Dietary Antioxidants and Gut Health

A special issue of Antioxidants (ISSN 2076-3921). This special issue belongs to the section "Health Outcomes of Antioxidants and Oxidative Stress".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (29 February 2024) | Viewed by 23425

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Faculty of Animal Science, Institute of Animal Sciences, Warsaw University of Life Sciences, Ciszewskiego 8 St., bldg. 23, 02-786 Warsaw, Poland
Interests: animal nutrition; bioactive compounds; gastrointestinal tract; microbial activity

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Guest Editor
Animal Nutrition, Life Sciences, Graduate School of Agricultural Science, Tohoku University, 468-1 Aramaki Aza-Aoba, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8572, Japan
Interests: mitochondria; phytochemicals; intestinal/systemic inflammation; protein metabolism; metabolism
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Under normal conditions, reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS) are produced in gastrointestinal epithelial cells—either from oxygen metabolism or enteric commensal bacteria—and contribute to regulating gut health. However, elevated production of ROS/RNS increases further harmful free radical production and antioxidant activity, and imbalances in both lead to oxidative stress. Oxidative stress can also arise from nutritional, environmental (like heat stress), and pathological factors.

Supplementation of antioxidants (vitamins and plant extract having antioxidant properties) scavenge ROS/RNS and are beneficial in mitigating oxidative stress in the gut. This, in turn, translates into the proper functioning of the body, reducing the risk of metabolic, inflammatory, and neurodegenerative diseases.

We encourage you to submit the results of your latest research or a review article toward updating knowledge on antioxidants of dietary origin and the key role they play in the physiology of the gastrointestinal tract, including in regulation of microbiota.

We envisage that this Special Issue, “Dietary Antioxidants and Gut Health”, will help highlight the latest advances in aspects related to the interaction between these reactive species, as beneficial nutrients, and the gastrointestinal tract.

Dr. Marcin Taciak
Dr. Motoi Kikusato
Guest Editors

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Keywords

  •  dietary antioxidants
  •  gastrointestinal tract
  •  epithelial cells
  •  microbiota
  •  inflammation
  •  digestion ability

Published Papers (13 papers)

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Research

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20 pages, 3445 KiB  
Article
The Effects of Dietary Silybin Supplementation on the Growth Performance and Regulation of Intestinal Oxidative Injury and Microflora Dysbiosis in Weaned Piglets
by Long Cai, Ge Gao, Chenggang Yin, Rong Bai, Yanpin Li, Wenjuan Sun, Yu Pi, Xianren Jiang and Xilong Li
Antioxidants 2023, 12(11), 1975; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox12111975 - 7 Nov 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1504
Abstract
Oxidative stress is the major incentive for intestinal dysfunction in weaned piglets, which usually leads to growth retardation or even death. Silybin has caught extensive attention due to its antioxidant properties. Herein, we investigated the effect of dietary silybin supplementation on growth performance [...] Read more.
