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Herbal Medicines and Their Beneficial Effect in Inflammatory Diseases

A special issue of Applied Sciences (ISSN 2076-3417). This special issue belongs to the section "Applied Biosciences and Bioengineering".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (10 September 2021) | Viewed by 14477

Special Issue Editor


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Guest Editor
Faculdade de Farmácia, Universidade de Lisboa—Av. Prof. Gama Pinto, 1649-003 Lisboa, Portugal
Interests: inflammatory bowel disease; arthritis; herbal medicines and functional foods; immunopharmacology and pharmacotherapy; animal models of disease; local and systemic inflammation; critical care and multi-organ dysfunction syndrome; acute lung injury & acute respiratory distress syndrome; stroke & cerebral ischemia
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Herbal medicines have played an important role in the discovery of new drugs, and innovative mechanisms of action and the tenet “Let food be thy medicine and medicine be thy food,” espoused by Hippocrates nearly 2500 years ago, are receiving renewed interest.

Among the various mechanisms exhibited by substances originating from these sources, antioxidant effects have been one of the most studied and pursued mechanisms. Given the importance of oxidative stress and the deleterious effects of reactive oxygen species in several diseases, the study of molecules that are able to prevent or reduce the magnitude of these oxidative mediators is of great importance. One of the main consequences or/and precursors of an oxidative process is inflammation. An inflammatory process can either initiate or be a consequence of cellular oxidative stress. Given the association of inflammation with several diseases—such as diabetes, neurodegenerative diseases, stroke, respiratory diseases, and even cancer—the cellular pathways that regulate inflammatory processes have become the cornerstone of research for many acute and chronic diseases. The pleiotropic effects of substances derived from herbal and food sources and their ability to modulate several cellular, biochemical, and pharmacological targets that in turn have the ability to modulate the development of several diseases are making this one of the most active lines of research in recent years. Many other parallel and related mechanisms are being identified for herbal/food derived substances and may contribute greatly to a better understanding of the pathophysiology of diseases while elucidating new and promising pharmacological targets.

This Special Issue invites researchers to contribute original research articles as well as review articles related to the study of the beneficial effects of herbal/food products and their isolated components that contribute to knowledge in this area and may have new data regarding a potential beneficial effect. Original research articles on isolation/characterization/identification are strongly recommended to also focus on the beneficial effects, either by in vitro, in vivo or human experiments, otherwise they would be better suited to a journal with a more chemically-focused scope.

Prof. João Rocha
Guest Editor

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Keywords

  • Inflammation
  • Anti-inflammatory
  • Pharmacology
  • Pharmacodynamic
  • Pharmacokinetic
  • Disease
  • Herbal medicines
  • Functional foods

Published Papers (6 papers)

