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Advanced Analysis Techniques of Food Contaminants and Risk Assessment

A special issue of Applied Sciences (ISSN 2076-3417). This special issue belongs to the section "Food Science and Technology".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (15 October 2021) | Viewed by 20879

Special Issue Editors


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Chief Guest Editor
Chemistry Department, Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale della Puglia e della Basilicata, 71121 Foggia, Italy
Interests: food safety; food science and technology; analytical chemistry; analytical methods development
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

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Guest Editor
Dipartimento di Scienze Agrarie, Degli Alimenti e Dell’ambiente, Università Degli Studi di Foggia, Via Napoli 25, 71122 Foggia, Italy
Interests: food science and technology; analytical chemistry; food safety; mass spectrometry; analytical methods development

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

It is with great pleasure that I introduce you to a new Special Issue of Applied Sciences, which is dedicated to food safety, in particular, to food contaminant determination. This Special Issue is titled “Advanced Analysis Techniques of Food Contaminants and Risk Assessment”.

During the last several years, the attention of the scientific community involved in food safety studies has been focusing on the simultaneous presence of different chemical contaminants in the same food, the so-called “cocktail effect”.

Indeed, more than one contaminant may be present in the same food, and there are many interactions, among these, which can be hypothesized. These interactions may lead to the increase of toxicity, as well as to partial detoxification. All these effects have to be statistically evaluated before confirming an effective risk. Moreover, the range of food to take into account within these studies is very wide. Therefore, large amounts of data are needed.

Comprehensive and useful datasets maybe obtained more easily by using new approaches and new analytical procedures able to quickly and economically provide many parameters. The “green chemistry” perspective should also be taken into account for this purpose.

This Special Issue is focused on new chemical approaches in food safety controls. All papers dealing with new procedures, approaches, and technologies developed for the determination of contaminants in food are welcome. Manuscripts dealing with new statistical and bioinformatics tools in food safety, as well as risk assessment, monitoring, and other surveys dealing with food contaminants will also be considered.

Dr. Marco Iammarino
Dr. Carmen Palermo
Prof. Dr. Igor Tomasevic
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Applied Sciences is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2400 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • analytical method development
  • food contaminants
  • food control
  • food safety
  • risk assessment

Published Papers (9 papers)

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Editorial

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5 pages, 209 KiB  
Editorial
Advanced Analysis Techniques of Food Contaminants and Risk Assessment—Editorial
by Marco Iammarino, Carmen Palermo and Igor Tomasevic
Appl. Sci. 2022, 12(10), 4863; https://doi.org/10.3390/app12104863 - 11 May 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1443
Abstract
No one wants to eat food that is unsafe and that can put their health at risk in any way or form [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Analysis Techniques of Food Contaminants and Risk Assessment)