Oxidative stress is the major incentive for intestinal dysfunction in weaned piglets, which usually leads to growth retardation or even death. Silybin has caught extensive attention due to its antioxidant properties. Herein, we investigated the effect of dietary silybin supplementation on growth performance and determined its protective effect on paraquat (PQ)-induced intestinal oxidative damage and microflora dysbiosis in weaned piglets. In trial 1, a total of one hundred twenty healthy weaned piglets were randomly assigned into five treatments with six replicate pens per treatment and four piglets per pen, where they were fed basal diets supplemented with silybin at 0, 50, 100, 200, or 400 mg/kg for 42 days. In trial 2, a total of 24 piglets were randomly allocated to two dietary treatments with 12 replicates per treatment and 1 piglet per pen: a basal diet or adding 400 mg/kg silybin to a basal diet. One-half piglets in each treatment were given an intraperitoneal injection of paraquat (4 mg/kg of body weight) or sterile saline on day 18. All piglets were euthanized on day 21 for sample collection. The results showed that dietary supplementation with 400 mg/kg silybin resulted in a lower feed conversion ratio, diarrhea incidence, and greater antioxidant capacity in weaned piglets. Dietary silybin enhanced intestinal antioxidant capacity and mitochondrial function in oxidative stress piglets induced by PQ. Silybin inhibited mitochondria-associated endogenous apoptotic procedures and then improved the intestinal barrier function and morphology of PQ-challenged piglets. Moreover, silybin improved intestinal microbiota dysbiosis induced by the PQ challenge by enriching short-chain fatty-acid-producing bacteria, which augmented the production of acetate and propionate. Collectively, these findings indicated that dietary silybin supplementation linearly decreased feed conversion ratio and reduced diarrhea incidence in normal conditions, and effectively alleviated oxidative stress-induced mitochondrial dysfunction, intestinal damage, and microflora dysbiosis in weaned piglets. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Antioxidants and Gut Health)
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11 pages, 1970 KiB  
Article
Postbiotic Preparation of Lacticaseibacillus rhamnosus GG against Diarrhea and Oxidative Stress Induced by Spike Protein of SARS-CoV-2 in Human Enterocytes
by Marco Poeta, Valentina Cioffi, Antonietta Tarallo, Carla Damiano, Andrea Lo Vecchio, Eugenia Bruzzese, Giancarlo Parenti and Alfredo Guarino
Antioxidants 2023, 12(10), 1878; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox12101878 - 19 Oct 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1242
Abstract
The Spike protein of SARS-CoV-2 acts as an enterotoxin able to induce chloride secretion and production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), involved in diarrhea pathogenesis. L. rhamnosus GG (LGG) is recommended in pediatric acute gastroenteritis guidelines as a therapy independent of infectious etiology. [...] Read more.
The Spike protein of SARS-CoV-2 acts as an enterotoxin able to induce chloride secretion and production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), involved in diarrhea pathogenesis. L. rhamnosus GG (LGG) is recommended in pediatric acute gastroenteritis guidelines as a therapy independent of infectious etiology. We tested a postbiotic preparation of LGG (mLGG) in an in vitro model of COVID-associated diarrhea. Caco-2 cell monolayers mounted in Ussing chambers were exposed to Spike protein, and electrical parameters of secretory effect (Isc and TEER) were recorded in the Ussing chambers system. Oxidative stress was analyzed by measuring ROS production (DCFH-DA), GSH levels (DNTB), and lipid peroxidation (TBARS). Experiments were repeated after mLGG pretreatment of cells. The Isc increase induced by Spike was consistent with the secretory diarrhea pattern, which was dependent on oxidative stress defined by a 2-fold increase in ROS production and lipid peroxidation and variation in glutathione levels. mLGG pretreatment significantly reduced the secretory effect (p = 0.002) and oxidative stress, namely ROS (p < 0.001), lipid peroxidation (p < 0.001), and glutathione level changes (p < 0.001). LGG counteracts Spike-induced diarrhea by inhibiting the enterotoxic effect and oxidative stress. The LGG efficacy in the form of a postbiotic depends on metabolites secreted in the medium with antioxidant properties similar to NAC. Because SARS-CoV-2 is an enteric pathogen, the efficacy of LGG independent of etiology in the treatment of acute gastroenteritis is confirmed by our data. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Antioxidants and Gut Health)
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16 pages, 2393 KiB  
Article
Dietary Taurine Improves Growth Performance and Intestine Health via the GSH/GSSG Antioxidant System and Nrf2/ARE Signaling Pathway in Weaned Piglets
by Lingang Wang, Liwen Jiang, Yunyun Chu, Fu Feng, Wenjie Tang, Chen Chen, Yibin Qiu, Zhijin Hu, Hui Diao and Zhiru Tang
Antioxidants 2023, 12(10), 1852; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox12101852 - 12 Oct 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1177
Abstract
Early weaning of piglets was prone to increase reactive oxygen species, disrupt the redox balance, decrease antioxidant capacity, cause oxidative stress and intestinal oxidative damage, and lead to diarrhea in piglets. This research aimed to study dietary taurine (Tau) supplementation at a level [...] Read more.
