The Impact of the Animal Housing System on Immune Cell Composition and Function in the Blood of Dromedary Camels
Department of Microbiology, College of Veterinary Medicine, King Faisal University, Al-Ahsa 31982, Saudi Arabia
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Maria Giovanna Ciliberti and Mariangela Caroprese
Received: 22 December 2021
Revised: 23 January 2022
Accepted: 24 January 2022
Published: 28 January 2022
The present study investigated the impacts of a change in animal housing system on selected parameters of the camel immune system. Samples collected from camels during a free-ranging time were compared with samples collected from the same camels during movement-restricted housing. Movement-restricted camels showed elevated myeloperoxidase activity in their serum, a significant shape-change of their neutrophils, and higher reactive oxygen species content in their monocytes and neutrophils. The leukogram pattern of the camels under restricted housing was characterized by increased numbers of neutrophils, eosinophils, lymphocytes, and monocytes. Within the lymphocyte population, only the helper T cells and B cells were expanded in animals under restricted housing. In addition, restricted housing modulated the expression of several cell surface antigens, including monocyte-polarization markers and cell adhesion molecules. Functional analysis of bacterial phagocytosis indicated impaired antibacterial function of phagocytes in camels under restricted housing. In summary, the present study identified significant changes in blood immune cell composition, phenotype, and function in dromedary camels under restricted-housing conditions, and suggests the development of an excitement leukogram in those animals.