Special Issue "Advances in Animal Anatomy"

A special issue of Animals (ISSN 2076-2615). This special issue belongs to the section "Animal Physiology".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 July 2020.

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Matilde Lombardero
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Unit of Veterinary Anatomy and Embryology, Department of Anatomy, Animal Production and Clinical Veterinary Sciences, Faculty of Veterinary Sciences, University of Santiago de Compostela—Campus of Lugo, 27002 Lugo, Spain
Interests: veterinary sciences; anatomy
Prof. María del Mar Yllera
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Unit of Veterinary Anatomy and Embryology, Department of Anatomy, Animal Production and Clinical Veterinary Sciences, Faculty of Veterinary Sciences, University of Santiago de Compostela—Campus of Lugo, 27002 Lugo, Spain
Interests: veterinary sciences; anatomy

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Knowledge of veterinary anatomy (as a basic science) is a prerequisite to master clinical (and some preclinical) disciplines and, subsequently, veterinary practice. Fortunately, descriptive anatomy is no longer the only method of teaching veterinary anatomy, and instead, applied veterinary anatomy is providing additional value in practical and clinical study.

As the subject of veterinary anatomy is being progressively reduced in academic programs, only basic functional, comparative, and applied aspects are taught in depth, even though knowledge of certain other anatomy-related concepts may be of great interest in application. Hence, we aim to publish original research, as well as reviews, that improve our understanding of applied veterinary anatomy, particularly papers that address the following topics:

1- Applied anatomy of domestic animals (mammals and birds), which facilitates the use of different approaches and the recognition of structures in diagnostic imaging or which helps in the comprehension of animal physiology.

2- Anatomy of wild animals, which could be very helpful to specialized veterinarians, researchers, and technicians to maintain the welfare of animals in zoos and wildlife recovery centers.

3- Anatomy of new companion animals, focused on the less well-known species that are being introduced into homes and require veterinary assistance, mainly because they are not adapted to life in captivity. Knowledge of their anatomy is essential, specifically in the following areas:

3.1- Diagnostic imaging to facilitate the recognition of the bones, viscera, and vessels in order to make a correct diagnosis.

3.2- Access to their superficial venous system that would allow for the taking blood samples or treatment administration (drugs/rehydration by dropper, etc.).

3.3- Clinical interventions (intubation, surgery, etc.) performed to avoid damaging vital structures.

3.4- Their anatomical adaptations to the environment during evolution and the pathologies derived from displacement from their habitats and life in captivity.

Additionally, apart from anatomical knowledge, the preservation of dissected specimens or their viscera is essential for the following:

1- Teaching in faculties/schools of veterinary medicine, as well as exhibiting specimens in anatomical museums, to avoid long and meticulous dissections and to reuse dissected specimens as much as possible.

2- The study of the anatomy of the new companion animals, of which there are few specimens available for studying.

The most used conservation method during the 20th century was formaldehyde (used in different concentrations or as part of fixative solutions), which must be abandoned due to its carcinogenic potential and powerful irritant effect on the eyes and airways. In addition, formaldehyde modifies considerably the color and consistency of tissues, creating confusion about the normal macroscopic appearance. Furthermore, it causes muscles to become rigid, reducing the physiological movement of joints, which is essential for teaching future veterinarians and technicians.

In recent years, new preservatives have been tested to minimize such drawbacks, such as the use of saturated saline solution; therefore, we also invite our colleagues to submit contributions describing their advances in preservation methods that will surely improve the practical study of anatomy.

Prof. Matilde Lombardero
Prof. María del Mar Yllera
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Animals is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Applied veterinary anatomy
  • Domestic species
  • Exotic pets
  • Wild animals
  • Gross anatomy
  • Anatomical preservation
  • Dissection

