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Applications of Advanced Imaging Technology in Biomedical Engineering

A special issue of Applied Sciences (ISSN 2076-3417). This special issue belongs to the section "Optics and Lasers".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 November 2021) | Viewed by 14201

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Center for Medical Physics and Biomedical Engineering, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna,1090, Austria
Interests: biomedical engineering; lasers; microscopy, fluorescence, multiphoton; molecular imaging; multimodal imaging; tomography, optical coherence
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Center for Medical Physics and Biomedical Engineering, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna,1090, Austria
Interests: fiber optic technology; lasers, solid-state; microscopy, confocal; microscopy, fluorescence, multiphoton; optical fibers; optical imaging; spectroscopy, raman; tomography, optical coherence
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Novel applications of advanced imaging technologies are emerging in the field of biomedical engineering. This Special Issue invites manuscript submissions in applications of advanced imaging technology in biomedical engineering. The emerging field of advanced imaging technology in biomedical engineering has opened up new prospects for applications. We aim to highlight recent progress and trends in developing leading-edge advanced imaging technologies and their application in biomedical engineering. The scope of the issue will cover all aspects of advanced imaging, including instrumentation, methodologies, and image processing that provide novel applications and means to investigate disease progression and therapies at cellular and sub-cellular resolution on a molecular level in 3D.

Specific topics include (but are not limited to) biomedical applications in the following areas:

  • Advanced imaging technologies including, but not limited to diffuse optical imaging, Terahertz imaging, optical coherence tomography, photoacoustic imaging, microscopy, coherent Raman scattering microspectroscopy, multiphoton microscopy
  • Advanced imaging analysis for disease detection and monitoring, including, but not limited to, MRI, CT, PET, ultrasound
  • Spectroscopy-based imaging including fluorescence, Raman, elastic scattering, evanescence wave, diffuse optical spectroscopy, Terahertz spectroscopy, near and mid infrared spectroscopy, diffuse correlation spectroscopy
  • Multi-modal imaging for diagnosis, treatment and prevention
  • Image-guided surgery, intervention and therapy
  • Emerging novel biomedical imaging technologies

Dr. Angelika Unterhuber
Dr. Marco Andreana
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Applied Sciences is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2400 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Biomedical application
  • Biomedical imaging and sensing
  • Tomography
  • Microscopy
  • Spectroscopy
  • Multimodal imaging

Published Papers (5 papers)