Research

Jump to: Editorial

11 pages, 1762 KiB  
Article
Determination of β-Agonists in Urine Samples at Low µg/kg Levels by Means of Pulsed Amperometric Detection at a Glassy Carbon Electrode Coupled with RP-LC
by Annalisa Mentana, Carmen Palermo and Diego Centonze
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(23), 11302; https://doi.org/10.3390/app112311302 - 29 Nov 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1411
Abstract
A method for the determination of β-agonists was developed by combining the separation of analytes through high-performance liquid chromatography, with a reversed-phase column, coupled to the pulsed amperometric detection at a glassy carbon electrode. Preliminary experiments, using cyclic voltammetry, allowed for an understanding [...] Read more.
A method for the determination of β-agonists was developed by combining the separation of analytes through high-performance liquid chromatography, with a reversed-phase column, coupled to the pulsed amperometric detection at a glassy carbon electrode. Preliminary experiments, using cyclic voltammetry, allowed for an understanding of the electrochemical behavior of clenbuterol, fenoterol, and terbutaline. By analyzing the electrochemical response, the conditions for detecting the analytes and for cleaning the working electrode were identified. The proposed potential-time profile was designed to prevent contamination of the carbon electrode following consecutive analyses, so ensuring a reproducible and sensitive quantitative determination. The waveform electrochemical parameters, including detection and delay times, have been optimized in terms of sensitivity, detection limits, and long-term response stability. The chromatographic separation was carried out using a C8 column in isocratic mode, and a mixture of acetic acid and acetonitrile. The optimized experimental conditions were used for the analysis of standard solutions and real samples. Detection limits, lower than the maximum residue limit set for clenbuterol by European directives, were obtained for all β-agonists investigated. The method validation was performed by evaluating the linearity, selectivity, precision, and recovery. Calf urine samples were used to verify the applicability of the proposed method, analyzing both enriched and naturally contaminated urine samples. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Analysis Techniques of Food Contaminants and Risk Assessment)
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13 pages, 1103 KiB  
Article
Pesticides Contamination of Cereals and Legumes: Monitoring of Samples Marketed in Italy as a Contribution to Risk Assessment
by Valeria Nardelli, Valeria D’Amico, Mariateresa Ingegno, Ines Della Rovere, Marco Iammarino, Francesco Casamassima, Anna Calitri, Donatella Nardiello, Donghao Li and Maurizio Quinto
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(16), 7283; https://doi.org/10.3390/app11167283 - 8 Aug 2021
Cited by 19 | Viewed by 3124
Abstract
The evaluation of cereal-based product contamination by pesticide residues is a topic of worldwide importance, and reliable analytical methods for official check analyses and monitoring studies are required for multi-residue analysis at trace levels. In this work, a validated multi-residual analytical method by [...] Read more.
The evaluation of cereal-based product contamination by pesticide residues is a topic of worldwide importance, and reliable analytical methods for official check analyses and monitoring studies are required for multi-residue analysis at trace levels. In this work, a validated multi-residual analytical method by gas-chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry coupled with a rapid QuEChERS procedure was used for the determination of 37 pesticides (pyrethroids, organophosphorus and organochlorine compounds) in 209 commercially available samples of cereals and 11 legumes, placed on the Italian market in 2018 and 2019, coming from different regions of Italy, eastern Europe, and some non-European countries. No pesticide traces were observed in the analyzed legume samples. A total of 18 cereal samples were found to be contaminated by at least one pesticide, with a concentration level higher than the corresponding quantification limit, but never exceeding the maximum level fixed in the European Regulations. This work is the first part of a surveillance study for pesticide control in food samples. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Analysis Techniques of Food Contaminants and Risk Assessment)
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14 pages, 1411 KiB  
Article
Toxicity Testing by the Microbial Assay for Risk Assessment (MARA) in Relation to Trace Elements Content in King Bolete (Boletus edulis) Collected in Several Sites of Poland
by Muhamad Alfiyan Zubaidi, Jędrzej Proch, Piotr Konieczny and Łukasz Tomczyk
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(9), 4166; https://doi.org/10.3390/app11094166 - 2 May 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2868
Abstract
Boletus edulis (King bolete) is one of the most consumed wild mushrooms on a global scale, but this is particularly the case in Poland. Several studies have reported that mushrooms accumulate many potentially toxic elements (PTEs) such as Hg, Pb, and Cd, which [...] Read more.
