Special Issue "Regeneration in Animals"

A special issue of Animals (ISSN 2076-2615).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 November 2020).

Special Issue Editor

Dr. Byung-Jae Kang
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Assistant Professor of Veterinary Orthopedic and Neurosurgery, Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, Seoul National University, Seoul 08826, Korea
Interests: orthopedics; tissue engineering; regenerative medicine; mesenchymal stem cells; growth factors
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Regeneration is necessary to keep an organism. Without it, there could be no life. It is the process of restoration, renewal, and growth that makes genomes, cells, organisms, and ecological systems recover from natural change or events that cause a disturbance. However, not all organisms regenerate in the same way. For example, unlike mammals, lampreys exhibit strong spontaneous regeneration and functional recovery after spinal cord injury. It is not known why regeneration cannot occur in some organisms, but it can in others. Thus, there has been a lot of research to answer this fundamental question in regenerative biology.

We invite you to submit a paper in a broad range of topics around regeneration in animals. Areas of interest include but are not limited to:

Regenerative medicine;
Regenerative materials;
Stem cell;
Cell regeneration;
Tissue and organ regeneration;
Tissue engineering;
Wound healing;
Nerve repair and regeneration.

Dr. Byung-Jae Kang
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Animals is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1800 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • regeneration
  • animal
  • regenerative medicine
  • regenerative materials
  • stem cell
  • tissue
  • wound
  • nerve

Published Papers (5 papers)