Early weaning of piglets was prone to increase reactive oxygen species, disrupt the redox balance, decrease antioxidant capacity, cause oxidative stress and intestinal oxidative damage, and lead to diarrhea in piglets. This research aimed to study dietary taurine (Tau) supplementation at a level relieving intestinal oxidative damage in early-weaned piglets. A total of 48 piglets were assigned to four groups of 12 individuals and fed a basal diet with 0.0% Tau (CON), 0.2% Tau (L-Tau), 0.3% Tau (M-Tau), or 0.4% Tau (H-Tau), respectively. The animal experiment lasted 30 days. The final weight, weight gain, average daily gain, and feed conversion rate increased with the increase in dietary Tau (Linear, p < 0.05; Quadratic p < 0.05), while the diarrhea index of piglets decreased with the increase in dietary Tau (Linear, p < 0.05). Serum malondialdehyde, nitric oxide (NO), D-lactose, and oxidized glutathione (GSSG) concentrations decreased with the increase in dietary Tau (Linear, p < 0.05). The O2•− and OH clearance rate in serum, liver, and jejunum mucosa increased with the increase in dietary Tau (Linear, p < 0.05). Serum superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, glutathione peroxidase (GPX) activity, catalase (CAT) activity, and peroxidase (POD) activity and total antioxidant capacity increased with the increase in dietary Tau (Linear, p < 0.05). The serum glutathione (GSH) concentration and the ratio of GSH to GSSG increased with the increase in dietary Tau (Linear, p < 0.05). The POD and glutathione synthase activity in the liver and jejunum mucosa increased with the increase in dietary Tau (Linear, p < 0.05). The mRNA abundances of HO-1 and GPX1 in the H-Tau group were higher than that in the L-Tau, M-Tau, and CON groups (p < 0.05). The mRNA abundances of SOD1 and Nrf2 in the M-Tau and H-Tau groups were higher than in the L-Tau and CON groups (p < 0.05). The mRNA abundance of SOD2 in the L-Tau, M-Tau, and H-Tau groups was higher than in the CON group (p < 0.05). The VH and the ratio of VH to CD of jejunum and ileum increased with the increase in dietary Tau (Linear, p < 0.05). The mRNA abundances of occludens 1 and claudin 1 in the H-Tau group were higher than that in the CON, L-Tau, and M-Tau (p < 0.05). The mRNA abundance of occludin in the L-Tau, M-Tau, and H-Tau groups was higher than that in CON (p < 0.05). The abundance of Firmicutes increased with the increase in dietary Tau (Linear, p < 0.05), while Proteobacteria and Spirochaetota decreased with the increase in dietary Tau (Linear, p < 0.05). Collectively, dietary supplementation of 0.3% and 0.4% Tau in feed could significantly improve the growth performance and enhance the antioxidant capacity of piglets. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Antioxidants and Gut Health)
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23 pages, 2019 KiB  
Article
Maternal Supplementation of Vitamin E or Its Combination with Hydroxytyrosol Increases the Gut Health and Short Chain Fatty Acids of Piglets at Weaning
by Hernan D. Laviano, Gerardo Gómez, Rosa Escudero, Yolanda Nuñez, Juan M. García-Casco, María Muñoz, Ana Heras-Molina, Clemente López-Bote, Antonio González-Bulnes, Cristina Óvilo and Ana I. Rey
Antioxidants 2023, 12(9), 1761; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox12091761 - 13 Sep 2023
Viewed by 1047
Abstract
An adequate intestinal environment before weaning may contribute to diarrhea predisposition and piglet development. This study evaluates how the dietary supplementation of vitamin E (VE) (100 mg/kg), hydroxytyrosol (HXT) (1.5 mg/kg) or the combined administration (VE + HXT) given to Iberian sows from [...] Read more.
