Special Issue "Laser Ultrasonics"

A special issue of Applied Sciences (ISSN 2076-3417). This special issue belongs to the section "Acoustics and Vibrations".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 December 2018)

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Vitalyi E. Gusev

Laboratoire d’Acoustique de l’Université du Maine, LAUM UMR-CNRS 6613, Le Mans Université, 72085 Le Mans, France
Website | E-Mail
Interests: laser ultrasonics; ultrafast light–matter interactions; nonlinear acoustics
Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Zhonghua Shen

School of Science, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Nanjing 210094, People’s Republic of China
Website | E-Mail
Interests: laser-based ultrasound and its applications; laser processing and its applications; laser-induced bubble dynamics; laser-induced plasma and shock waves
Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Todd Murray

Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Colorado Boulder, Boulder, Colorado 80309, USA
Website | E-Mail
Interests: laser ultrasonics; material characterization; guided wave propagation; photoacoustic cavitation; imaging in scattering media

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The field of laser ultrasonics encompasses fundamental research on laser–matter interactions, as well as applications of opto-acoustic and acousto-optic phenomena in industry and biomedicine.  Laser ultrasonics is a promising technique for the evaluation of novel materials and elastic/mechanical structures across spatial dimensions that have been realized through recent advances in materials science. New applications of laser ultrasonics in industrial applications continue to emerge as advanced manufacturing techniques are developed.  The progress in laser science and development of new lasers, as well as advances in instrumentation and signal processing approaches, has broadened the reach of laser ultrasonics to include studies of ultrafast, nanoscale, and nonlinear phenomena, optical and acoustic interactions in complex and/or light-sensitive materials, and photoacoustic processes in biological media.

The goal of this Special Issue of Applied Sciences on “Laser Ultrasonics” is to provide a platform for the presentation of recent research achievements in all areas of laser ultrasonics. This issue welcomes papers from across this diverse field, from the evaluation of fundamental light-matter interactions at femtosecond temporal and nanometer spatial scales and studies of coherent phonon interactions with other excitations and particles (excitons, magnons, electrons, or bubbles) to the NDT (nondestructive testing), industrial and biomedical applications of laser ultrasonics. Topics of interest for this issue include, but are not limited to, new laser ultrasonic generation and/or detection techniques and instrumentation, signal processing approaches and inverse analysis, materials characterization and NDE (nondestructive evaluation), industrial applications, simulation and theory, and fundamental acousto-optic and wave propagation phenomena.

Prof. Dr. Vitalyi E. Gusev
Prof. Dr. Zhonghua Shen
Prof. Dr. Todd Murray
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • laser ultrasonics
  • non-destructive testing/evaluation
  • industrial and biomedical applications
  • advanced sensing and imaging
  • innovative instrumentation
  • nonlinear phenomena
  • ultrafast processes
  • phonons interaction with particles and excitations

