Healthy and High-Quality Fish Farming

A special issue of Animals (ISSN 2076-2615). This special issue belongs to the section "Aquatic Animals".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 June 2021) | Viewed by 33360

Special Issue Editor


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Guest Editor
Department of Veterinary Medicine, Università degli Studi di Milano, Via dell’Università 6, 26900 Lodi, Italy
Interests: cell culture; immunohistochemistry; histology; animal models; scaffold

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The production of healthy and high-quality fish is an important goal to achieve a successful and competitive aquaculture. Despite the are large amounts of fish larvae produced, in most cases the growth potential is not completely achieved, because the survival rates are often low: many gaps in knowledge concerning fish farming are still present.

Future growth of aquaculture depends on specific scientific knowledge of (1) the biology of muscle growth and development, (2) the genetic basis of meat quality, and (3) the influence of environmental factors on fish growth as well the quality of the product. The scientific research should focus on identifying crucial points in development and growth. In addition to muscle fibers, skeletal muscle contains many cell types, including adipocytes, fibroblasts, osteocytes, capillary endothelial cells, macrophages and leukocytes. The interactions between all these cell types are still poorly understood but certainly play a significant role in determining growth and quality.

Dr. Alessia Di Giancamillo
Guest Editor

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Keywords

  • aquaculture
  • fish growth
  • muscle
  • myogenesis
  • protein accretion
  • skeletal muscle ontogeny
  • environment
  • quality

Published Papers (9 papers)