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Research

16 pages, 3164 KiB  
Article
Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Jakyakgamcho-Tang in IL-4- and TNF-α-Stimulated Lung Epithelial Cells and Lipopolysaccharide-Stimulated Macrophages
by Yu Jin Kim, Woo-Young Jeon, Mee-Young Lee, Youn-Hwan Hwang and Jinhee Kim
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(22), 10569; https://doi.org/10.3390/app112210569 - 10 Nov 2021
Viewed by 1483
Abstract
Asthma is a chronic respiratory disease mediated by airway inflammation. Jakyakgamcho-tang (JGT), a traditional medicine, is widely subscribed to common diseases such as muscle pain and cramps in East Asian countries. Although the efficacy of JGT on peripheral neuropathy, gouty arthritis, and colitis [...] Read more.
Asthma is a chronic respiratory disease mediated by airway inflammation. Jakyakgamcho-tang (JGT), a traditional medicine, is widely subscribed to common diseases such as muscle pain and cramps in East Asian countries. Although the efficacy of JGT on peripheral neuropathy, gouty arthritis, and colitis has been reported, the effect of JGT on airway inflammation related to asthma is not clearly investigated. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the effects of JGT water extract (JGTW) on factors related to airway inflammation using the human bronchial epithelial BEAS-2B and the mouse monocyte-macrophage RAW264.7 cell lines. Furthermore, the constituents in JGTW were quantitatively and qualitatively studied for future reference of JGTW standardization. JGTW reduced the generation of several airway inflammation mediators such as eotaxins, regulated on activation normal T-cell expressed and secreted (RANTES), and matrix metalloproteinase-9, and expressions of adhesion molecules (ICAM-1 and VCAM-1), which attracts leukocytes to the site of inflammation in interleukin-4 + tumor necrosis factor-α (IT)-stimulated BEAS-2B cells. In lipopolysaccharide-stimulated RAW264.7 cells, JGTW effectively suppressed inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) induction by inhibiting the MAPK and NF-κB signaling. In addition, JGTW treatment showed decreased inflammatory cells and Th2 cytokines in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and decreased IgE levels in plasma in the OVA-induced asthmatic mice model. In the ultra-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detector-tandem mass spectrometry analysis, 24 phytochemicals were identified in JGTW, and paeoniflorin (63.971 mg/g) and glycyrrhizin (11.853 mg/g) were found to be the most abundant. These findings suggest that JGTW has anti-inflammatory effects on airway inflammation by regulating inflammatory response-related factors, possibly through MAPK and NF-κB in pulmonary epithelial cells and macrophages. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Herbal Medicines and Their Beneficial Effect in Inflammatory Diseases)
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11 pages, 464 KiB  
Article
In Vivo and In Vitro Evaluation of Preventive Activity of Inflammation and Free Radical Scavenging Potential of Plant Extracts from Oldenlandia corymbosa L.
by Mahci Al Bashera, Ashik Mosaddik, Gaber El-Saber Batiha, Mohammed Alqarni, Md. Ashraful Islam, George D. Zouganelis, Athanasios Alexiou and Ronok Zahan
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(19), 9073; https://doi.org/10.3390/app11199073 - 29 Sep 2021
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 3115
Abstract
Aims: The present study evaluates the anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activity of the crude dichloromethane (CDCME), ethyl acetate (CEAE), and methanol (CMeE) extracts from the plant Oldenlandia corymbosa L. Background:Oldenlandia species have been popular among the people of the Indian subcontinent to treat [...] Read more.
Aims: The present study evaluates the anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activity of the crude dichloromethane (CDCME), ethyl acetate (CEAE), and methanol (CMeE) extracts from the plant Oldenlandia corymbosa L. Background:Oldenlandia species have been popular among the people of the Indian subcontinent to treat several types of internal and external inflammation for a long time. Plant decoctions have been used to battle inflammation in cases of tonsilitis, pneumonia and cholecystitis, among others. Objective: The present work designed to demonstrate the properties of the previously mentioned plant extracts to prevent inflammation both in vivo and in vitro. This work is the first investigation of such extracts from this species and their relationship with anti-inflammatory activity. Method: The anti-inflammatory properties of the Oldenlandia corymbosa L. extracts were evaluated in vitro with the Red Blood Cell (RBC) membrane stabilization method and the protein denaturation method and in vivo with the carrageenan-induced paw oedema method. Furthermore, the free radical scavenging activity of the extracts was carried out with the 1,1-diphenyl-2- picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical oxidation, total antioxidant capacity and iron reduction assay. Result: Both in vivo and in vitro studies showed that CDCME had the most predominant effects with the value of 80.5% for RBC membrane stabilization, 