An adequate intestinal environment before weaning may contribute to diarrhea predisposition and piglet development. This study evaluates how the dietary supplementation of vitamin E (VE) (100 mg/kg), hydroxytyrosol (HXT) (1.5 mg/kg) or the combined administration (VE + HXT) given to Iberian sows from gestation affects the piglet’s faecal characteristics, short chain fatty acids (SCFAs), fatty acid profile or intestinal morphology as indicators of gut health; and quantify the contribution of the oxidative status and colostrum/milk composition to the piglet’s SCFAs content and intestinal health. Dietary VE increased isobutyric acid (iC4), butyric acid (C4), isovaleric acid (iC5), and ∑SCFAs, whereas HXT increased iC4 and tended to decrease ∑SCFAs of faeces. Piglets from HXT-supplemented sows also tended to have higher faecal C20:4n-6/C20:2 ratio C22:6 proportion and showed lower occludin gene expression in the duodenum. The combination of both antioxidants had a positive effect on iC4 and iC5 levels. Correlation analyses and regression equations indicate that faecal SCFAs were related to oxidative status (mainly plasma VE) and colostrum and milk composition (mainly C20:2, C20:3, C20:4 n-6). This study would confirm the superiority of VE over HXT supplementation to improve intestinal homeostasis, gut health, and, consequently piglet growth. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Antioxidants and Gut Health)
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15 pages, 3329 KiB  
Article
PrC-210 Protects against Radiation-Induced Hematopoietic and Intestinal Injury in Mice and Reduces Oxidative Stress
by Vidya P. Kumar, Shukla Biswas, Gregory P. Holmes-Hampton, Torsten Goesch, William Fahl and Sanchita P. Ghosh
Antioxidants 2023, 12(7), 1417; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox12071417 - 13 Jul 2023
Viewed by 1153
Abstract
The development of safe, orally available, and effective prophylactic countermeasures to protect our warfighters is an unmet need because there is no such FDA-approved countermeasure available for use. Th 1-Propanethiol, 3-(methylamino)-2-((methylamino)methyl) (PrC-210), a synthetic small molecule, is a member of a new family [...] Read more.
The development of safe, orally available, and effective prophylactic countermeasures to protect our warfighters is an unmet need because there is no such FDA-approved countermeasure available for use. Th 1-Propanethiol, 3-(methylamino)-2-((methylamino)methyl) (PrC-210), a synthetic small molecule, is a member of a new family of aminothiols designed to reduce toxicity while scavenging reactive oxygen species (ROS). Our study investigated the protective role of a single oral administration of PrC-210 against radiation-induced hematopoietic and intestinal injury in mice. Pre-treatment with PrC-210 significantly improved the survival of mice exposed to a lethal dose of radiation. Our findings indicated that the radioprotective properties of PrC-210 are achieved by accelerating the recovery of the hematopoietic system, stimulating bone marrow progenitor cells, and ameliorating additional biomarkers of hematopoietic injury. PrC-210 pre-treatment reduced intestinal injury in mice exposed to a lethal dose of radiation by restoring jejunal crypts and villi, reducing translocation of bacteria to the spleen, maintaining citrulline levels, and reducing the sepsis marker serum amyloid A (SAA) in serum. Finally, PrC-210 pre-treatment led to a significant reduction (~10 fold) of Nos2 expression (inducible nitric oxide) in the spleen and decreased oxidative stress by enhancing the antioxidant defense system. These data support the further development of PrC-210 to receive approval from the FDA to protect warfighters and first responders from exposure to the harmful effects of ionizing radiation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Antioxidants and Gut Health)
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23 pages, 3960 KiB  
Article
Simulated Gastrointestinal Digestion of Chestnut (Castanea sativa Mill.) Shell Extract Prepared by Subcritical Water Extraction: Bioaccessibility, Bioactivity, and Intestinal Permeability by In Vitro Assays
by Diana Pinto, Ana Margarida Silva, Stefano Dall’Acqua, Stefania Sut, Anna Vallverdú-Queralt, Cristina Delerue-Matos and Francisca Rodrigues
Antioxidants 2023, 12(7), 1414; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox12071414 - 12 Jul 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1550
Abstract
Chestnut shells (CSs) are an appealing source of bioactive molecules, and constitute a popular research topic. This study explores the effects of in vitro gastrointestinal digestion and intestinal permeability on the bioaccessibility and bioactivity of polyphenols from CS extract prepared by subcritical water [...] Read more.