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Research

15 pages, 602 KiB  
Article
Appetite Regulation, Growth Performances and Fish Quality Are Modulated by Alternative Dietary Protein Ingredients in Gilthead Sea Bream (Sparus aurata) Culture
by Lina Fernanda Pulido-Rodriguez, Gloriana Cardinaletti, Giulia Secci, Basilio Randazzo, Leonardo Bruni, Roberto Cerri, Ike Olivotto, Emilio Tibaldi and Giuliana Parisi
Animals 2021, 11(7), 1919; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11071919 - 28 Jun 2021
Cited by 29 | Viewed by 3520
Abstract
By answering the need for increasing sustainability in aquaculture, the present study aimed to compare growth, gene expression involved in appetite regulation, physical characteristics, and chemical composition of Sparus aurata fed alternative protein sources. Fish were fed ten iso-proteic, iso-lipidic, and isoenergetic diets: [...] Read more.
By answering the need for increasing sustainability in aquaculture, the present study aimed to compare growth, gene expression involved in appetite regulation, physical characteristics, and chemical composition of Sparus aurata fed alternative protein sources. Fish were fed ten iso-proteic, iso-lipidic, and isoenergetic diets: a vegetable-based (CV) and a marine ingredient-rich (CF) diet were set as control diets. The others were prepared by replacing graded levels (10, 20 or 40%) of the vegetable proteins in the CV with proteins from a commercial defatted Hermetia illucens pupae meal (H), poultry by-product meal (PBM) singly (H10, H20, H40, P20, P40) or in combination (H10P30), red swamp crayfish meal (RC10) and from a blend (2:1, w:w) of Tisochrysis lutea and Tetraselmis suecica (MA10) dried biomasses. The increase in ghre gene expression observed in MA10 fed fish matched with increased feed intake and increased feed conversion ratio. Besides, the MA10 diet conferred a lighter aspect to the fish skin (p < 0.05) than the others. Overall, no detrimental effects of H, PBM, and RC meal included in the diets were observed, and fish fatty acid profile resulted as comparable among these groups and CV, thus demonstrating the possibility to introduce H, PBM, and RC in partial replacement of vegetable proteins in the diet for Sparus aurata. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Healthy and High-Quality Fish Farming)
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22 pages, 4977 KiB  
Article
Hermetia illucens and Poultry by-Product Meals as Alternatives to Plant Protein Sources in Gilthead Seabream (Sparus aurata) Diet: A Multidisciplinary Study on Fish Gut Status
by Basilio Randazzo, Matteo Zarantoniello, Gloriana Cardinaletti, Roberto Cerri, Elisabetta Giorgini, Alessia Belloni, Michela Contò, Emilio Tibaldi and Ike Olivotto
Animals 2021, 11(3), 677; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11030677 - 4 Mar 2021
Cited by 52 | Viewed by 5282
Abstract
The attempt to replace marine-derived ingredients for aquafeed formulation with plant-derived ones has met some limitations due to their negative side effects on many fish species. In this context, finding new, sustainable ingredients able to promote fish welfare is currently under exploration. In [...] Read more.
The attempt to replace marine-derived ingredients for aquafeed formulation with plant-derived ones has met some limitations due to their negative side effects on many fish species. In this context, finding new, sustainable ingredients able to promote fish welfare is currently under exploration. In the present study, poultry by-products and Hermetia illucens meal were used to replace the vegetable protein fraction in diets totally deprived of fish meal intended for gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata). After a 12-week feeding trial, a multidisciplinary approach including histological, molecular, and spectroscopic techniques was adopted to investigate intestine and liver responses to the different dietary formulations. Regardless of the alternative ingredient used, the reduction in dietary vegetable proteins resulted in a lower incidence of intestine histological alterations and inflammatory responses. In addition, the dietary inclusion of insect meal positively affected the reduction in the molecular inflammatory markers analyzed. Spectroscopic analyses showed that poultry by-product meal improved lipid absorption in the intestine, while insect meal induced increased liver lipid deposition in fish. The results obtained demonstrated that both poultry by-products and H. illucens meal can successfully be used to replace plant-derived ingredients in diets for gilthead seabream, promoting healthy aquaculture. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Healthy and High-Quality Fish Farming)
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17 pages, 740 KiB  
Article
Processed By-Products from Soy Beverage (Okara) as Sustainable Ingredients for Nile Tilapia (O. niloticus) Juveniles: Effects on Nutrient Utilization and Muscle Quality
by Glenise B. Voss, Vera Sousa, Paulo Rema, Manuela. E. Pintado and Luísa M. P. Valente
Animals 2021, 11(3), 590; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11030590 - 24 Feb 2021
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2850
Abstract
The apparent digestibility coefficients (ADCs) of differently processed okara meals were assessed in Nile tilapia diets: dried okara not autoclaved (FOK), dried okara autoclaved (AOK), okara hydrolyzed with Alcalase (ALOK) or Cynara cardunculus proteases (CYOK), and hydrolyzed okara fermented with lactic bacteria: Lactobacillus [...] Read more.
The apparent digestibility coefficients (ADCs) of differently processed okara meals were assessed in Nile tilapia diets: dried okara not autoclaved (FOK), dried okara autoclaved (AOK), okara hydrolyzed with Alcalase (ALOK) or Cynara cardunculus proteases (CYOK), and hydrolyzed okara fermented with lactic bacteria: Lactobacillus rhamnosus R11 (CYR11OK) or Bifidobacterium animalis ssp. lactis Bb12 (CYB12OK). Okara processing significantly affected nutrient digestibility: dry matter ADC was highest in CYR11OK (80%) and lowest in FOK (40%). The lowest protein digestibility was observed in CYR11OK (72%), and the highest in AOK (97%) and CYOK (91%), evidencing the effectiveness of the autoclave and the use of C. cardunculus proteases to increase okara protein bioavailability. The inclusion of up to 20% of AOK or CYOK did not affect fish growth, nutrient utilization, or whole body composition of Nile tilapia. The flesh quality (color, pH, water activity, cohesiveness, elasticity and resilience) was not affected by the dietary incorporation of AOK or CYOK. Fish fed with AOK diets stand out for their high density of muscle fibers, particularly in AOK20, which can explain their high muscle firmness and may result in further hypertrophic growth. Altogether, results suggest that hydrolyzed or autoclaved okara are valuable ingredients for Nile tilapia diets. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Healthy and High-Quality Fish Farming)