Boletus edulis (King bolete) is one of the most consumed wild mushrooms on a global scale, but this is particularly the case in Poland. Several studies have reported that mushrooms accumulate many potentially toxic elements (PTEs) such as Hg, Pb, and Cd, which may lead to adverse effects. Therefore, in this preliminary study, an assessment of the potential of a microbial assay for risk assessment (MARA) for ecotoxicological testing of both dried samples of fruiting bodies of King bolete collected from several sites of Poland and water extracts of mushrooms being tested were analyzed. An evaluation of MARA response in Boletus edulis extracts was performed to identify their toxicity and then, using the same samples, instrumental determination of 10 elements (Al, As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Ni, Pb, and Zn) was performed. In general, the MARA responses indicated that the samples were only slightly toxic or nontoxic. Similarly, most of the PTEs were not detected in all dried samples of the fruiting bodies of King bolete. However, the analysis of digested samples (total content) proved that the elements’ content in water extracts was markedly lower than in dried fruit bodies. It implies that the MARA test corresponded better to the elements that are well extracted in water. Therefore, the MARA system can be applied for toxic identification if the targeted toxin is highly extracted in water. Further and more detailed research is still needed to develop reliable approach in order to evaluate the ecotoxicity in food-related bio-based raw materials using the MARA assay. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Analysis Techniques of Food Contaminants and Risk Assessment)
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14 pages, 1106 KiB  
Article
ELISA and UPLC/FLD as Screening and Confirmatory Techniques for T-2/HT-2 Mycotoxin Determination in Cereals
by Paola D’Agnello, Valeria Vita, Cinzia Franchino, Luigi Urbano, Antonio Curiale, Francesca Debegnach, Marco Iammarino, Giuliana Marchesani, Antonio Eugenio Chiaravalle and Rita De Pace
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(4), 1688; https://doi.org/10.3390/app11041688 - 13 Feb 2021
Cited by 18 | Viewed by 2072
Abstract
T-2 and HT-2 toxins are secondary metabolites of various species of Fusarium. These molecules can have high potential toxic effects for human and animal health. In this work, ELISA and ultra performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection (UPLC/FLD) were implemented and validated [...] Read more.
T-2 and HT-2 toxins are secondary metabolites of various species of Fusarium. These molecules can have high potential toxic effects for human and animal health. In this work, ELISA and ultra performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection (UPLC/FLD) were implemented and validated as screening and confirmatory tests for the detection of these two toxins in cereal samples. The developed methods were tested by analyzing 100 samples of cereals by ELISA screening for reducing costs and analysis time and then using UPLC/FLD for confirmation purposes. Both methods met the performance criteria for sensitivity, linearity, selectivity, precision, and ruggedness, as reported in the European Decision No. 2002/657/EC and in Regulation (EC) No. 401/2006. The correlation between ELISA and UPLC/FLD approaches showed good results (r = 0.9056), confirming that these two techniques should be considered to be complementary in the official control activities of cereal and derived products. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Analysis Techniques of Food Contaminants and Risk Assessment)
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13 pages, 545 KiB  
Article
Assessment of Dietary Exposure and Risk of DDT Concerning Freshwater Fish Aquaculture
by Gyula Kasza, Tekla Izsó, Eszter Zita Csenki, Adrienn Micsinai, Brigitta Nyirő-Fekete, Béla Urbányi and Boglárka Alpár
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(24), 9083; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10249083 - 18 Dec 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2083
Abstract
Pesticides may accumulate in freshwater fish due to contamination from the environment. This paper reports on a risk assessment of DDT and DDT metabolites in carp. A survey was conducted about dietary habits among fish consumers. Cluster analysis was accomplished based on the [...] Read more.
Pesticides may accumulate in freshwater fish due to contamination from the environment. This paper reports on a risk assessment of DDT and DDT metabolites in carp. A survey was conducted about dietary habits among fish consumers. Cluster analysis was accomplished based on the frequency and amount of carp consumption. Classical and carcinogenic risk assessments were performed for the clusters. While DDT contamination was present, it was not found to be risky concerning the complete diet of the clusters (carcinogenic risk was also negligible), moreover, carp consumption did not contribute significantly to the risk level even in the case of the extreme consumers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Analysis Techniques of Food Contaminants and Risk Assessment)
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17 pages, 686 KiB  
Article
A 5-Years (2015–2019) Control Activity of an EU Laboratory: Contamination of Histamine in Fish Products and Exposure Assessment
by Sonia Lo Magro, Simona Summa, Marco Iammarino, Pasquale D’Antini, Giuliana Marchesani, Antonio Eugenio Chiaravalle and Marilena Muscarella
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(23), 8693; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10238693 - 4 Dec 2020
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 2065
Abstract
Histamine contamination was evaluated on 474 batches (3130 determinations) of fish products collected in Puglia and Basilicata (southern part of Italy) during the years 2015–2019, using a high-throughput two-tier approach involving a screening (ELISA test) and confirmatory method (HPLC/FLD with o-phthalaldehyde derivatization). Histamine [...] Read more.