Published Papers (8 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle Evaluation of the Structural Phase Transition in Multiferroic (Bi1−x Prx)(Fe0.95 Mn0.05)O3 Thin Films by A Multi-Technique Approach Including Picosecond Laser Ultrasonics
Appl. Sci. 2019, 9(4), 736; https://doi.org/10.3390/app9040736 (registering DOI)
Received: 22 December 2018 / Revised: 23 January 2019 / Accepted: 9 February 2019 / Published: 20 February 2019
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Abstract
Picosecond laser ultrasonics is an experimental technique for the generation and detection of ultrashort acoustic pulses using ultrafast lasers. In transparent media, it is often referred to as time-domain Brillouin scattering (TDBS). It provides the opportunity to monitor the propagation of nanometers-length acoustic [...] Read more.
Picosecond laser ultrasonics is an experimental technique for the generation and detection of ultrashort acoustic pulses using ultrafast lasers. In transparent media, it is often referred to as time-domain Brillouin scattering (TDBS). It provides the opportunity to monitor the propagation of nanometers-length acoustic pulses and to determine acoustical, optical, and acousto-optical parameters of the materials. We report on the application of TDBS for evaluating the effect of Praseodymium (Pr) substitution on the elasticity of multiferroic (Bi1−xPrx)(Fe0.95Mn0.05)O3 (BPFMO) thin films. The films were deposited on Si and LaAlO3 (LAO) substrates by a sol-gel method. X-ray diffraction and Raman spectra revealed earlier that a phase transition from rhombohedral to tetragonal structure occurs at about 15% Pr substitution and is accompanied by the maxima of remnant magnetization and polarization. Combining TDBS with optical spectral reflectometry, scanning electron microscopy, and topographic measurements by atomic force microscopy, we found that the structural transition is also characterized by the maximum optical dielectric constant and the minimum longitudinal sound velocity. Our results, together with earlier ones, suggest that BiFeO3-based films and ceramics with compositions near phase boundaries might be promising materials for multifunctional applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Laser Ultrasonics)
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Open AccessArticle Defects Detection and Localization in Underwater Plates Using Laser Laterally Generated Pure Non-Dispersive S0 Mode
Appl. Sci. 2019, 9(3), 459; https://doi.org/10.3390/app9030459
Received: 26 December 2018 / Revised: 12 January 2019 / Accepted: 12 January 2019 / Published: 29 January 2019
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Abstract
When working in humid environments, corrosion defects are easily produced in metallic plates. For defect detection in underwater plates, symmetric modes of Lamb waves are widely used because of their characteristics including long propagating distance and high sensitivity to defects. In this study, [...] Read more.
When working in humid environments, corrosion defects are easily produced in metallic plates. For defect detection in underwater plates, symmetric modes of Lamb waves are widely used because of their characteristics including long propagating distance and high sensitivity to defects. In this study, we extend our previous work by applying the laser laterally generated S0 mode to detection and localization of defects represented by artificial notches in an aluminum plate immersed in water. Pure non-dispersive S0 mode is generated in an underwater plate by lateral laser source irradiation and its fd (frequency·thickness) range is selected by theoretical calculation. Using this lateral excitation, the S0 mode is enhanced; meanwhile, the A0 mode is effectively suppressed. The mode-converted A0 mode from the incident S0 mode is used to detect and localize the defect. The results reveal a significantly improved capability to detect defects in an underwater plate using the laser laterally generated S0 mode, while that using A0 is limited due to its high attenuation. Furthermore, owing to the long propagating distance and the non-dispersion characteristics of the S0 generated by the lateral laser source, multiple defects can also be detected and localized according to the mode conversion at the defects. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Laser Ultrasonics)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Probing Globular Protein Self-Assembling Dynamics by Heterodyne Transient Grating Experiments
Appl. Sci. 2019, 9(3), 405; https://doi.org/10.3390/app9030405
Received: 20 December 2018 / Revised: 11 January 2019 / Accepted: 22 January 2019 / Published: 25 January 2019
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Abstract
In this work, we studied the propagation of ultrasonic waves of lysozyme solutions characterized by different degrees of aggregation and networking. The experimental investigation was performed by means of the transient grating (TG) spectroscopy as a function of temperature, which enabled measurement of [...] Read more.