Chestnut shells (CSs) are an appealing source of bioactive molecules, and constitute a popular research topic. This study explores the effects of in vitro gastrointestinal digestion and intestinal permeability on the bioaccessibility and bioactivity of polyphenols from CS extract prepared by subcritical water extraction (SWE). The results unveiled higher phenolic concentrations retained after gastric and intestinal digestion. The bioaccessibility and antioxidant/antiradical properties were enhanced in the following order: oral < gastric ≤ intestinal digests, attaining 40% of the maximum bioaccessibility. Ellagic acid was the main polyphenol in the digested and undigested extract, while pyrogallol–protocatechuic acid derivative was only quantified in the digests. The CS extract revealed potential mild hypoglycemic (<25%) and neuroprotective (<75%) properties before and after in vitro digestion, along with upmodulating the antioxidant enzymes’ activities and downregulating the lipid peroxidation. The intestinal permeation of ellagic acid achieved 22.89% after 240 min. This study highlighted the efficacy of the CS extract on the delivery of polyphenols, sustaining its promising use as nutraceutical ingredient. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Antioxidants and Gut Health)
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21 pages, 2830 KiB  
Article
Glutamine Starvation Affects Cell Cycle, Oxidative Homeostasis and Metabolism in Colorectal Cancer Cells
by Martina Spada, Cristina Piras, Giulia Diana, Vera Piera Leoni, Daniela Virginia Frau, Gabriele Serreli, Gabriella Simbula, Roberto Loi, Antonio Noto, Federica Murgia, Paola Caria and Luigi Atzori
Antioxidants 2023, 12(3), 683; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox12030683 - 10 Mar 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2733
Abstract
Cancer cells adjust their metabolism to meet energy demands. In particular, glutamine addiction represents a distinctive feature of several types of tumors, including colorectal cancer. In this study, four colorectal cancer cell lines (Caco-2, HCT116, HT29 and SW480) were cultured with or without [...] Read more.
Cancer cells adjust their metabolism to meet energy demands. In particular, glutamine addiction represents a distinctive feature of several types of tumors, including colorectal cancer. In this study, four colorectal cancer cell lines (Caco-2, HCT116, HT29 and SW480) were cultured with or without glutamine. The growth and proliferation rate, colony-forming capacity, apoptosis, cell cycle, redox homeostasis and metabolomic analysis were evaluated by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide test (MTT), flow cytometry, high-performance liquid chromatography and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry techniques. The results show that glutamine represents an important metabolite for cell growth and that its deprivation reduces the proliferation of colorectal cancer cells. Glutamine depletion induces cell death and cell cycle arrest in the GO/G1 phase by modulating energy metabolism, the amino acid content and antioxidant defenses. Moreover, the combined glutamine starvation with the glycolysis inhibitor 2-deoxy-D-glucose exerted a stronger cytotoxic effect. This study offers a strong rationale for targeting glutamine metabolism alone or in combination with glucose metabolism to achieve a therapeutic benefit in the treatment of colon cancer. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Antioxidants and Gut Health)
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15 pages, 992 KiB  
Article
Dietary L-Arginine or N-Carbamylglutamate Alleviates Colonic Barrier Injury, Oxidative Stress, and Inflammation by Modulation of Intestinal Microbiota in Intrauterine Growth-Retarded Suckling Lambs
by Hao Zhang, Yi Zheng, Xia Zha, Yi Ma, Xiaoyun Liu, Mabrouk Elsabagh, Hongrong Wang and Mengzhi Wang
Antioxidants 2022, 11(11), 2251; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox11112251 - 15 Nov 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1719
Abstract
Our previous studies have revealed that dietary N-carbamylglutamate (NCG) and L-arginine (Arg) supplementation improves redox status and suppresses apoptosis in the colon of suckling Hu lambs with intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR). However, no studies have reported the function of Arg or NCG in [...] Read more.