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Research

10 pages, 18172 KiB  
Article
Improved Protoporphyrin IX-Guided Neurosurgical Tumor Detection with Frequency-Domain Fluorescence Lifetime Imaging
by David Reichert, Mikael T. Erkkilae, Johanna Gesperger, Lisa I. Wadiura, Alexandra Lang, Thomas Roetzer-Pejrimovsky, Adelheid Woehrer, Marco Wilzbach, Christoph Hauger, Wolfgang Drexler, Barbara Kiesel, Georg Widhalm, Rainer A. Leitgeb, Angelika Unterhuber and Marco Andreana
Appl. Sci. 2022, 12(3), 1002; https://doi.org/10.3390/app12031002 - 19 Jan 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1496
Abstract
Precise intraoperative brain tumor visualization supports surgeons in achieving maximal safe resection. In this sense, improved prognosis in patients with high-grade gliomas undergoing protoporphyrin IX fluorescence-guided surgery has been demonstrated. Phase fluorescence lifetime imaging in the frequency-domain has shown promise to distinguish weak [...] Read more.
Precise intraoperative brain tumor visualization supports surgeons in achieving maximal safe resection. In this sense, improved prognosis in patients with high-grade gliomas undergoing protoporphyrin IX fluorescence-guided surgery has been demonstrated. Phase fluorescence lifetime imaging in the frequency-domain has shown promise to distinguish weak protoporphyrin IX fluorescence from competing endogenous tissue fluorophores, thus allowing for brain tumor detection with high sensitivity. In this work, we show that this technique can be further improved by minimizing the crosstalk of autofluorescence signal contributions when only detecting the fluorescence emission above 615 nm. Combining fluorescence lifetime and spectroscopic measurements on a set of 130 ex vivo brain tumor specimens (14 low- and 56 high-grade gliomas, 39 meningiomas and 21 metastases) coherently substantiated the resulting increase of the fluorescence lifetime with respect to the detection band employed in previous work. This is of major interest for obtaining a clear-cut distinction from the autofluorescence background of the physiological brain. In particular, the median fluorescence lifetime of low- and high-grade glioma specimens lacking visual fluorescence during surgical resection was increased from 4.7 ns to 5.4 ns and 2.9 ns to 3.3 ns, respectively. While more data are needed to create statistical evidence, the coherence of what was observed throughout all tumor groups emphasized that this optimization should be taken into account for future studies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Applications of Advanced Imaging Technology in Biomedical Engineering)
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19 pages, 4546 KiB  
Article
Dynamic OCT Signal Loss for Determining RPE Radiant Exposure Damage Thresholds in Microsecond Laser Microsurgery
by Christian Burri, Alessa Hutfilz, Lorenz Grimm, Simon Salzmann, Patrik Arnold, Boris Považay, Christoph Meier, Andreas Ebneter, Dirk Theisen-Kunde and Ralf Brinkmann
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(12), 5535; https://doi.org/10.3390/app11125535 - 15 Jun 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 3380
Abstract
Optical microsurgery of the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) requires reliable real-time dosimetry to prevent unwanted overexposure of the neuroretina. The system used in this experiment implements optical coherence tomography (OCT) to detect the intentional elimination of RPE cells. We evaluated the performance of [...] Read more.
Optical microsurgery of the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) requires reliable real-time dosimetry to prevent unwanted overexposure of the neuroretina. The system used in this experiment implements optical coherence tomography (OCT) to detect the intentional elimination of RPE cells. We evaluated the performance of OCT dosimetry in terms of its ability to detect RPE cell damage caused by microsecond laser pulses of varying duration. Therefore, ex-vivo porcine RPE choroid sclera explants were embedded in an artificial eye and exposed to single laser pulses of 2–20 µs duration (wavelength: 532 nm, exposure area: 120 × 120 µm2, intensity modulation factor: 1.3). Simultaneously, time-resolved OCT M-scans were recorded (central wavelength: 870 nm, scan rate: 33 kHz). Post-irradiation, RPE cell damage was quantified using a calcein-AM viability assay and compared with an OCT-dosimetry algorithm. The results of our experiments show that the OCT-based analysis successfully predicts RPE cell damage. At its optimal operating point, the algorithm achieved a sensitivity of 89% and specificity of 94% for pulses of 6 µs duration and demonstrated the ability to precisely control radiant exposure of a wide range of pulse durations towards selective real-time laser microsurgery. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Applications of Advanced Imaging Technology in Biomedical Engineering)
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21 pages, 4944 KiB  
Article
Design of a Multimodal Imaging System and Its First Application to Distinguish Grey and White Matter of Brain Tissue. A Proof-of-Concept-Study
by Annabell Heintz, Sebastian Sold, Felix Wühler, Julia Dyckow, Lucas Schirmer, Thomas Beuermann and Matthias Rädle
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(11), 4777; https://doi.org/10.3390/app11114777 - 23 May 2021
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2903
Abstract
Multimodal imaging gains increasing popularity for biomedical applications. This article presents the design of a novel multimodal imaging system. The centerpiece is a light microscope operating in the incident and transmitted light mode. Additionally, Raman spectroscopy and VIS/NIR reflectance spectroscopy are adapted. The [...] Read more.