Published Papers (3 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle
A Study of the Head during Prenatal and Perinatal Development of Two Fetuses and One Newborn Striped Dolphin (Stenella coeruleoalba, Meyen 1833) Using Dissections, Sectional Anatomy, CT, and MRI: Anatomical and Functional Implications in Cetaceans and Terrestrial Mammals
Animals 2019, 9(12), 1139; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani9121139 - 13 Dec 2019
Abstract
Our objective was to analyze the main anatomical structures of the dolphin head during its developmental stages. Most dolphin studies use only one fetal specimen due to the difficulty in obtaining these materials. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computed tomography (CT) of two [...] Read more.
Our objective was to analyze the main anatomical structures of the dolphin head during its developmental stages. Most dolphin studies use only one fetal specimen due to the difficulty in obtaining these materials. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computed tomography (CT) of two fetuses (younger and older) and a perinatal specimen cadaver of striped dolphins were scanned. Only the older fetus was frozen and then was transversely cross-sectioned. In addition, gross dissections of the head were made on a perinatal and an adult specimen. In the oral cavity, only the mandible and maxilla teeth have started to erupt, while the most rostral teeth have not yet erupted. No salivary glands and masseter muscle were observed. The melon was well identified in CT/MRI images at early stages of development. CT and MRI images allowed observation of the maxillary sinus. The orbit and eyeball were analyzed and the absence of infraorbital rim together with the temporal process of the zygomatic bone holding periorbit were described. An enlarged auditory tube was identified using anatomical sections, CT, and MRI. We also compare the dolphin head anatomy with some mammals, trying to underline the anatomical and physiological changes and explain them from an ontogenic point of view. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Animal Anatomy)
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Open AccessArticle
Anatomic Study of the Elbow Joint in a Bengal Tiger (Panthera tigris tigris) Using Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Gross Dissections
Animals 2019, 9(12), 1058; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani9121058 - 01 Dec 2019
Abstract
The objective of our research was to describe the normal appearance of the bony and soft tissue structures of the elbow joint in a cadaver of a male mature Bengal tiger (Panthera tigris tigris) scanned via MRI. Using a 0.2 Tesla [...] Read more.
The objective of our research was to describe the normal appearance of the bony and soft tissue structures of the elbow joint in a cadaver of a male mature Bengal tiger (Panthera tigris tigris) scanned via MRI. Using a 0.2 Tesla magnet, Spin-echo (SE) T1-weighting, and Gradient-echo short tau inversion recovery (GE-STIR), T2-weighting pulse sequences were selected to generate sagittal, transverse, and dorsal planes. In addition, gross dissections of the forelimb and its elbow joint were made. On anatomic dissections, all bony, articular, and muscular structures could be identified. The MRI images allowed us to observe the bony and many soft tissues of the tiger elbow joint. The SE T1-weighted MR images provided good anatomic detail of this joint, whereas the GE-STIR T2-weighted MR pulse sequence was best for synovial cavities. Detailed information is provided that may be used as initial anatomic reference for interpretation of MR images of the Bengal tiger (Panthera tigris tigris) elbow joint and in the diagnosis of disorders of this region. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Animal Anatomy)
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Review

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Open AccessReview
Leonardo da Vinci’s Animal Anatomy: Bear and Horse Drawings Revisited
Animals 2019, 9(7), 435; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani9070435 - 10 Jul 2019
Abstract
Leonardo da Vinci was one of the most influencing personalities of his time, the perfect representation of the ideal Renaissance man, an expert painter, engineer and anatomist. Regarding Leonardo’s anatomical drawings, apart from human anatomy, he also depicted some animal species. This comparative [...] Read more.
Leonardo da Vinci was one of the most influencing personalities of his time, the perfect representation of the ideal Renaissance man, an expert painter, engineer and anatomist. Regarding Leonardo’s anatomical drawings, apart from human anatomy, he also depicted some animal species. This comparative study focused only on two species: Bears and horses. He produced some anatomical drawings to illustrate the dissection of “a bear’s foot” (Royal Collection Trust), previously described as “the left leg and foot of a bear”, but considering some anatomical details, we concluded that they depict the bear’s right pelvic limb. This misconception was due to the assumption that the bear’s digit I (1st toe) was the largest one, as in humans. We also analyzed a rough sketch (not previously reported), on the same page, and we concluded that it depicts the left antebrachium (forearm) and manus (hand) of a dog/wolf. Regarding Leonardo’s drawing representing the horse anatomy “The viscera of a horse”, the blood vessel arrangement and other anatomical structures are not consistent with the structure of the horse, but are more in accordance with the anatomy of a dog. In addition, other drawings comparing the anatomy of human leg muscles to that of horse pelvic limbs were also discussed in motion. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Animal Anatomy)
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