60% for inhibition of protein denaturation at the concentration of 1000 µg/mL and 63.28% (after 3 h, * p < 0.05) for inhibition of paw oedema (300 mg/kg bwt) compared to carrageenan-induced mice. The free radical scavenging activity was studied by DPPH, total antioxidant and reducing activity assay. CDCME showed scavenging activity in all the methods and an IC50 value of 473.86 µg/mL for DPPH method. Conclusions: The findings of the study remarked that CDCME of the plant has strong anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects that validate the traditional use of the plant to get remedy from pain. Other: The plants Oldenlandia corymbosa L. were provided by the Bangladesh Council of Scientific and Industrial Research Laboratory campus, Rajshahi, Bangladesh. Experiments on animals were conducted by ethical permission of Institute of Biological Sciences, University of Rajshahi, Bangladesh (license no: 225/320-IAMEBBC/IBSc). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Herbal Medicines and Their Beneficial Effect in Inflammatory Diseases)
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12 pages, 4412 KiB  
Communication
Anti-Inflammatory Effect of Cudrania tricuspidata Extract and Stewartia koreana Extract Mixture in a Collagen-Induced Arthritis Mouse Model
by Inkyu Kim, Hansol Kim, Eunjoo H. Lee, Geonung Jo, Chun Soo Na, Kyungtae Kang and Tae Hoon Lee
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(14), 6660; https://doi.org/10.3390/app11146660 - 20 Jul 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2410
Abstract
Cudrania tricuspidata extracts (CTE) and Stewartia koreana extracts (SKE) are viable drugs for managing inflammation. We investigated the nitric oxide levels of CTE and a mixture of CTE/SKE (CTE mix) against lipopolysaccharide-induced RAW264.7 cells. In addition, we administered the CTE and CTE mix [...] Read more.
Cudrania tricuspidata extracts (CTE) and Stewartia koreana extracts (SKE) are viable drugs for managing inflammation. We investigated the nitric oxide levels of CTE and a mixture of CTE/SKE (CTE mix) against lipopolysaccharide-induced RAW264.7 cells. In addition, we administered the CTE and CTE mix to mice with collagen-induced arthritis to confirm an anti-inflammatory effect against rheumatoid arthritis. We analyzed arthritis symptoms by oral administration of CTE mix using a CIA-induced animal model and analyzed the inhibitory activity of NO production with in vitro experiments. Both the CTE and CTE mix decreased nitric oxide levels, and a 2:1 ratio of CTE mix was most effective in vivo among the varying ratios of CTE mix tested. The spleen size increased by about 2.1 times, and the lymph node size decreased by about 2.5 times relative compared to the vehicle group. In blood biochemical analyses, tumor necrosis factor–α levels decreased by about three times, interleukin-1β and interleukin-6 levels were reduced by about eight times and three times, and PRG4 expression levels were increased by about 2.5 times relative to the vehicle group. We suggest that the CTE mix was superior to CTE alone and has potential as an anti-inflammatory treatment for patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Herbal Medicines and Their Beneficial Effect in Inflammatory Diseases)
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12 pages, 4532 KiB  
Article
Effect of Cynara cardunculus L. var. altilis (DC) in Inflammatory Bowel Disease
by Vanessa Mateus, João Estarreja, Inês Silva, Paulo Barracosa, Edite Teixeira-Lemos and Rui Pinto
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(4), 1629; https://doi.org/10.3390/app11041629 - 11 Feb 2021
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2285
Abstract
Background: Cynara cardunculus L. var. altilis (DC) is a plant generally associated as an ingredient in the Mediterranean diet. The polyphenols present in this plant provide pharmacological and nutritional properties. C. cardunculus L. has been used throughout animal studies, which demonstrated an anti-inflammatory [...] Read more.
Background: Cynara cardunculus L. var. altilis (DC) is a plant generally associated as an ingredient in the Mediterranean diet. The polyphenols present in this plant provide pharmacological and nutritional properties. C. cardunculus L. has been used throughout animal studies, which demonstrated an anti-inflammatory effect. Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a chronic inflammatory disorder of the gastrointestinal tract. Since there is not a known cure, the research of new possible pharmacological approaches is essential. This study aims to evaluate the effect of an aqueous extract of C. cardunculus L. dry leaves in a 2,4,6-Trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid (TNBS)-induced colitis model. Methods: CD-1 mice with TNBS-induced colitis received an intraperitoneal (IP) administration of C. cardunculus L. once per day for 4 days. Results: The C. cardunculus L. demonstrated a beneficial effect in this experimental model of IBD with anti-inflammatory action through the reduction of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α levels. It also demonstrated a beneficial influence on the extra-intestinal manifestations related to IBD, with the absence of significant side effects of its use. Conclusions: The extract of C. cardunculus L. dry leaves can become an interesting tool for new possible pharmacological approaches in the management of IBD. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Herbal Medicines and Their Beneficial Effect in Inflammatory Diseases)