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15 pages, 3076 KiB  
Article
How Different Stocking Densities Affect Growth and Stress Status of Acipenser baerii Early Stage Larvae
by Lucia Aidos, Alessandra Cafiso, Valentina Serra, Mauro Vasconi, Daniela Bertotto, Chiara Bazzocchi, Giuseppe Radaelli and Alessia Di Giancamillo
Animals 2020, 10(8), 1289; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani10081289 - 28 Jul 2020
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 2350
Abstract
In the present study, a multidisciplinary approach was used in order to evaluate growth, muscle development, and stress status in Siberian sturgeon Acipenser baerii larvae at schooling (T1) and complete yolk sac absorption (T2), reared at three stocking densities (low, medium, and high). [...] Read more.
In the present study, a multidisciplinary approach was used in order to evaluate growth, muscle development, and stress status in Siberian sturgeon Acipenser baerii larvae at schooling (T1) and complete yolk sac absorption (T2), reared at three stocking densities (low, medium, and high). Larvae growth, morphological muscle development, and whole-body cortisol levels were assessed. The expression of genes involved in the growth process (igf1 and igf2), in the myogenesis (myog), and in the regulation of cellular stress (glut1, glut2, glut4, and hsp70) was analyzed using a quantitative PCR. Larvae reared at lower densities showed a higher Specific Growth Rate and showed a physiological muscle development. Cortisol levels were low and did not differ significantly, both in different time sampling and across densities, suggesting that either the considered densities are not stressors in this species in the early stages of development or the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis is not yet fully mature. Gene expression of glut1, igf1, and igf2 showed an up-regulation in both developmental stages at all the rearing densities considered, while myog significantly up-regulated at T1 at the highest density. Considering all of the results, it would seem that lower densities should be used in these stages of development, as these showed a higher growth rate, even if it is not economically feasible in commercial hatcheries. Therefore, choosing an intermediate stocking density could be a good compromise between larval performance and economical feasibility. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Healthy and High-Quality Fish Farming)
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14 pages, 1523 KiB  
Article
Effects of a Trans-Galactooligosaccharide on Biochemical Blood Parameters and Intestine Morphometric Parameters of Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio L.)
by Ewa Ziółkowska, Joanna Bogucka, Agata Dankowiakowska, Mateusz Rawski, Jan Mazurkiewicz and Magdalena Stanek
Animals 2020, 10(4), 723; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani10040723 - 21 Apr 2020
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 2673
Abstract
The aim of the study was to evaluate the effects of a trans-galactooligosaccharide prebiotic (GOS) on the growth performance, biochemical blood parameters, and intestine morphometric parameters of common carp. The 60-day-long experiment was performed on one-year-old fish with a mean body weight of [...] Read more.
The aim of the study was to evaluate the effects of a trans-galactooligosaccharide prebiotic (GOS) on the growth performance, biochemical blood parameters, and intestine morphometric parameters of common carp. The 60-day-long experiment was performed on one-year-old fish with a mean body weight of 180 g (±5 g). Three diets were used: control diet 1 (C) with no microbiota affecting feed additives, diet 2 (B1) with 1% of prebiotic, and diet 3 (B2) with 2% of prebiotic, in four replications (tanks) per treatment and 25 fish per tank. At the end of the trial, 16 individuals from each group were used for analyses. The study showed that GOS supplementation did not affect growth performance. In turn, the prebiotic had a positive effect on the development of the intestine, and increased the height, width, and surface of the villi in B1 and B2 groups. The content of phosphorus (P) was significantly higher in B1 group compared with B2 group, which indicated that 1% addition of prebiotic causes better absorption of P from the intestine. The other biochemical indicators—namely lipid, protein and hepatic parameters, insulin, and Ca—were not affected by GOS treatment, which may indicate similar metabolic balance of fish in each experimental group. Serum triiodothyronine (TT3) and glucose (stress markers) concentrations were not significantly different among treatments groups. GOS may be recommended as a feed additive for common carp due to its positive effects on fish physiology and development of the gastrointestinal tract. However, our results suggest that 1% diet supplementation causes satisfactory reactions for the abovementioned aspects in comparison to control or 2% supplementation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Healthy and High-Quality Fish Farming)
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11 pages, 467 KiB  
Article
Aeromonas veronii Infection in Commercial Freshwater Fish: A Potential Threat to Public Health
by Tong Li, Sayed Haidar Abbas Raza, Bintong Yang, Yufeng Sun, Guiqin Wang, Wuwen Sun, Aidong Qian, Chunfeng Wang, Yuanhuan Kang and Xiaofeng Shan
Animals 2020, 10(4), 608; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani10040608 - 2 Apr 2020
Cited by 66 | Viewed by 5656
Abstract
Aeromonas veronii is an important pathogen causing freshwater fish sepsis and ulcer syndrome. An increasing number of cases have demonstrated its significance as an aquatic zoonotic agent. The purpose of this study was to ensure the safety of freshwater products by evaluating the [...] Read more.