Histamine contamination was evaluated on 474 batches (3130 determinations) of fish products collected in Puglia and Basilicata (southern part of Italy) during the years 2015–2019, using a high-throughput two-tier approach involving a screening (ELISA test) and confirmatory method (HPLC/FLD with o-phthalaldehyde derivatization). Histamine concentration >2.5 mg kg−1 was detected in 51% of total batches with the 2.5% of non-compliance. Except for two samples of fresh anchovies, all non-compliant samples were frozen, defrosted and canned tuna. Among 111 fresh tuna batches, 9 had a content of histamine between 393 and 5542 mg kg−1, and scombroid poisoning cases were observed after their consumption. Good quality canned tuna and ripened anchovies sold in Italy was observed. Furthermore, the analysis of the processing technology and storage practice critical points were reported in this study, with useful considerations to minimize the histamine risk for consumers. Finally, based on these results, several considerations about risk exposure were reported. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Analysis Techniques of Food Contaminants and Risk Assessment)
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15 pages, 463 KiB  
Article
Aflatoxins in Milk and Dairy Products: Occurrence and Exposure Assessment for the Serbian Population
by Ilija Djekic, Jelena Petrovic, Milica Jovetic, Azra Redzepovic-Djordjevic, Milica Stulic, Jose M. Lorenzo, Marco Iammarino and Igor Tomasevic
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(21), 7420; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10217420 - 22 Oct 2020
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 2493
Abstract
The main objective of this study was to assess the exposure associated with aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) of the adult population in Serbia from consumption of milk and dairy products. This assessment was performed using concentration values of AFM1 in raw milk (385 samples) [...] Read more.
The main objective of this study was to assess the exposure associated with aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) of the adult population in Serbia from consumption of milk and dairy products. This assessment was performed using concentration values of AFM1 in raw milk (385 samples) and dairy products (556 samples) based on the analyses conducted in the period between 2015 and 2018. In parallel, a dairy products consumption survey was completed during 2018 based on ‘one-day’ and ‘seven-day’ recall methods. In order to estimate the intake of AFM1 from the consumption of dairy products for both recall methods, a Monte Carlo simulation was conducted. The study revealed that pasteurized milk and yogurt are dairy products mostly consumed by the Serbian adult population. Estimated daily intake of AFM1 was in the range of 62–74 × 10−3 ng/kg bw/day, depending on the recall methods and scenarios employed. Although the results show moderate exposure risks compared to similar studies worldwide, climatic conditions and weather extremes that have occurred recently may have negatively influenced the contamination of feed and, consequently, AFM1 contamination of milk. As a result, it is justifiable to promote continuous monitoring in feed and dairy supply chains in Serbia and provide an update of exposure assessment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Analysis Techniques of Food Contaminants and Risk Assessment)
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15 pages, 1685 KiB  
Article
Self-Assembled Three-Dimensional Microporous rGO/PNT/Fe3O4 Hydrogel Sorbent for Magnetic Preconcentration of Multi-Residue Insecticides
by Sheng Wang, Xiuqin Li, Ming Li, Xianjiang Li, Xiaomin Li, Shuangqing Li, Qinghe Zhang and Hongmei Li
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(16), 5665; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10165665 - 15 Aug 2020
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 2072
Abstract
The purpose of this work was to develop a highly selective, sensitive, and reliable method for multi-residual analysis. A three-dimensional microporous reduced graphene oxide/polypyrrole nanotube/magnetite hydrogel (3D-rGOPFH) composite was synthesized and utilized as a magnetic solid-phase extraction (MSPE) sorbent to preconcentrate thirteen insecticides, [...] Read more.
The purpose of this work was to develop a highly selective, sensitive, and reliable method for multi-residual analysis. A three-dimensional microporous reduced graphene oxide/polypyrrole nanotube/magnetite hydrogel (3D-rGOPFH) composite was synthesized and utilized as a magnetic solid-phase extraction (MSPE) sorbent to preconcentrate thirteen insecticides, including five organophosphorus (isocarbophos, quinalphos, phorate, chlorpyrifos, and phosalone), two carbamates (pirimor and carbaryl), two triazoles (myclobutanil and diniconazole), two pyrethroids (lambda-cyhalothrin and bifenthrin), and two organochlorines (2, 4′-DDT and mirex), from vegetables, followed by gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. This method exhibited several major advantages, including simultaneous enrichment of different types of insecticides, no matrix effect, high sensitivity, and ease of operation. This is ascribed to the beneficial effects of 3D-rGOPFH, including the large specific surface (237 m2 g−1), multiple adsorption interactions (hydrogen bonding, electrostatic, π–π stacking and hydrophobic interaction force), appropriate pore size distribution (1–10 nm), and the good paramagnetic property. Under the optimal conditions, the analytical figures of merit were obtained as: linear dynamic range of 0.1–100 ng g−1 with determination coefficients of 0.9975–0.9998; limit of detections of 0.006–0.03 ng g−1; and the intra-day and inter-day relative standard deviations were 2.8–7.1% and 3.5–8.8%, respectively. Recoveries were within the range of 79.2 to 109.4% for tomato, cucumber, and pakchoi samples at the fortification levels of 5, 25, and 50 ng g−1. This effective and robust method can be applied for determining multi-classes of insecticide residues in vegetables. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Analysis Techniques of Food Contaminants and Risk Assessment)
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