IWPMA (International Workshop on Piezoelectric Materials and Applications in Actuators) 2019

A special issue of Applied Sciences (ISSN 2076-3417). This special issue belongs to the section "Mechanical Engineering".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 June 2020) | Viewed by 32986

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Institut National des Sciences Appliquées de Lyon (INSA-Lyon), 20 Avenue Albert Einstein, 69100 Villeurbanne, France
Interests: multiphysic coupling; electroactive conversion and device; energy harvesting; self-powered devices; vibration control
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Institute of Dynamics and Vibration Research, Leibniz University Hannover, 30167 Hannover, Germany
Interests: piezoelectric systems and ultrasonic technologies; automotive engineering (in particular NVH and acoustics); contact mechanics and friction; nonlinear oscillations; rotor dynamics
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Guest Editor
Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, 29 Yudao St., Nanjing 210016, China
Interests: piezoelectric materials and application in actuators and energy harvesting

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Guest Editor
Virginia Polytech Inst & State Univ, CEHMS, Dept Mat Sci & Engn, Blacksburg, VA 24061, USA

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Since their discovery, piezoelectric materials have found numerous applications over the years, ranging from sonar to, at present, integrated devices. Thanks to their unique bidirectional conversion potentials, such materials have been the subject of many scientific and industrial studies, and many materials devices have emerged through research progress.

Hence, the objective of IWPMA 2019 (16th edition of IWPMA after the last editions in Kobe, Japan in 2018 and Washington D.C., USA in 2017) is to gather researchers in a unique, successful international workshop to share their latest discoveries in terms of piezoelectric materials and their application in actuators and, more generally, energy conversion devices, thus pioneering and shaping the future of piezoelectric materials and devices.

The conference scope therefore focuses on piezoelectric materials (ceramics, single crystals, polymers, lead-free, elaboration, characterization, etc.) as well as their application in actuators (ultrasonic tools, acoustic devices, motors, transformers, etc.) and in sensing and energy harvesting systems (imaging, MEMS, etc.). This thus provides an outstanding place and opportunity to present your latest work and strengthen or develop new exciting collaborations.

In this framework, this Special Issue aims at gathering selected papers from presentations performed during the conference. The conference topics cover but are not limited to the following items:

  • Piezoelectric material synthesis and elaboration: ceramics, polymers, single crystals, lead-free materials, etc.;
  • Manufacturing processes;
  • Piezoelectric material characterization;
  • Multiphysic coupling involving piezoelectric/flexoelectric effects: Magnetoelectrics, etc.;
  • Piezoelectric material and device modeling;
  • Multiferroic materials and systems;
  • Composite sensors/actuators;
  • Piezoelectric metamaterials and metastructures;
  • MEMS devices (actuators and sensors);
  • Solid state actuators;
  • Ultrasonic and acoustic devices: Piezoelectric motors, welding/cutting tools, sonar, etc.;
  • Piezoelectric transformers and power electronic devices;
  • SAW filters;
  • Smart structures and systems with actuators and sensors;
  • Piezo-based structural health monitoring;
  • Energy harvesting structures;
  • Drive circuits for actuators/sensors;
  • Electrical interfaces for energy harvesting;
  • Integrated/hybrid systems of actuators and sensors.

Prof. Dr. Mickaël Lallart
Prof. Dr. Jörg Wallaschek
Prof. Dr. Ying Yang
Prof. Dr. Shashank Priya
Guest Editors

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Keywords

  • Piezoelectric
  • Synthesis and elaboration
  • Manufacturing
  • Characterization and modeling
  • Transducers
  • Ultrasonic tool
  • Ultrasonic motor
  • Sensor
  • Energy harvesting
  • MEMS

Published Papers (11 papers)

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Editorial

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2 pages, 161 KiB  
Editorial
Special Issue on IWPMA (International Workshop on Piezoelectric Materials and Applications in Actuators) 2019
by Mickael Lallart, Jörg Wallaschek and Ying Yang
Appl. Sci. 2023, 13(3), 1836; https://doi.org/10.3390/app13031836 - 31 Jan 2023
Viewed by 916
Abstract
Initially triggered more than a decade ago by a fruitful German–Korean collaboration, the International Workshop on Piezoelectric Materials and Applications in Actuators has rapidly reached international levels thanks to a strong community making the conference series one of the most recognized in the [...] Read more.
Initially triggered more than a decade ago by a fruitful German–Korean collaboration, the International Workshop on Piezoelectric Materials and Applications in Actuators has rapidly reached international levels thanks to a strong community making the conference series one of the most recognized in the field [...] Full article