Our previous studies have revealed that dietary N-carbamylglutamate (NCG) and L-arginine (Arg) supplementation improves redox status and suppresses apoptosis in the colon of suckling Hu lambs with intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR). However, no studies have reported the function of Arg or NCG in the colonic microbial communities, barrier function, and inflammation in IUGR-suckling lambs. This work aimed to further investigate how dietary Arg or NCG influences the microbiota, barrier function, and inflammation in the colon of IUGR lambs. Forty-eight newborn Hu lambs of 7 d old were assigned to four treatment groups (n = 12 per group; six male, six female) as follows: CON (normal birth weight, 4.25 ± 0.14 kg), IUGR (3.01 ± 0.12 kg), IUGR + Arg (2.99 ± 0.13 kg), and IUGR + NCG (3.03 ± 0.11 kg). A total of 1% Arg or 0.1% NCG was supplemented in a basal diet of milk replacer, respectively. Lambs were fed the milk replacer for 21 d until 28 d after birth. Compared to the non-supplemented IUGR lambs, the transepithelial electrical resistance (TER) was higher, while fluorescein isothiocyanate dextran 4 kDa (FD4) was lower in the colon of the NCG- or Arg-supplemented IUGR lambs (p < 0.05). The IUGR lambs exhibited higher (p < 0.05) colonic interleukin (IL)-6, IL-1β, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, reactive oxygen species (ROS), and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels than the CON lambs; the detrimental effects of IUGR on colonic proinflammatory cytokine concentrations and redox status were counteracted by dietary Arg or NCG supplementation. Both IUGR + Arg and IUGR + NCG lambs exhibited an elevated protein and mRNA expression of Occludin, Claudin-1, and zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1) compared to the IUGR lambs (p < 0.05). Additionally, the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) concentration was decreased while the levels of acetate, butyrate, and propionate were increased in IUGR + Arg and IUGR + NCG lambs compared to the IUGR lambs (p < 0.05). The relative abundance of Clostridium, Lactobacillus, and Streptococcus was lower in the colonic mucosa of the IUGR lambs than in the CON lambs (p < 0.05) but was restored upon the dietary supplementation of Arg or NCG to the IUGR lambs (p < 0.05). Both Arg and NCG can alleviate colonic barrier injury, oxidative stress (OS), and inflammation by the modulation of colonic microbiota in IUGR-suckling lambs. This work contributes to improving knowledge about the crosstalk among gut microbiota, immunity, OS, and barrier function and emphasizes the potential of Arg or NCG in health enhancement as feed additives in the early life nutrition of ruminants. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Antioxidants and Gut Health)
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15 pages, 4297 KiB  
Article
Effects of Quercetin on the Intestinal Microflora of Freshwater Dark Sleeper Odontobutis potamophila
by Chenxi Zhu, Guoxing Liu, Xiankun Gu, Tongqing Zhang, Aijun Xia, You Zheng, Jiawen Yin, Mingming Han and Qichen Jiang
Antioxidants 2022, 11(10), 2015; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox11102015 - 12 Oct 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1620
Abstract
Flavonoids have antimicrobial and anti-oxidation properties. The effects of the flavonoid quercetin on the intestinal microflora of freshwater dark sleeper Odontobutis potamophila were tested for the first time. Odontobutis potamophila juveniles were treated with quercetin for 21 days at one of three concentrations [...] Read more.
Flavonoids have antimicrobial and anti-oxidation properties. The effects of the flavonoid quercetin on the intestinal microflora of freshwater dark sleeper Odontobutis potamophila were tested for the first time. Odontobutis potamophila juveniles were treated with quercetin for 21 days at one of three concentrations (2.5, 5.0, or 10.0 mg/L) and compared with a control group that was not treated with quercetin. Quercetin improved the stability of the intestinal flora in O. potamophila and the probiotic bacteria Bacillus spp. and Lactobacillus spp. increased in species abundance after the low concentration quercetin treatments. Furthermore, the abundance of pathogenic bacteria Plesiomonas spp., Aeromonas spp., and Shewanella spp. decreased after the fish had been exposed to quercetin. Activity of hepatic antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase, SOD), (glutathione S-transferase, GST), (glutathione peroxidase, GSH-Px), and (total antioxidant capacity, T-AOC) increased in the livers of O. potamophila treated with quercetin, thereby increasing their hepatic antioxidant capacity and their ability to scavenge free radicals. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Antioxidants and Gut Health)
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16 pages, 2330 KiB  
Article
Impact of Dietary Lavender Essential Oil on the Growth and Fatty Acid Profile of Breast Muscles, Antioxidant Activity, and Inflammatory Responses in Broiler Chickens
by Shimaa A. Amer, Ahmed A. A. Abdel-Wareth, Ahmed Gouda, Gehan K. Saleh, Arwa H. Nassar, Wafaa R. I. A. Sherief, Sarah Albogami, Shimaa I. Shalaby, Aaser M. Abdelazim and Mosleh Mohammad Abomughaid
Antioxidants 2022, 11(9), 1798; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox11091798 - 13 Sep 2022
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 2548
Abstract
This study aimed to investigate the impact of dietary addition of lavender essential oil (Lavandula angustifolia L.) (LEO) on the growth performance, tissue histoarchitecture, and fatty acid profile in breast muscles, as well as blood biochemistry and immune expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines [...] Read more.
