Antioxidants and MicroRNA Modulation

A special issue of Antioxidants (ISSN 2076-3921).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 September 2021) | Viewed by 12123

Special Issue Editors

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

MicroRNAs are the trait d'union of molecular mechanisms in both physiological and pathophysiological conditions. An emerging field of research is focused on "redoximiRs", i.e., redox-sensitive microRNAs, which provide an important and probably crucial additional control mechanism for redox signaling, beyond the well-characterized redox-sensitive transcription factor nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2). The potential for microRNA-based therapies exists, especially for non-communicable disease charachterized by diminished antioxidant defenses and dysregulated redox signaling, which can lead to accelerated aging, cardiovascular and metabolic diseases, neurodegeneration, and cancers.

Papers of interest to this Special Issue regard microRNAs modulation by: i) natural compounds; ii) cellular redox molecules; iii) drugs; iv) nutraceuticals; v) nutritional regimens.

Dr Maria Cristina Caroleo

Dr. Erika Cione
Guest Editor

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Keywords

microRNAs

redoxmiR

oxidant-antioxidant system

antioxidant defense

Published Papers (3 papers)

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Research

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18 pages, 25888 KiB  
Article
OncomiR miR-182-5p Enhances Radiosensitivity by Inhibiting the Radiation-Induced Antioxidant Effect through SESN2 in Head and Neck Cancer
by Min-Ying Lin, Yu-Chan Chang, Shan-Ying Wang, Muh-Hwa Yang, Chih-Hsien Chang, Michael Hsiao, Richard N. Kitsis and Yi-Jang Lee
Antioxidants 2021, 10(11), 1808; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox10111808 - 14 Nov 2021
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 2727
Abstract
Radiotherapy is routinely used for the treatment of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). However, the therapeutic efficacy is usually reduced by acquired radioresistance and locoregional recurrence. In this study, The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) analysis showed that radiotherapy upregulated the miR-182/96/183 [...] Read more.
Radiotherapy is routinely used for the treatment of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). However, the therapeutic efficacy is usually reduced by acquired radioresistance and locoregional recurrence. In this study, The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) analysis showed that radiotherapy upregulated the miR-182/96/183 cluster and that miR-182 was the most significantly upregulated. Overexpression of miR-182-5p enhanced the radiosensitivity of HNSCC cells by increasing intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels, suggesting that expression of the miR-182 family is beneficial for radiotherapy. By intersecting the gene targeting results from three microRNA target prediction databases, we noticed that sestrin2 (SESN2), a molecule resistant to oxidative stress, was involved in 91 genes predicted in all three databases to be directly recognized by miR-182-5p. Knockdown of SESN2 enhanced radiation-induced ROS and cytotoxicity in HNSCC cells. In addition, the radiation-induced expression of SESN2 was repressed by overexpression of miR-182-5p. Reciprocal expression of the miR-182-5p and SESN2 genes was also analyzed in the TCGA database, and a high expression of miR-182-5p combined with a low expression of SESN2 was associated with a better survival rate in patients receiving radiotherapy. Taken together, the current data suggest that miR-182-5p may regulate radiation-induced antioxidant effects and mediate the efficacy of radiotherapy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antioxidants and MicroRNA Modulation)
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17 pages, 4471 KiB  
Article
MicroRNA-29a Mitigates Osteoblast Senescence and Counteracts Bone Loss through Oxidation Resistance-1 Control of FoxO3 Methylation
by Wei-Shiung Lian, Re-Wen Wu, Yu-Shan Chen, Jih-Yang Ko, Shao-Yu Wang, Holger Jahr and Feng-Sheng Wang
Antioxidants 2021, 10(8), 1248; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox10081248 - 04 Aug 2021
Cited by 15 | Viewed by 2363
Abstract
Senescent osteoblast overburden accelerates bone mass loss. Little is understood about microRNA control of oxidative stress and osteoblast senescence in osteoporosis. We revealed an association between microRNA-29a (miR-29a) loss, oxidative stress marker 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), DNA hypermethylation marker 5-methylcystosine (5mC), and osteoblast [...] Read more.
Senescent osteoblast overburden accelerates bone mass loss. Little is understood about microRNA control of oxidative stress and osteoblast senescence in osteoporosis. We revealed an association between microRNA-29a (miR-29a) loss, oxidative stress marker 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), DNA hypermethylation marker 5-methylcystosine (5mC), and osteoblast senescence in human osteoporosis. miR-29a knockout mice showed low bone mass, sparse trabecular microstructure, and osteoblast senescence. miR-29a deletion exacerbated bone loss in old mice. Old miR-29a transgenic mice showed fewer osteoporosis signs, less 5mC, and less 8-OHdG formation than age-matched wild-type mice. miR-29a overexpression reversed age-induced senescence and osteogenesis loss in bone-marrow stromal cells. miR-29a promoted transcriptomic landscapes of redox reaction and forkhead box O (FoxO) pathways, preserving oxidation resistance protein-1 (Oxr1) and FoxO3 in old mice. In vitro, miR-29a interrupted DNA methyltransferase 3b (Dnmt3b)-mediated FoxO3 promoter methylation and senescence-associated β-galactosidase activity in aged osteoblasts. Dnmt3b inhibitor 5′-azacytosine, antioxidant N-acetylcysteine, or Oxr1 recombinant protein attenuated loss in miR-29a and FoxO3 to mitigate oxidative stress, senescence, and mineralization matrix underproduction. Taken together, miR-29a promotes Oxr1, compromising oxidative stress and FoxO3 loss to delay osteoblast aging and bone loss. This study sheds light on a new antioxidation mechanism by which miR-29a protects against osteoblast aging and highlights the remedial effects of miR-29a on osteoporosis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antioxidants and MicroRNA Modulation)
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Review

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24 pages, 4878 KiB  
Review
Polyphenols in the Mediterranean Diet: From Dietary Sources to microRNA Modulation
by Roberto Cannataro, Alessia Fazio, Chiara La Torre, Maria Cristina Caroleo and Erika Cione
Antioxidants 2021, 10(2), 328; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox10020328 - 23 Feb 2021
Cited by 48 | Viewed by 6070
Abstract
It is now well established that polyphenols are a class of natural substance that offers numerous health benefits; they are present in all plants in very different quantities and types. On the other hand, their bioavailability, and efficacy is are not always well [...] Read more.
It is now well established that polyphenols are a class of natural substance that offers numerous health benefits; they are present in all plants in very different quantities and types. On the other hand, their bioavailability, and efficacy is are not always well proven. Therefore, this work aims to discuss some types of polyphenols belonging to Mediterranean foods. We chose six polyphenols—(1) Naringenin, (2) Apigenin, (3) Kaempferol, (4) Hesperidin, (5) Ellagic Acid and (6) Oleuropein—present in Mediterranean foods, describing dietary source and their chemistry, as well as their pharmacokinetic profile and their use as nutraceuticals/supplements, in addition to the relevant element of their capability in modulating microRNAs expression profile. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antioxidants and MicroRNA Modulation)
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