Research

Jump to: Editorial

15 pages, 4801 KiB  
Article
Flat Cross-Shaped Piezoelectric Rotary Motor
by Andrius Čeponis, Dalius Mažeika and Piotr Vasiljev
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(14), 5022; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10145022 - 21 Jul 2020
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2677
Abstract
A numerical and experimental investigation of a flat, cross-shaped piezoelectric rotary motor is presented. The design and configuration of the motor allow it to be mounted directly to the printed circuit board or integrated into the other system where mounting space is limited. [...] Read more.
A numerical and experimental investigation of a flat, cross-shaped piezoelectric rotary motor is presented. The design and configuration of the motor allow it to be mounted directly to the printed circuit board or integrated into the other system where mounting space is limited. The design of the motor is based on the cross-shaped stator with 16 piezo ceramic plates, which are glued on it. The rotor is placed at the center of the stator and consists of two hemispheres, a shaft, and a preloading spring. Special clamping of the stator was developed as well. It consists of four V-shaped beam structures that allow it to rigidly clamp the stator with reduced damping effect to vibrations. The operation principle of the motor is based on the first in-plane bending mode of the cross-shaped stator. The motor excitation is performed through four harmonic signals, which have a phase difference of π/2. A numerical investigation of the motor was conducted to optimize the geometrical parameters of the stator and to analyze the displacement characteristics of the contacting point. The prototype of the motor was made, and the electrical, as well as rotation speed characteristics of the motor, were measured. The results of the experimental investigation showed that the motor is able to provide a maximum rotation speed of 972.62 RPM at 200 Vp-p when the preload force of 22.65 mN was applied. Full article
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15 pages, 18699 KiB  
Article
Model-Guided Manufacturing of Transducer Arrays Based on Single-Fibre Piezocomposites
by Martin Angerer, Michael Zapf, Benjamin Leyrer and Nicole V. Ruiter
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(14), 4927; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10144927 - 17 Jul 2020
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2013
Abstract
For breast cancer imaging, ultrasound computer tomography (USCT) is an emerging technology. To improve the image quality of our full 3-D system, a new transducer array system (TAS) design was previously proposed. This work presents a manufacturing approach which realises this new design. [...] Read more.
For breast cancer imaging, ultrasound computer tomography (USCT) is an emerging technology. To improve the image quality of our full 3-D system, a new transducer array system (TAS) design was previously proposed. This work presents a manufacturing approach which realises this new design. To monitor the transducer quality during production, the electro-mechanical impedance (EMI) was measured initially and after each assembly step. To evaluate the measured responses, an extended Krimholtz–Leedom–Matthaei (KLM) transducer model was used. The model aids in interpreting the measured responses and presents a useful tool for evaluating parasitic electric effects and attenuation at resonance. For quality control, the phase angle at thickness resonance φ t was found to be the most specific EMI property. It can be used to verify the functionality of the piezocomposites and allows reliable detection of faults in the acoustic backing. Evaluating the final response of 68 transducers showed 5% variance of the series resonance frequency. This indicates good consistency of derived ultrasound performance parameters. Full article
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16 pages, 6706 KiB  
Article
A Cylinder-Type Multimodal Traveling Wave Piezoelectric Actuator
by Dalius Mažeika, Andrius Čeponis and Daiva Makutėnienė
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(7), 2396; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10072396 - 01 Apr 2020
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1801
Abstract
Numerical and experimental investigations of a multimodal piezoelectric traveling wave actuator are presented. The actuator consists of a cylindrical stator with a conical hole and piezoceramic rings that are located at the node of the first longitudinal and second bending vibration modes; one [...] Read more.
Numerical and experimental investigations of a multimodal piezoelectric traveling wave actuator are presented. The actuator consists of a cylindrical stator with a conical hole and piezoceramic rings that are located at the node of the first longitudinal and second bending vibration modes; one piezoceramic ring is also placed at the bottom of the actuator. The actuator is clamped at the bottom using a special supporting cylinder and a ball bearing. Traveling-wave-type vibrations are excited at the top surface of the cylinder by employing a superposition of the first longitudinal and second bending vibration modes of the stator. The conical hole of the stator is used to amplify the vibration amplitudes of the contact surface. Four electric signals with phase difference of π/2 are used to drive the actuator. Numerical and experimental investigations showed that the proposed actuator is able to generate up to 115 RPM rotation speed at constant preload force. Full article