This study aimed to investigate the impact of dietary addition of lavender essential oil (Lavandula angustifolia L.) (LEO) on the growth performance, tissue histoarchitecture, and fatty acid profile in breast muscles, as well as blood biochemistry and immune expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines of broiler chickens. A total of 200 three-day-old broiler chickens (average body weight 101.3 ± 0.24 g) were assigned to a completely randomized design consisting of four dietary treatments (n = 50 per treatment, each replicate consisting of 10 birds) that included lavender essential oil at concentrations of 0 (control group), 200, 400, and 600 mg Kg−1 diet. The experiment lasted for 35 days. The results revealed that supplementation of lavender essential oil at 200, 400, or 600 mg/kg in broiler diets had no effect (p > 0.05) on the growth performance throughout the experimental periods (3–10, 11–23, and 24–35 days of age). According to the broken line regression model, the optimal level for dietary LEO addition was the 460 mg kg−1 diet based on the total body weight gain and feed conversion ratio results. The diets supplemented with lavender essential oil had no effect (p > 0.05) on the percentages of carcass yield or internal organs. Dietary addition of LEO significantly increased the percentages of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids PUFA (n-3), omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-6), and the n-3/n-6 ratio (p < 0.05) in the breast muscles of chickens in a level-dependent manner. The blood concentration of alanine aminotransferase was significantly increased in lavender essential oil at 600 mg kg−1 compared with other treatments. The dietary addition of LEO at 200, 400, and 600 mg kg−1 significantly reduced the malondialdehyde level. Still, they significantly increased the serum enzyme activities of total antioxidant capacity, catalase, superoxide dismutase, and the pro-inflammatory cytokine (interleukine-1 beta and interferon γ) compared with the unsupplemented group. The LEO-supplemented groups showed normal liver histomorphology as in the control group. However, the immunoexpression of the pro-inflammatory cytokine transforming growth factor β was significantly increased by increasing the level of LEO. It can be concluded that lavender essential oil can be included in broiler chicken diets up to 460 mg kg −1 with no positive effect on the bird’s growth. It can improve the antioxidant capacity and enrich the breast muscles with PUFA. An increased level of supplementation (600 mg kg−1) increased the inflammatory responses in broiler chickens. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Antioxidants and Gut Health)
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Review

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21 pages, 557 KiB  
Review
Therapeutic Potential of Palmitoylethanolamide in Gastrointestinal Disorders
by Marija Branković, Tijana Gmizić, Marija Dukić, Marija Zdravković, Branislava Daskalović, Davor Mrda, Novica Nikolić, Milica Brajković, Milan Gojgić, Jovana Lalatović, Đorđe Kralj, Ivana Pantić, Marko Vojnović, Tamara Milovanović, Siniša Đurašević and Zoran Todorović
Antioxidants 2024, 13(5), 600; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox13050600 - 14 May 2024
Viewed by 440
Abstract
Palmitoylethanolamide (PEA) is an endocannabinoid-like bioactive lipid mediator belonging to the family of N-acylethanolamines, most abundantly found in peanuts and egg yolk. When the gastrointestinal (GI) effects of PEA are discussed, it must be pointed out that it affects intestinal motility but also [...] Read more.