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12 pages, 9945 KiB  
Article
Comparative Study of Anti-Inflammatory Effect on DSS-Induced Ulcerative Colitis Between Novel Glycyrrhiza Variety and Official Compendia
by Sa-Haeng Kang, Young-Jae Song, Yong-Deok Jeon, Dong-Keun Kim, Jeong-Hyang Park, Ju-Ryoun Soh, Jong-Hyun Lee, Christopher Kitalong, Wonnam Kim, Hyo-Jin An, Jae-Ki Chang, Jeonghoon Lee and Jong-Sik Jin
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(4), 1545; https://doi.org/10.3390/app11041545 - 8 Feb 2021
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2237
Abstract
Glycyrrhizae radix (GR), a plant commonly referred to as licorice, is used as a medicine and food worldwide. However, the utilization of GR from wild areas has caused desertification and a depletion of natural resources. Environmental restrictions and low productivity have limited plant [...] Read more.
Glycyrrhizae radix (GR), a plant commonly referred to as licorice, is used as a medicine and food worldwide. However, the utilization of GR from wild areas has caused desertification and a depletion of natural resources. Environmental restrictions and low productivity have limited plant cultivation. For this reason, an improved Glycyrrhiza variety, Wongam (WG), in cultivation and quality has been developed by Korea Rural Development Administration. To evaluate the equivalence of efficacy, several comparative studies between already-registered species and new cultivars have been conducted. This study evaluated the anti-inflammatory effect of WG extracts in a dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis model, in comparison to that of GR extracts. WG extract significantly improved the clinical signs of DSS-induced ulcerative colitis, including disease activity index, body weight loss, and colon length shortening, which was equivalent to the effect of GR. Furthermore, the fecal microbiota was analyzed by terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism. The composition of the fecal microbiota did not show a specific pattern based on experimental groups; however, a tendency toward an increase in the proportion of Lactobacillales was observed. These findings showed an equivalence of efficacy and the possible utilization of WG as a medicinal resource with already-registered species. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Herbal Medicines and Their Beneficial Effect in Inflammatory Diseases)
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19 pages, 4540 KiB  
Article
Attenuation of Colonic Injury and Inflammation by Administration of a Phenolic Extract of Summer Savory (Satureja hortensis L.) in Experimental Inflammatory Bowel Disease in Mice
by João Rocha, Raquel Leandro, Rosa Direito, Margarida Gonçalves, Maria Paula Duarte, Adelaide Fernandes, Bruno Sepodes and Maria-Eduardo Figueira
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(23), 8465; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10238465 - 27 Nov 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1844
Abstract
Summer Savory (Satureja hortensis L.) is a plant traditionally used as a food spice in the Mediterranean region. Surprisingly, not much is known about the health beneficial effects of its phenolic-rich extracts. The majority of publications have always focused on the properties [...] Read more.
Summer Savory (Satureja hortensis L.) is a plant traditionally used as a food spice in the Mediterranean region. Surprisingly, not much is known about the health beneficial effects of its phenolic-rich extracts. The majority of publications have always focused on the properties of their essential oil. One of the main phenolic compounds of Summer Savory is rosmarinic acid, which has demonstrated anti-inflammatory outcomes in several animal models of inflammatory-mediated diseases. Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD) is a chronic inflammatory disease, in addition to Ulcerative Colitis and Crohn’s Disease, frequently related with increased morbidity and even mortality due to the complications associated, including colorectal cancer. Our work has shown, to our knowledge, for the first time, that administration of a phenolic extract of Summer Savory in a mouse model of Ulcerative Colitis led to the reduction of several markers for intestinal injury, including reduction of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2 or prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase) expression, two well-known mediators of tissue inflammation and progression to cancer and led also to a reduction of the mortality. Given the chemical constitution found in the extract and the preclinical evidence of a beneficial effect of polyphenols in inflammatory processes, an opportunity arises for pharmacological modulation of pathways relevant for IBD and progression to cancer with phenolic-rich extracts. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Herbal Medicines and Their Beneficial Effect in Inflammatory Diseases)
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