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Article

Characterization for Disposal of the Residues Produced by Materials Used as Solid Oxygen Carriers in an Advanced Chemical Looping Combustion Process

1
School of Chemical Engineering, Universidad del Valle, Calle 13 No. 100-00, 760032057 Cali, Colombia
2
Engineering School of Natural and Environmental Resources (EIDENAR), Universidad del Valle, Calle 13 No. 100-00, 760032057 Cali, Colombia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Appl. Sci. 2018, 8(10), 1787; https://doi.org/10.3390/app8101787
Received: 19 June 2018 / Revised: 9 July 2018 / Accepted: 13 July 2018 / Published: 1 October 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Oxygen Carrier for Energy Applications)
Chemical looping combustion (CLC) is a technology that is part of the capture and storage of CO2 through the combustion with solid oxygen carriers (OCs). It is considered an energy-efficient alternative to other methods, since it is a technology that inherently separates CO2 and has the advantage of not requiring additional energy for this separation. The key to the performance of CLC systems is the OC material. Low-cost materials, i.e., natural minerals rich in metal oxides (chromite, ilmenite, iron, and manganese oxides) were used in this investigation. These may contain traces of toxic elements, making the carrier residues hazardous. Therefore, the oxidized and reduced-phase residues of six OCs, evaluated in a discontinuous batch fluidized bed reactor (bFB) using methane and hydrogen as the reducing gas, were characterized by several techniques (crushing strength, SEM, XRD, and XRF). The researchers found that, in general terms, the residues present a composition very similar to that reported in the fresh samples, and although they contain traces of Ba, Cu, Cr, Ni or Zn, these compounds do not migrate to the leachate. It was mainly found that, according to the current regulations, none of the residues are classified as toxic, as they do not exceed the permissible limits of metals (100 and 5 mg/L for Ba and Cr, respectively), with 3.5 mg/L the highest value found for Ba. Thus, they would not have a negative impact on the environment when disposed of in a landfill. View Full-Text
Keywords: low-cost oxygen carriers; carrier residues; environmental impact; leaching test low-cost oxygen carriers; carrier residues; environmental impact; leaching test
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MDPI and ACS Style

Carrillo, A.L.; Forero, C.R. Characterization for Disposal of the Residues Produced by Materials Used as Solid Oxygen Carriers in an Advanced Chemical Looping Combustion Process. Appl. Sci. 2018, 8, 1787. https://doi.org/10.3390/app8101787

AMA Style

Carrillo AL, Forero CR. Characterization for Disposal of the Residues Produced by Materials Used as Solid Oxygen Carriers in an Advanced Chemical Looping Combustion Process. Applied Sciences. 2018; 8(10):1787. https://doi.org/10.3390/app8101787

Chicago/Turabian Style

Carrillo, Adriana L., and Carmen R. Forero 2018. "Characterization for Disposal of the Residues Produced by Materials Used as Solid Oxygen Carriers in an Advanced Chemical Looping Combustion Process" Applied Sciences 8, no. 10: 1787. https://doi.org/10.3390/app8101787

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