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12 pages, 4403 KiB  
Article
Experimental Investigation of Linear Encoder’s Subdivisional Errors under Different Scanning Speeds
by Donatas Gurauskis, Artūras Kilikevičius and Sergejus Borodinas
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(5), 1766; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10051766 - 04 Mar 2020
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 4138
Abstract
Optical encoders are widely used in applications requiring precise displacement measurement and fluent motion control. To reach high positioning accuracy and repeatability, and to create a more stable speed-control loop, essential attention must be directed to the subdivisional error (SDE) of the used [...] Read more.
Optical encoders are widely used in applications requiring precise displacement measurement and fluent motion control. To reach high positioning accuracy and repeatability, and to create a more stable speed-control loop, essential attention must be directed to the subdivisional error (SDE) of the used encoder. This error influences the interpolation process and restricts the ability to achieve a high resolution. The SDE could be caused by various factors, such as the particular design of the reading head and the optical scanning principle, quality of the measuring scale, any kind of relative orientation changes between the optical components caused by mechanical vibrations or deformations, or scanning speed. If the distorted analog signals are not corrected before interpolation, it is very important to know the limitations of the used encoder. The methodology described in this paper could be used to determine the magnitude of an SDE and its trend. This method is based on a constant-speed test and does not require high-accuracy reference. The performed experimental investigation of the standard optical linear encoder SDE under different scanning speeds revealed the linear relationship between the tested encoder’s traversing velocity and the error value. A more detailed investigation of the obtained results was done on the basis of fast Fourier transformation (FFT) to understand the physical nature of the SDE, and to consider how to improve the performance of the encoder. Full article
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19 pages, 51111 KiB  
Article
Investigation and Enhancement of the Detectability of Flaws with a Coarse Measuring Grid and Air Coupled Ultrasound for NDT of Panel Materials Using the Re-Radiation Method
by Andreas Sebastian Schmelt, Torben Marhenke, Jörg Hasener and Jens Twiefel
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(3), 1155; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10031155 - 08 Feb 2020
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2398
Abstract
Non-destructive ultrasonic testing is utilized widely by industries for quality assurance. For sensitive materials or surfaces, non-contact, non-destructive testing methods are in demand. The air-coupled ultrasound (ACU) is one possible solution. This can be used to investigate large, panel-like objects for delaminations and [...] Read more.
Non-destructive ultrasonic testing is utilized widely by industries for quality assurance. For sensitive materials or surfaces, non-contact, non-destructive testing methods are in demand. The air-coupled ultrasound (ACU) is one possible solution. This can be used to investigate large, panel-like objects for delaminations and other flaws. For a high detectability, fine measurement grids are required (typically < λ is used), which results in extremely long data acquisition times that are only practicable for laboratory applications. This paper aimed at reducing the required measurement grid points for obtaining high detectability evaluations. The novel method presented in this paper allows a measurement grid that is much coarser than the resulting grid. The method combines a software refinement of the measured data with the Rayleigh–Sommerfeld diffraction integral for the calculation of the pressure distribution on the object’s surface. This result allows the precise prediction of delaminations and flaws in the tested object. The presented method shows a decrease in the total investigation time by up to 98%. Full article
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14 pages, 4769 KiB  
Article
Modelling of Electromagnetic Energy Harvester with Rotational Pendulum Using Mechanical Vibrations to Scavenge Electrical Energy
by Bartłomiej Ambrożkiewicz, Grzegorz Litak and Piotr Wolszczak
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(2), 671; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10020671 - 17 Jan 2020
Cited by 40 | Viewed by 4999
Abstract