Palmitoylethanolamide (PEA) is an endocannabinoid-like bioactive lipid mediator belonging to the family of N-acylethanolamines, most abundantly found in peanuts and egg yolk. When the gastrointestinal (GI) effects of PEA are discussed, it must be pointed out that it affects intestinal motility but also modulates gut microbiota. This is due to anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, analgesic, antimicrobial, and immunomodulatory features. Additionally, PEA has shown beneficial effects in several GI diseases, particularly irritable bowel syndrome and inflammatory bowel diseases, as various studies have shown, and it is important to emphasize its relative lack of toxicity, even at high dosages. Unfortunately, there is not enough endogenous PEA to treat disturbed gut homeostasis, even though it is produced in the GI tract in response to inflammatory stimuli, so exogenous intake is mandatory to achieve homeostasis. Intake of PEA could be through animal and/or vegetable food, but bearing in mind that a high dosage is needed to achieve a therapeutic effect, it must be compensated through dietary supplements. There are still open questions pending to be answered, so further studies investigating PEA’s effects and mechanisms of action, especially in humans, are crucial to implementing PEA in everyday clinical practice. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Antioxidants and Gut Health)
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19 pages, 1641 KiB  
Review
A Critical Review of Kaempferol in Intestinal Health and Diseases
by Jun Chen, Haopeng Zhong, Zhouyin Huang, Xingping Chen, Jinming You and Tiande Zou
Antioxidants 2023, 12(8), 1642; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox12081642 - 20 Aug 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2006
Abstract
Kaempferol, a secondary metabolite found in plants, is a naturally occurring flavonoid displaying significant potential in various biological activities. The chemical structure of kaempferol is distinguished by the presence of phenyl rings and four hydroxyl substituents, which make it an exceptional radical scavenger. [...] Read more.
Kaempferol, a secondary metabolite found in plants, is a naturally occurring flavonoid displaying significant potential in various biological activities. The chemical structure of kaempferol is distinguished by the presence of phenyl rings and four hydroxyl substituents, which make it an exceptional radical scavenger. Most recently, an increasing number of studies have demonstrated the significance of kaempferol in the regulation of intestinal function and the mitigation of intestinal inflammation. The focus of the review will primarily be on its impact in terms of antioxidant properties, inflammation, maintenance of intestinal barrier function, and its potential in the treatment of colorectal cancer and obesity. Future research endeavors should additionally give priority to investigating the specific dosage and duration of kaempferol administration for different pathological conditions, while simultaneously conducting deeper investigations into the comprehensible mechanisms of action related to the regulation of aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR). This review intends to present novel evidence supporting the utilization of kaempferol in the regulation of gut health and the management of associated diseases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Antioxidants and Gut Health)
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15 pages, 1582 KiB  
Review
Protective Effects of Natural Antioxidants on Inflammatory Bowel Disease: Thymol and Its Pharmacological Properties
by Yao Liu, Hui Yan, Bing Yu, Jun He, Xiangbing Mao, Jie Yu, Ping Zheng, Zhiqing Huang, Yuheng Luo, Junqiu Luo, Aimin Wu and Daiwen Chen
Antioxidants 2022, 11(10), 1947; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox11101947 - 29 Sep 2022
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 2932
Abstract
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a gastrointestinal disease that involves chronic mucosal or submucosal lesions that affect tissue integrity. Although IBD is not life-threatening, it sometimes causes severe complications, such as colon cancer. The exact etiology of IBD remains unclear, but several risk [...] Read more.
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a gastrointestinal disease that involves chronic mucosal or submucosal lesions that affect tissue integrity. Although IBD is not life-threatening, it sometimes causes severe complications, such as colon cancer. The exact etiology of IBD remains unclear, but several risk factors, such as pathogen infection, stress, diet, age, and genetics, have been involved in the occurrence and aggravation of IBD. Immune system malfunction with the over-production of inflammatory cytokines and associated oxidative stress are the hallmarks of IBD. Dietary intervention and medical treatment suppressing abnormal inflammation and oxidative stress are recommended as potential therapies. Thymol, a natural monoterpene phenol that is mostly found in thyme, exhibits multiple biological functions as a potential adjuvant for IBD. The purpose of this review is to summarize current findings on the protective effect of thymol on intestinal health in the context of specific animal models of IBD, describe the role of thymol in the modulation of inflammation, oxidative stress, and gut microbiota against gastrointestinal disease, and discuss the potential mechanism for its pharmacological activity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Antioxidants and Gut Health)
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