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Research

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Article
Intravenous Administration of Heat Shock-Treated MSCs Can Improve Neuroprotection and Neuroregeneration in Canine Spinal Cord Injury Model
Animals 2020, 10(11), 2164; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani10112164 - 20 Nov 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1013
Abstract
Transplantation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) is a promising treatment for spinal cord injury (SCI). However, many transplanted cells die within a few days, eventually limiting the efficacy of cellular therapy. To overcome this problem, we focused on the potential of heat shock [...] Read more.
Transplantation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) is a promising treatment for spinal cord injury (SCI). However, many transplanted cells die within a few days, eventually limiting the efficacy of cellular therapy. To overcome this problem, we focused on the potential of heat shock (HS) proteins in facilitating recovery from cell damage and protecting against cytotoxicity. PCR results showed that the expression of neurotrophic factor, anti-inflammatory, stemness, and homing genes increased in HS-treated MSCs. We investigated whether HS-treated MSCs could promote recovery of hindlimb function in an acute canine SCI model. We compared the effects of intravenous transplantation with (i) lactated Ringer’s solution as a control, (ii) green fluorescent protein-expressing MSCs (MSCs-GFP), and (iii) GFP-expressing and HS-treated MSCs (MSCs-GFP-HS). Spinal cords were harvested at four weeks and used for Western blot and histopathological analyses. The MSCs-GFP-HS group showed significant improvements in hindlimb function from weeks 3 and 4 compared with the other groups. This group also showed higher expression of neural markers, fewer intervening fibrotic changes, and pronounced myelination. These results suggest that induction of an HS response in MSCs could promote neural sparing. In conclusion, transplantation of HS-treated MSCs could improve neuroprotection and neuroregeneration in acute SCI. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Regeneration in Animals)
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Article
Nanoparticles from Equine Fetal Bone Marrow-Derived Cells Enhance the Survival of Injured Chondrocytes
Animals 2020, 10(10), 1723; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani10101723 - 23 Sep 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 800
Abstract
Recent studies have shown that mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) can play a restorative role against degenerative joint diseases in horses. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether fetal bone marrow-derived cells (BMC)-derived nanoparticles (BMC-NPs) can stimulate the survival of equine chondrocytes. [...] Read more.
Recent studies have shown that mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) can play a restorative role against degenerative joint diseases in horses. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether fetal bone marrow-derived cells (BMC)-derived nanoparticles (BMC-NPs) can stimulate the survival of equine chondrocytes. Equine fetal BMCs were isolated and characterized, and the role of BMC-NPs s in equine chondrocytes undergoing inflammatory cell death was examined. BMCs have several characteristics, such as the potential to differentiate into chondrocytes and osteocytes. Additionally, BMCs expressed immunoregulatory genes in response to treatment with tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and Interleukin 1 beta (IL-1β). We found that BMC-NPs were taken up by equine chondrocytes. Functionally, BMC-NPs promoted the growth of chondrocytes, and reduced apoptosis induced by inflammatory cytokines. Furthermore, we observed that BMC-NPs upregulated the phosphorylation of protein kinase B (Akt) in the presence of IL-1β, and reduced the phosphorylation of TNF-α-induced activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) in the chondrocytes. Cumulatively, our study demonstrated that equine fetal BMC-NPs have the potential to stimulate the survival of chondrocytes damaged by inflammatory cytokines. Thus, BMC-NPs may become an alternative cell-free allogenic therapeutic for degenerative joint diseases in horses. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Regeneration in Animals)
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Article
3D Biomimetic Porous Titanium (Ti6Al4V ELI) Scaffolds for Large Bone Critical Defect Reconstruction: An Experimental Study in Sheep
Animals 2020, 10(8), 1389; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani10081389 - 11 Aug 2020
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1118
Abstract
The main goal in the treatment of large bone defects is to guarantee a rapid loading of the affected limb. In this paper, the authors proposed a new reconstructive technique that proved to be suitable to reach this purpose through the use of [...] Read more.
The main goal in the treatment of large bone defects is to guarantee a rapid loading of the affected limb. In this paper, the authors proposed a new reconstructive technique that proved to be suitable to reach this purpose through the use of a custom-made biomimetic porous titanium scaffold. An in vivo study was undertaken where a complete critical defect was experimentally created in the diaphysis of the right tibia of twelve sheep and replaced with a five-centimeter porous scaffold of electron beam melting (EBM)-sintered titanium alloy (EBM group n = 6) or a porous hydroxyapatite scaffold (CONTROL group, n = 6). After surgery, the sheep were allowed to move freely in the barns. The outcome was monitored for up to 12 months by periodical X-ray and clinical examination. All animals in the CONTROL group were euthanized for humane reasons within the first month after surgery due to the onset of plate bending due to mechanical overload. Nine months after surgery, X-ray imaging showed the complete integration of the titanium implant in the tibia diaphysis and remodeling of the periosteal callus, with a well-defined cortical bone. At 12 months, sheep were euthanized, and the tibia were harvested and subjected to histological analysis. This showed bone tissue formations with bone trabeculae bridging titanium trabeculae, evidencing an optimal tissue-metal interaction. Our results show that EBM-sintered titanium devices, if used to repair critical bone defects in a large animal model, can guarantee immediate body weight-bearing, a rapid functional recovery, and a good osseointegration. The porous hydroxyapatite scaffolds proved to be not suitable in this model of large bone defect due to their known poor mechanical properties. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Regeneration in Animals)
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Article
Efficacy of a Semi Automated Commercial Closed System for Autologous Leukocyte- and Platelet-Rich Plasma (l-prp) Production in Dogs: A Preliminary Study
Animals 2020, 10(8), 1342; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani10081342 - 04 Aug 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 897
Abstract
Background: To characterize the cellular composition (platelets, erythrocytes, and leukocytes) and determine platelet-derived growth factor isoform BB (PDGF-BB) concentration in canine leukocyte- and platelet rich plasma (L-PRP) produced using a commercial semi-automated closed system. Methods: Twenty milliliters of citrated whole blood were obtained [...] Read more.
Background: To characterize the cellular composition (platelets, erythrocytes, and leukocytes) and determine platelet-derived growth factor isoform BB (PDGF-BB) concentration in canine leukocyte- and platelet rich plasma (L-PRP) produced using a commercial semi-automated closed system. Methods: Twenty milliliters of citrated whole blood were obtained from 30 healthy un-sedated canine blood donors and processed using a semi-automated completely closed commercial system (CPUNT 20, Eltek group, Casale Monferrato, Alessandria, Italy) according to the manufacturer’s instructions. Erythrocyte, leukocyte, and platelet counts were determined in both whole blood (WB) and resultant L-PRP. The PDGF-BB concentration was evaluated after bovine thrombin activation of 10 L-PRP samples. Results: This commercial system produced on average 2.3 ± 0.7 mL of L-PRP containing a high concentration of platelets (767,633 ± 291,001 μL, p < 0.001), with a 4.4 fold increase in platelet count, lower concentration of erythrocytes (528,600 ± 222,773 μL, p < 0.001) and similar concentration of leukocytes (8422 ± 6346 μL, p = 0.9918) compared with WB. L-PRP had an average of 3442 ± 2061 pg/mL of PDGF-BB after thrombin activation. Neutrophils, lymphocytes and monocytes average percent content in L-PRP was 14.8 ± 13.2, 71.7 ± 18.5 and 10.7 ± 6.4, respectively. Conclusion: Sterile canine L-PRP prepared using this semi-automated closed system is easy to obtain, produces a significant increase in platelet count compared to WB and contains a detectable concentration of PDGF-BB after activation. Additional in vitro and in vivo studies are needed to assess inflammatory markers concentration and the therapeutic efficacy of this L-PRP in dogs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Regeneration in Animals)
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Opinion
Regeneration during Obesity: An Impaired Homeostasis
Animals 2020, 10(12), 2344; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani10122344 - 09 Dec 2020
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 751
Abstract
Obesity is a health problem that, in addition to the known morbidities, induces the generation of a biological environment with negative impacts on regeneration. Indeed, factors like DNA damages, oxidative stress and inflammation would impair the stem cell functions, in addition to some [...] Read more.
Obesity is a health problem that, in addition to the known morbidities, induces the generation of a biological environment with negative impacts on regeneration. Indeed, factors like DNA damages, oxidative stress and inflammation would impair the stem cell functions, in addition to some metabolic and development patterns. At the cellular and tissulaire levels, this has consequences on growth, renewal and restoration which results into an impaired regeneration. This impaired homeostasis concerns also key metabolic tissues including muscles and liver which would worsen the energy balance outcome towards further development of obesity. Such impacts of obesity on regeneration shows the need of a specific care given to obese patients recovering from diseases or conditions requiring regeneration such as burns, radiotherapy and leukemia. On the other hand, since stem cells are suggested to manage obesity, this impaired regeneration homeostasis needs to be considered towards more optimized stem cells-based obesity therapies within the context of precision medicine. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Regeneration in Animals)
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