A concept of non-linear electromagnetic system with the rotational magnetic pendulum for energy harvesting from mechanical vibrations was presented. The system was stimulated by vertical excitation coming from a shaker. The main assumption of the system was the montage of additional regulated stationary [...] Read more.
A concept of non-linear electromagnetic system with the rotational magnetic pendulum for energy harvesting from mechanical vibrations was presented. The system was stimulated by vertical excitation coming from a shaker. The main assumption of the system was the montage of additional regulated stationary magnets inside coils creating double potential well, and the system was made with a 3D printing technique in order to avoid a magnetic coupling with the housing. In validation process of the system, modelling of electromagnetic effects in different configurations of magnets positions was performed with the application of a finite element method (FEM) obtaining the value of magnetic force acting on the pendulum. A laboratory measurement circuit was built and an experiment was carried out. The voltage and power outputs were measured for different excitations in range of system operational frequencies found experimentally. The experimental results of the physical system with electrical circuit and numerical estimations of the magnetic field of a stationary magnet’s configuration were used to derive a mathematical model. The equation of motion for the rotational pendulum was used to prove the broadband frequency effect. Full article
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18 pages, 7238 KiB  
Article
A Bio-Inspired Flapping Wing Rotor of Variant Frequency Driven by Ultrasonic Motor
by Si Chen, Le Wang, Shijun Guo, Chunsheng Zhao and Mingbo Tong
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(1), 412; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10010412 - 06 Jan 2020
Cited by 17 | Viewed by 4789
Abstract
By combining the flapping and rotary motion, a bio-inspired flapping wing rotor (FWR) is a unique kinematics of motion. It can produce a significantly greater aerodynamic lift and efficiency than mimicking the insect wings in a vertical take-off and landing (VTOL). To produce [...] Read more.
By combining the flapping and rotary motion, a bio-inspired flapping wing rotor (FWR) is a unique kinematics of motion. It can produce a significantly greater aerodynamic lift and efficiency than mimicking the insect wings in a vertical take-off and landing (VTOL). To produce the same lift, the FWR’s flapping frequency, twist angle, and self-propelling rotational speed is significantly smaller than the insect-like flapping wings and rotors. Like its opponents, however, the effect of variant flapping frequency (VFF) of a FWR, during a flapping cycle on its aerodynamic characteristics and efficiency, remains to be evaluated. A FWR model is built to carry out experimental work. To be able to vary the flapping frequency rapidly during a stroke, an ultrasonic motor (USM) is used to drive the FWR. Experiment and numerical simulation using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) are performed in a VFF range versus the usual constant flapping frequency (CFF) cases. The measured lifting forces agree very well with the CFD results. Flapping frequency in an up-stroke is smaller than a down-stroke, and the negative lift and inertia forces can be reduced significantly. The average lift of the FWR where the motion in VFF is greater than the CFF, in the same input motor power or equivalent flapping frequency. In other words, the required power for a VFF case to produce a specified lift is less than a CFF case. For this FWR model, the optimal installation angle of the wings for high lift and efficiency is found to be 30° and the Strouhal number of the VFF cases is between 0.3–0.36. Full article
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11 pages, 4122 KiB  
Article
A Novel Dual-Rotor Ultrasonic Motor for Underwater Propulsion
by Xiaolong Lu, Zhiwen Wang, Hui Shen, Kangdong Zhao, Tianyue Pan, Dexu Kong and Jens Twiefel
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(1), 31; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10010031 - 19 Dec 2019
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 3536
Abstract
Micro underwater vehicles (MUVs) have been highlighted recently for underwater explorations because of their high maneuverability, low price, great flexibility, etc. The thrusters of most conventional MUVs are driven by electromagnetic motors, which need big mechanical transmission parts and are prone to being [...] Read more.
