Special Issue "Advances in Oxygen Carrier for Energy Applications"

A special issue of Applied Sciences (ISSN 2076-3417). This special issue belongs to the section "Energy".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (15 September 2018).

Special Issue Editors

Dr. Pilar Gayán Sanz
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Energy and Environment,CSIC - Instituto de Carboquimica (ICB), 50018 Zaragoza, Spain
Interests: captura de CO2; combustion; fluidized beds
Dr. Alberto Abad Secades
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
CSIC - Instituto de Carboquimica (ICB), Department of Energy and Environment, Zaragoza, Spain
Interests: CO2 capture; combustion

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The Paris Accord has again pointed out the development of carbon capture technologies as a strong necessity if the countries of the world want to limit climate change consequences. Among them, Chemical Looping Technologies have been, so far, confirmed to be the cheapest one to be implemented for energy production, both from fossil or renewable sources. Due to their great potential, in the last few years, there has been a great number of developments of different technologies, depending on their final applications, such as CLC (combustion for heat or power production), CLOU (combustion with gaseous oxygen for improvement of combustion efficiency), CLAS (gaseous oxygen generation for oxy-combustion processes), OCAC (aided combustion with oxygen carriers), CLG (gasification for syngas or hydrogen production), CLR (reforming for syngas or hydrogen production), CLSO (selective oxidation of hydrocarbons), etc.

A common theme of all this technology is the development of an oxygen carrier material suitable for each application. The special properties that these materials have to withstand make this issue the cornerstone of future implementation of this technology. In this sense, worldwide research has focused on several topics, such as kinetics, material integrity, deactivation, evaluation in pilot plant, scale-up production, etc.

This Special Issue of Applied Sciences will highlight all the challenges related to oxygen carrier material development for different chemical looping technologies. We encourage all of you to contribute to this issue with your state-of-the-art findings.

Dr. Pilar Gayán Sanz
Dr. Alberto Abad Secades
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Published Papers (3 papers)

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Research

Article
Oxygen Carrier Aided Combustion (OCAC) of Wood Chips in a 12 MWth Circulating Fluidized Bed Boiler Using Steel Converter Slag as Bed Material
Appl. Sci. 2018, 8(12), 2657; https://doi.org/10.3390/app8122657 - 18 Dec 2018
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 1611
Abstract
The novel combustion concept Oxygen Carrier Aided Combustion (OCAC) is realized by addition of an active oxygen-carrying bed material to conventional fluidized bed boilers. The active bed material is meant to become reduced in fuel-rich parts of the boiler and oxidized in oxygen-rich [...] Read more.
The novel combustion concept Oxygen Carrier Aided Combustion (OCAC) is realized by addition of an active oxygen-carrying bed material to conventional fluidized bed boilers. The active bed material is meant to become reduced in fuel-rich parts of the boiler and oxidized in oxygen-rich parts, thus potentially providing advantages such as new mechanisms for oxygen transport in space and time. In this study, oxygen-carrier particles prepared from so called Linz-Donawitz (LD)-slag are examined as active bed material in a 12 MWth Circulating Fluidized Bed (CFB) boiler. LD-slag is the second largest by-product in steel making and is generated in the basic LD oxygen converter process. The experimental campaign lasted for two full weeks. The fuel was wood chips. LD-slag worked well from an operational point of view and no problems related to handling, agglomeration or sintering were experienced, albeit the production of fly ash increased. The boiler temperature profile suggested that fuel conversion in the main boiler body was facilitated, but the effect did not readily translate into reduced emissions from the stack. Spraying an aqueous solution of ammonium sulphate directly into the cyclone outlet with the aim of rejecting alkali metals as alkali suphates was found to solve the problems related to carbon monoxide emissions, suggesting that the problems could be due to the poor ability of LD-slag to absorb certain ash components. Use of a mixed bed consisting of 10–50 wt% LD-slag, with the remaining part being silica sand for ash absorption, also worked well. It is concluded that LD-slag could be a very cheap and readily available oxygen-carrying bed material for use in fluidized bed applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Oxygen Carrier for Energy Applications)
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Article
Characterization for Disposal of the Residues Produced by Materials Used as Solid Oxygen Carriers in an Advanced Chemical Looping Combustion Process
Appl. Sci. 2018, 8(10), 1787; https://doi.org/10.3390/app8101787 - 01 Oct 2018
Viewed by 892
Abstract
Chemical looping combustion (CLC) is a technology that is part of the capture and storage of CO2 through the combustion with solid oxygen carriers (OCs). It is considered an energy-efficient alternative to other methods, since it is a technology that inherently separates [...] Read more.
Chemical looping combustion (CLC) is a technology that is part of the capture and storage of CO2 through the combustion with solid oxygen carriers (OCs). It is considered an energy-efficient alternative to other methods, since it is a technology that inherently separates CO2 and has the advantage of not requiring additional energy for this separation. The key to the performance of CLC systems is the OC material. Low-cost materials, i.e., natural minerals rich in metal oxides (chromite, ilmenite, iron, and manganese oxides) were used in this investigation. These may contain traces of toxic elements, making the carrier residues hazardous. Therefore, the oxidized and reduced-phase residues of six OCs, evaluated in a discontinuous batch fluidized bed reactor (bFB) using methane and hydrogen as the reducing gas, were characterized by several techniques (crushing strength, SEM, XRD, and XRF). The researchers found that, in general terms, the residues present a composition very similar to that reported in the fresh samples, and although they contain traces of Ba, Cu, Cr, Ni or Zn, these compounds do not migrate to the leachate. It was mainly found that, according to the current regulations, none of the residues are classified as toxic, as they do not exceed the permissible limits of metals (100 and 5 mg/L for Ba and Cr, respectively), with 3.5 mg/L the highest value found for Ba. Thus, they would not have a negative impact on the environment when disposed of in a landfill. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Oxygen Carrier for Energy Applications)
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Article
Performance Evaluation of a Chinese Lean Iron Ore as the Oxygen Carrier in Multi and Short-Time Redox Cycles
Appl. Sci. 2018, 8(5), 682; https://doi.org/10.3390/app8050682 - 27 Apr 2018
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1292
Abstract
The performance of a Chinese lean iron ore as the oxygen carrier in chemical looping combustion was investigated in a fixed bed reactor. Considering the short contact time between the fuel gas and oxygen carrier in the sub-pilot experimental setup, the short injection [...] Read more.
The performance of a Chinese lean iron ore as the oxygen carrier in chemical looping combustion was investigated in a fixed bed reactor. Considering the short contact time between the fuel gas and oxygen carrier in the sub-pilot experimental setup, the short injection time of CO was employed in the reactor to simulate this event. The injection time of CO was set to 60 s, 50 s and 40 s respectively, to investigate its effects on the reactivity of the oxygen carrier. A total of 100 cyclic reactions under each condition were carried out to test the reactivity stability of the oxygen carrier. The oxygen carriers prior and after reactions were characterized using SEM, XRD and BET. Results showed that there was an activation process of the reactivity during initial cycles. The extension of the reaction time was beneficial to the diffusion of CO into the oxygen carrier and could improve the conversion of CO. Also, it could form larger pore volumes for gas diffusion in the oxygen carrier. However, it led to the formation of the Fe2SiO4 and severe sintering on the surface, which was harmful to the stability of the oxygen carrier’s reactivity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Oxygen Carrier for Energy Applications)
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