Roles of Xanthine Oxidoreductase Activities and Products in Physiological and Pathological

A special issue of Antioxidants (ISSN 2076-3921). This special issue belongs to the section "Antioxidant Enzyme Systems".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 15 June 2024 | Viewed by 1004

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Guest Editor
Alma Mater Studiorum, University of Bologna, 40126 Bologna, Italy
Interests: xanthine oxidoreductase; xanthine oxidase; xanthine dehydrogenase

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Guest Editor
Department of Medical and Surgical Sciences-DIMEC, General Pathology Section, Alma Mater Studiorum University of Bologna, 40126 Bologna, Italy
Interests: Xanthine oxidoreductase; oxidative stress; uric acid; nitric oxide; cytotoxicity; plant toxin; rRNA glycosylase; immunotoxin; targeted therapy; anti-tumour therapy
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Dear Colleagues,

Human xanthine oxidoreductase (XOR) is produced by cells as a dehydrogenase (XDH), but it can be converted in vivo into an oxidase (XO). Both activities catalyze the last two steps in the purine catabolism process, generating uric acid and either NADH or reactive oxygen species (ROS). XOR can also act as an NADH oxidase that produces ROS and as a nitrite reductase that generates nitric oxide (NO).

Uric acid is a fundamental antioxidant molecule in serum. In addition, it is recognized by macrophages as a damage-associated molecular pattern, has a neurostimulator effect, supports blood pressure, and promotes fat accumulation. XOR-produced ROS and NO play a physiological role in signal transduction by contributing to vasodilation and the regulation of blood pressure. In addition, these XOR products trigger a microvascular inflammatory response and are essential for the cytocidal activity of leukocytes as well as the control of intestinal bacterial flora.

However, an increased amount of serum XOR has been reported in various liver pathologies and, in turn, can be responsible for oxidative stress. Hyperuricemia often leads to gout and is involved in hypertension, which promotes cardiovascular, kidney, and metabolic diseases, which are also fostered by oxidative stress. The implications of XOR activities and products have been suggested in chronic inflammation and the aging process, as well as in tumor transformation and progression.

Various drugs are available to inhibit XOR activity or simply lower uricemia, but the effects of these drugs are still uncertain. Currently, more specific multivariate meta-analyses are needed to evaluate when and which urate-lowering therapy can be recommended.

We would like to invite you to submit your latest research findings, clinical studies, or review articles to this Special Issue focusing on the biology of XOR and the involvement of its products in human pathology, as well as the pharmacological control of its activity.

Prof. Dr. Maria Giulia Battelli
Prof. Dr. Andrea Bolognesi
Guest Editors

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Keywords

  • cancer
  • endothelium dysfunction
  • hyperuricemia
  • inflammation
  • nitric oxide
  • oxidative stress
  • reactive oxygen species
  • uric acid
  • xanthine dehydrogenase
  • xanthine oxidase
  • xanthine oxidoreductase

Published Papers (1 paper)

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Review

14 pages, 1679 KiB  
Review
Gender Influence on XOR Activities and Related Pathologies: A Narrative Review
by Andrea Bolognesi, Massimo Bortolotti, Maria Giulia Battelli and Letizia Polito
Antioxidants 2024, 13(2), 211; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox13020211 - 07 Feb 2024
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Abstract
Taking into account the patient’s gender is the first step towards more precise and egalitarian medicine. The gender-related divergences observed in purine catabolism and their pathological consequences are good examples of gender medicine differences. Uric acid is produced by the activity of xanthine [...] Read more.
Taking into account the patient’s gender is the first step towards more precise and egalitarian medicine. The gender-related divergences observed in purine catabolism and their pathological consequences are good examples of gender medicine differences. Uric acid is produced by the activity of xanthine oxidoreductase (XOR). The serum levels of both XOR activity and uric acid differ physiologically between the genders, being higher in men than in women. Their higher levels have been associated with gout and hypertension, as well as with vascular, cardiac, renal, and metabolic diseases. The present review analyzes the gender-related differences in these pathological conditions in relation to increases in the serum levels of XOR and/or uric acid and the opportunity for gender-driven pharmacological treatment. Full article
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