Micro underwater vehicles (MUVs) have been highlighted recently for underwater explorations because of their high maneuverability, low price, great flexibility, etc. The thrusters of most conventional MUVs are driven by electromagnetic motors, which need big mechanical transmission parts and are prone to being interrupted by the variance of ambient electromagnetic fields. In this paper, a novel dual-rotor ultrasonic motor with double output shafts, compact size, and no electromagnetic interference is presented, characterized, and applied for actuating underwater robots. This motor was composed of a spindle-shaped stator, pre-pressure modulation unit, and dual rotors, which can output two simultaneous rotations to increase the propulsion force of the MUV. The pre-pressure modulation unit utilized a torsion spring to adjust the preload at the contact faces between the stator and rotor. The working principle of the ultrasonic motor was developed and the vibration mode of the stator was analyzed by the finite element method. Experimental results show that the no-load rotary speed and stalling torque of the prototype ultrasonic motor were 110 r/min and 3 mN·m, respectively, with 150 V peak-to-peak driving voltage at resonance. One underwater robot model equipped with the proposed ultrasonic motor-powered thruster could move at 33 mm/s immersed in water. The dual-rotor ultrasonic motor proposed here provides another alternative for driving MUVs and is appropriate for developing specific MUVs when the electromagnetic interference issue needs to be considered. Full article
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13 pages, 5444 KiB  
Article
Analyses of the Temperature Field of a Piezoelectric Micro Actuator in the Endoscopic Biopsy Channel
by Pancheng Zhu, Hanmin Peng and Jianzhi Yang
Appl. Sci. 2019, 9(21), 4499; https://doi.org/10.3390/app9214499 - 23 Oct 2019
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1918
Abstract
Micro actuators have been used to realize the arrival of digestive tract lesions for the local targeted application of drugs in endoscopes. However, there still exists a key safety issue that casts a shadow over the practical and safe implementation of actuators in [...] Read more.
Micro actuators have been used to realize the arrival of digestive tract lesions for the local targeted application of drugs in endoscopes. However, there still exists a key safety issue that casts a shadow over the practical and safe implementation of actuators in the human body, namely an overheated environment caused by actuators’ operation. Herein, with the aim of solving the temperature rising problem of a piezoelectric micro actuator operating in an endoscopic biopsy channel (OLYMPUS, Tokyo, Japan), a thermal finite element method (FEM) based on COMSOL Multiphysics software is proposed. The temperature distribution and its rising curves are obtained by the FEM method. Both the simulated and experimental maximum temperatures are larger than the safety value (e.g., 42 °C for human tissues) when the driving voltage of the actuator is 200 Vpp, which proves that the overheating problem really exists in the actuator. Furthermore, the results show that the calculated temperature rising curves correspond to the experimental results, proving the effectiveness of this FEM method. Therefore, we introduce a temperature control method through optimizing the duty ratio of the actuator. In comparison with a 100% duty ratio operation condition, it is found that a 60% duty ratio with a driving voltage of 200 Vpp can more effectively prevent the temperature rising issue in the first 3 min, as revealed by the corresponding temperatures of 44.4 and 41.4 °C, respectively. When the duty ratio is adjusted to 30% or less, the temperature rise of the actuator can be significantly reduced to only 36.6 °C, which is close to the initial temperature (36.4 °C). Meanwhile, the speed of the actuator can be well-maintained at a certain level, demonstrating its great applicability for safe operation in the human body. Full article
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16 pages, 5995 KiB  
Article
Design and Experiment of a Large-Aperture Hollow Traveling Wave Ultrasonic Motor with Low Speed and High Torque
by Jun Liu, Zi-Jie Niu, Hua Zhu and Chun-Sheng Zhao
Appl. Sci. 2019, 9(19), 3979; https://doi.org/10.3390/app9193979 - 23 Sep 2019
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 2589
Abstract
To realize applications involving low speed and high torque in the high-performance actuator industry, especially in the aerospace field, we propose a novel 70H traveling wave rotary ultrasonic motor (TRUM) with an outer diameter of 70 mm and an aperture ratio of 53% [...] Read more.
To realize applications involving low speed and high torque in the high-performance actuator industry, especially in the aerospace field, we propose a novel 70H traveling wave rotary ultrasonic motor (TRUM) with an outer diameter of 70 mm and an aperture ratio of 53% (the ratio between the aperture and outer diameter). The power transmission mechanism between the stator and the rotor is analyzed, and a method for realizing low-speed–high-torque characteristics of TRUMs is proposed. ANSYS software is used to simulate the modal parameters of the stator, and the ratio β between the normal amplitude and the tangential vibration velocity of the stator is proposed. The larger the value of β, the lower the speed and the higher the torque. Furthermore, two prototype motors are fabricated, namely, 70HA and 70HB. Compared with 70HA, the maximum no-load speed of the improved 70HB (50 rpm) is decreased by 23.1% and the maximum stall torque (2.4 N∙m) is increased by 100%. Besides this, with a smaller mass of 210 g and a higher torque density of 11.43 N∙m/kg, 70HB has fundamentally different mechanical characteristics. Full article
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