In this work, we studied the propagation of ultrasonic waves of lysozyme solutions characterized by different degrees of aggregation and networking. The experimental investigation was performed by means of the transient grating (TG) spectroscopy as a function of temperature, which enabled measurement of the ultrasonic acoustic proprieties over a wide time window, ranging from nanoseconds to milliseconds. The fitting of the measured TG signal allowed the extraction of several dynamic properties, here we focused on the speed and the damping rate of sound. The temperature variation induced a series of processes in the lysozyme solutions: Protein folding-unfolding, aggregation and sol–gel transition. Our TG investigation showed how these self-assembling phenomena modulate the sound propagation, affecting both the velocity and the damping rate of the ultrasonic waves. In particular, the damping of ultrasonic acoustic waves proved to be a dynamic property very sensitive to the protein conformational rearrangements and aggregation processes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Laser Ultrasonics)
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Open AccessArticle Broadband Photo-Excited Coherent Acoustic Frequency Combs and Mini-Brillouin-Zone Modes in a MQW-SESAM Structure
Appl. Sci. 2019, 9(2), 289; https://doi.org/10.3390/app9020289
Received: 4 December 2018 / Revised: 6 January 2019 / Accepted: 8 January 2019 / Published: 15 January 2019
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Abstract
A multiple quantum-well semiconductor saturable absorber mirror (MQW-SESAM) structure has been investigated by femtosecond pump-probe laser spectroscopy at a central wavelength of around 1050 nm. Coherent acoustic phonons are generated and detected over a wide frequency range from ~15 GHz to ~800 GHz. [...] Read more.
A multiple quantum-well semiconductor saturable absorber mirror (MQW-SESAM) structure has been investigated by femtosecond pump-probe laser spectroscopy at a central wavelength of around 1050 nm. Coherent acoustic phonons are generated and detected over a wide frequency range from ~15 GHz to ~800 GHz. In the optical absorption region, i.e., in the multiple quantum wells (In0.27Ga0.73As), acoustic frequency combs centered at ~365 GHz, with a comb spacing of ~33 GHz, are generated. Most importantly, in the transparent region, i.e., in the distributed Bragg reflector, which is formed by a non-doped long-period semiconductor GaAs/Al0.95Ga0.05As superlattice, the mini-Brillouin-zone center, as well as zone-edge acoustic modes, are observed. The mini-zone-center modes with a fundamental frequency of 32 GHz can be attributed to the spatial modulation of the pump optical interference field with a period very close to that of the distributed Bragg reflector, in combination with the periodic spatial modulation of the electrostriction coefficient in the distributed Bragg reflector. The excitation of mini-zone-edge modes is attributed to the stimulated subharmonic decay of the fundamental center modes. Their subsequent back-folding to the mini-Brillouin-zone center makes them Raman active for the probe light. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Laser Ultrasonics)
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Open AccessArticle Evaluation of Effective Elastic Properties of Nitride NWs/Polymer Composite Materials Using Laser-Generated Surface Acoustic Waves
Appl. Sci. 2018, 8(11), 2319; https://doi.org/10.3390/app8112319
Received: 16 October 2018 / Revised: 14 November 2018 / Accepted: 15 November 2018 / Published: 21 November 2018
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Abstract
In this paper we demonstrate a high potential of transient grating method to study the behavior of surface acoustic waves in nanowires-based composite structures. The investigation of dispersion curves is done by adjusting the calculated dispersion curves to the experimental results. The wave [...] Read more.
In this paper we demonstrate a high potential of transient grating method to study the behavior of surface acoustic waves in nanowires-based composite structures. The investigation of dispersion curves is done by adjusting the calculated dispersion curves to the experimental results. The wave propagation is simulated using the explicit integral and asymptotic representations for laser-generated surface acoustic waves in layered anisotropic waveguides. The analysis of the behavior permits to determine all elastic constants and effective elastic moduli of constituent materials, which is important both for technological applications of these materials and for basic scientific studies of their physical properties. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Laser Ultrasonics)
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Open AccessArticle Residual Stress in Laser Welding of TC4 Titanium Alloy Based on Ultrasonic laser Technology
Appl. Sci. 2018, 8(10), 1997; https://doi.org/10.3390/app8101997
Received: 3 September 2018 / Revised: 8 October 2018 / Accepted: 8 October 2018 / Published: 20 October 2018
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Abstract
Laser welding is widely used in titanium alloy welding due to its high energy density, small heat affected zone, and rapid processing ability. However, problems with laser welding, such as deformation and cracking caused by residual stress, need to be resolved. In this [...] Read more.