Multimodal imaging gains increasing popularity for biomedical applications. This article presents the design of a novel multimodal imaging system. The centerpiece is a light microscope operating in the incident and transmitted light mode. Additionally, Raman spectroscopy and VIS/NIR reflectance spectroscopy are adapted. The proof-of-concept is realized to distinguish between grey matter (GM) and white matter (WM) of normal mouse brain tissue. Besides Raman and VIS/NIR spectroscopy, the following optical microscopy techniques are applied in the incident light mode: brightfield, darkfield, and polarization microscopy. To complement the study, brightfield images of a hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) stained cryosection in the transmitted light mode are recorded using the same imaging system. Data acquisition based on polarization microscopy and Raman spectroscopy gives the best results regarding the tissue differentiation of the unstained section. In addition to the discrimination of GM and WM, both modalities are suited to highlight differences in the density of myelinated axons. For Raman spectroscopy, this is achieved by calculating the sum of two intensity peak ratios (I2857 + I2888)/I2930 in the high-wavenumber region. For an optimum combination of the modalities, it is recommended to apply the molecule-specific but time-consuming Raman spectroscopy to smaller regions of interest, which have previously been identified by the microscopic modes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Applications of Advanced Imaging Technology in Biomedical Engineering)
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11 pages, 4239 KiB  
Article
Three-Dimension Resolution Enhanced Microscopy Based on Parallel Detection
by Zhimin Zhang, Shaocong Liu, Minfei He, Yuran Huang, Cuifang Kuang, Yubing Han, Xiang Hao and Xu Liu
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(6), 2837; https://doi.org/10.3390/app11062837 - 22 Mar 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1782
Abstract
Pixel reassignment image scanning microscopy (PRISM) is a useful tool to improve the resolution of confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) only equipped with a detector array. However, while it can improve the lateral resolution, it has little effect on the axial resolution. Here, [...] Read more.
Pixel reassignment image scanning microscopy (PRISM) is a useful tool to improve the resolution of confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) only equipped with a detector array. However, while it can improve the lateral resolution, it has little effect on the axial resolution. Here, new microscopy has been proposed which combines three-dimension fluorescence emission difference microscopy (3D FED) with PRISM to further improve three-dimension resolution. We call this method three-dimension pixel reassignment fluorescence emission difference microscopy (3D-PRFED). Detailed theoretical analysis and simulation are presented in this paper. Additionally, the performance of lateral and axial resolution improvement of this method has been demonstrated by imaging 100 nm fluorescent beads and nuclear pore complexes samples. Experiment results show that this method in our system can improve lateral resolution by a factor of 1.85 and axial resolution by a factor of 1.48 compared with CLSM. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Applications of Advanced Imaging Technology in Biomedical Engineering)
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19 pages, 18916 KiB  
Article
Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography Monitors Cutaneous Wound Healing under Angiogenesis-Promoting Treatment in Diabetic and Non-Diabetic Mice
by Martin Pfister, Kornelia Schützenberger, Bhavapriya J. Schäfer, Stefan Puchner, Hannes Stegmann, Christine Hohenadl, Michael Mildner, Gerhard Garhöfer, Leopold Schmetterer and René M. Werkmeister
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(5), 2447; https://doi.org/10.3390/app11052447 - 9 Mar 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 3166
Abstract
During wound healing, the rapid re-establishment of a functional microcirculation in the wounded tissue is of utmost importance. We applied optical coherence tomography (OCT) angiography to evaluate vascular remodeling in an excisional wound model in the pinnae of C57BL/6 and db/db mice receiving [...] Read more.
During wound healing, the rapid re-establishment of a functional microcirculation in the wounded tissue is of utmost importance. We applied optical coherence tomography (OCT) angiography to evaluate vascular remodeling in an excisional wound model in the pinnae of C57BL/6 and db/db mice receiving different proangiogenic topical treatments. Analysis of the high-resolution OCT angiograms, including the four quantitative parameters vessel density, vessel length, number of bifurcations, and vessel tortuosity, revealed changes of the microvasculature and allowed identification of the overlapping wound healing phases hemostasis, inflammation, proliferation, and remodeling. Angiograms acquired in the inflammatory phase in the first days showed a dilation of vessels and recruitment of pre-existing capillaries. In the proliferative phase, angiogenesis with the sprouting of new capillaries into the wound tissue led to an increase of the OCT angiography parameters vessel density, normalized vessel length, number of bifurcations, and vessel tortuosity by 28–47%, 39–52%, 33–48%, and 3–8% versus baseline, respectively. After the peak observed on study days four to seven, the parameters slowly decreased but remained still elevated 18 days after wounding, indicating a continuing remodeling phase. Our study suggests that OCT angiography has the potential to serve as a valuable preclinical research tool in studies investigating impaired vascular remodeling during wound healing and potential new treatment strategies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Applications of Advanced Imaging Technology in Biomedical Engineering)
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