and oxygen plasmas, the pH level of PAW does not change significantly. In contrast, the pH values of PAW generated by air and nitrogen plasmas decline sharply during the treatment time. Moreover, the gas species have a significant impact on the concentrations of nitrite, nitrate, and hydrogen peroxide generated in PAW. The activated water generated by oxygen plasma provides the highest level of hydrogen peroxide. Although the consumed power of argon plasmas was half of the other plasma sources, it provides relatively high hydrogen peroxide contents compared to the nitrogen and air plasmas. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plasma Science and Technology)
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Article
A Linear Microwave Plasma Source Using a Circular Waveguide Filled with a Relatively High-Permittivity Dielectric: Comparison with a Conventional Quasi-Coaxial Line Waveguide
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(12), 5358; https://doi.org/10.3390/app11125358 - 09 Jun 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 816
Abstract
For a conventional linear microwave plasma source (LMPS) with a quasi-coaxial line transverse electromagnetic (TEM) waveguide, a linearly extended plasma is sustained by the surface wave outside the tube. Due to the characteristics of the quasi-coaxial line MPS, it is easy to generate [...] Read more.
For a conventional linear microwave plasma source (LMPS) with a quasi-coaxial line transverse electromagnetic (TEM) waveguide, a linearly extended plasma is sustained by the surface wave outside the tube. Due to the characteristics of the quasi-coaxial line MPS, it is easy to generate a uniform plasma with radially omnidirectional surfaces, but it is difficult to maximize the electron density in a curved selected region. For the purpose of concentrating the plasma density in the deposition area, a novel LMPS which is suitable for curved structure deposition has been developed and compared with the conventional LMPS. As the shape of a circular waveguide, it is filled with relatively high-permittivity dielectric instead of a quasi-coaxial line waveguide. Microwave power at 2.45 GHz is transferred to the plasma through the continuous cylindrical-slotted line antenna, and the radiated electric field in the radial direction is made almost parallel to the tangential plane of the window surface. This research includes the advanced 3D numerical analysis and compares the results with the experiment. It shows that the electron density in the deposition area is higher than that of the conventional quasi-coaxial line plasma MPS. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plasma Science and Technology)
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