Laser welding is widely used in titanium alloy welding due to its high energy density, small heat affected zone, and rapid processing ability. However, problems with laser welding, such as deformation and cracking caused by residual stress, need to be resolved. In this paper, the residual stress in laser welding of TC4 titanium alloy was studied using an ultrasonic laser. The residual stress in titanium alloy plates is considered a plane stress state. A pre-stress loading method is proposed and acoustoelastic coefficients are obtained. Based on the known acoustoelastic coefficients, the transverse and longitudinal residual stresses in laser welding are measured using an ultrasonic laser. The results show that longitudinal residual stress is greater than the transverse stress. The distribution regularity of the residual stress is similar to normal welding, but the tensile stress zone is much narrower. Then, the influence of heat input and welding speed on residual stress is discussed. With increasing heat input, the welding zone widens, and the peak value of the residual stress increases. A higher welding speed should be chosen when the welding power is constant. This research has important significance for the measurement and control of residual stress in the laser welding process. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Laser Ultrasonics)
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Open AccessArticle Imaging Material Texture of As-Deposited Selective Laser Melted Parts Using Spatially Resolved Acoustic Spectroscopy
Appl. Sci. 2018, 8(10), 1991; https://doi.org/10.3390/app8101991
Received: 27 September 2018 / Revised: 17 October 2018 / Accepted: 18 October 2018 / Published: 19 October 2018
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Abstract
Additive manufacturing (AM) is a production technology where material is accumulated to create a structure, often through added shaped layers. The major advantage of additive manufacturing is in creating unique and complex parts for use in areas where conventional manufacturing reaches its limitations. [...] Read more.
Additive manufacturing (AM) is a production technology where material is accumulated to create a structure, often through added shaped layers. The major advantage of additive manufacturing is in creating unique and complex parts for use in areas where conventional manufacturing reaches its limitations. However, the current class of AM systems produce parts that contain structural defects (e.g., cracks and pores) which is not compatible with certification in high value industries. The probable complexity of an AM design increases the difficulty of using many non-destructive evaluation (NDE) techniques to inspect AM parts—however, a unique opportunity exists to interrogate a part during production using a rapid surface based technique. Spatially resolved acoustic spectroscopy (SRAS) is a laser ultrasound inspection technique used to image material microstructure of metals and alloys. SRAS generates and detects `controlled’ surface acoustic waves (SAWs) using lasers, which makes it a non-contact and non-destructive technique. The technique is also sensitive to surface and subsurface voids. Work until now has been on imaging the texture information of selective laser melted (SLM) parts once prepared (i.e., polished with R a < 0.1 μ m)—the challenge for performing laser ultrasonics in-process is measuring waves on the rough surfaces present on as-deposited parts. This paper presents the results of a prototype SRAS system, developed using the rough surface ultrasound detector known as speckle knife edge detector (SKED)—texture images using this setup of an as-deposited Ti64 SLM sample, with a surface roughness of S a 6 μ m, were obtained. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Laser Ultrasonics)
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Review

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Open AccessFeature PaperReview The Progress in Photoacoustic and Laser Ultrasonic Tomographic Imaging for Biomedicine and Industry: A Review
Appl. Sci. 2018, 8(10), 1931; https://doi.org/10.3390/app8101931
Received: 24 September 2018 / Revised: 11 October 2018 / Accepted: 11 October 2018 / Published: 15 October 2018
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Abstract
The current paper reviews a set of principles and applications of photoacoustic and laser ultrasonic imaging, developed in the Laser Optoacoustic Laboratories of ILIT RAS, NUST MISiS, and ILC MSU. These applications include combined photoacoustic and laser ultrasonic imaging for biological objects, and [...] Read more.
The current paper reviews a set of principles and applications of photoacoustic and laser ultrasonic imaging, developed in the Laser Optoacoustic Laboratories of ILIT RAS, NUST MISiS, and ILC MSU. These applications include combined photoacoustic and laser ultrasonic imaging for biological objects, and tomographic laser ultrasonic imaging of solids. Principles, algorithms, resolution of the developed methods, and related problems are discussed. The review is written in context of the current state-of-art of photoacoustic and laser ultrasonic imaging. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Laser Ultrasonics)
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