Aeromonas veronii is an important pathogen causing freshwater fish sepsis and ulcer syndrome. An increasing number of cases have demonstrated its significance as an aquatic zoonotic agent. The purpose of this study was to ensure the safety of freshwater products by evaluating the infection status of edible freshwater fish. In this experiment, we isolated A. veronii from several species of apparently healthy freshwater fish, including Carassius auratus, Cyprinus carpio, Ctenopharyngodon idella, and Silurus asotus. A. veronii was identified through bacterial staining, culture characteristics, and 16S rDNA gene sequence. In addition, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to investigate the distribution of seven major virulence genes, including aerolysin (aer: 88.51%), cytotoxic enterotoxin (act: 71.26%), serine proteinase (ser: 54.02%), adhesin (Aha: 40.23%), phospholipase (lip: 45.98%), nuclease (exu: 51.72%), and quorum sensing-controlled virulence factor (LuxS: 59.77%). In total, 496 strains of Aeromonas were isolated, including 87 strains of A. veronii. The isolates of A. veronii were Gram-negative, rod-shaped bacteria, and the colonies are yellow on Rimler-Shotts (RS) medium and showed greater than 99% homology with A. veronii ATCC35624 according to analyses of the 16S rDNA sequence. Nearly 50% of the A. veronii isolates carried at least four or more virulence genes, 25% of the isolates carried at least five types of virulence genes, and 59.77% isolates carried the LuxS gene, and the isolates carrying more virulence genes were found to be more virulent. These results are of great significance for further improving the food safety assessment of freshwater aquatic products. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Healthy and High-Quality Fish Farming)
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16 pages, 962 KiB  
Article
Innate Immune Responses of Skin Mucosa in Common Carp (Cyprinus Carpio) Fed a Diet Supplemented with Galactooligosaccharides
by Elzbieta Pietrzak, Jan Mazurkiewicz and Anna Slawinska
Animals 2020, 10(3), 438; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani10030438 - 5 Mar 2020
Cited by 20 | Viewed by 3849
Abstract
Galactooligosaccharides (GOS) are well-known immunomodulatory prebiotics. We hypothesize that GOS supplemented in feed modulates innate immune responses in the skin-associated lymphoid tissue (SALT) of common carp. The aim of this study was to determine the impact of GOS on mRNA expression of the [...] Read more.
Galactooligosaccharides (GOS) are well-known immunomodulatory prebiotics. We hypothesize that GOS supplemented in feed modulates innate immune responses in the skin-associated lymphoid tissue (SALT) of common carp. The aim of this study was to determine the impact of GOS on mRNA expression of the immune-related genes in skin mucosa. During the feeding trial, the juvenile fish (bodyweight 180 ± 5 g) were fed two types of diet for 50 days: control and supplemented with 2% GOS. At the end of the trial, a subset of fish was euthanized (n = 8). Skin mucosa was collected, and RNA was extracted. Gene expression analysis was performed with RT-qPCR to determine the mRNA abundance of the genes associated with innate immune responses in SALT, i.e., acute-phase protein (CRP), antimicrobial proteins (His2Av and GGGT5L), cytokines (IL1β, IL4, IL8, IL10, and IFNγ), lectin (CLEC4M), lyzosymes (LyzC and LyzG), mucin (M5ACL), peroxidase (MPO), proteases (CTSB and CTSD), and oxidoreductase (TXNL). The geometric mean of 40s s11 and ACTB was used to normalize the data. Relative quantification of the gene expression was calculated with ∆∆Ct. GOS upregulated INFγ (p ≤ 0.05) and LyzG (p ≤ 0.05), and downregulated CRP (p ≤ 0.01). We conclude that GOS modulates innate immune responses in the skin mucosa of common carp. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Healthy and High-Quality Fish Farming)
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13 pages, 1443 KiB  
Article
Improvements on Live Feed Enrichments for Pikeperch (Sander lucioperca) Larval Culture
by Carlos Yanes-Roca, Astrid Holzer, Jan Mraz, Lukas Veselý, Oleksandr Malinovskyi and Tomas Policar
Animals 2020, 10(3), 401; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani10030401 - 29 Feb 2020
Cited by 17 | Viewed by 2800
Abstract
This study focused on supplementing pikeperch (Sander lucioperca) larvae with rotifers fed with Chlorella vulgaris during the first 15 days post hatching (dph). Larvae were fed a combination of rotifers and artemia under three different enrichments: A) Nannochloropsis occulata, B) [...] Read more.
This study focused on supplementing pikeperch (Sander lucioperca) larvae with rotifers fed with Chlorella vulgaris during the first 15 days post hatching (dph). Larvae were fed a combination of rotifers and artemia under three different enrichments: A) Nannochloropsis occulata, B) Chlorella vulgaris, and C) a commercial enrichment—Selco, Spresso from INVE. After 17 days from the trial initiation differences were found between treatments on survival rate, myomere height (MH), fatty acid composition, and stress tolerance. In terms of survival, larvae from treatment b (74.5%) and c (66%) excelled over the control (a) treatment (59%). Furthermore, larvae from both the Chlorella (b) and the Selco (c) treatments showed more resilience to stress conditions (10% and 37% reduction in mortality) when exposed to high salinity conditions (18ppt) for 3 h (stress response). Overall, larvae from treatments b and c performed better than those receiving a non-enriched diet (a), likely due to the higher levels of Essential Fatty Acids (EFA) and the ability of pikeperch to desaturate and elongate fatty acids (FA) with 18 carbons to LC PUFAs (Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids). The present study provides valuable input for designing improved feeding protocols, which will increase the efficiency of pikeperch larval culture. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Healthy and High-Quality Fish Farming)
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15 pages, 2063 KiB  
Article
Effect of Dietary Supplementation of Lactobacillus Casei YYL3 and L. Plantarum YYL5 on Growth, Immune Response and Intestinal Microbiota in Channel Catfish
by Hongyu Zhang, Haibo Wang, Kun Hu, Liting Jiao, Mingjun Zhao, Xianle Yang and Lei Xia
Animals 2019, 9(12), 1005; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani9121005 - 20 Nov 2019
Cited by 28 | Viewed by 3492
Abstract
The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of probiotics L. casei YYL3 (Lc) and L. plantarum YYL5 (Lp) on growth performance, innate immunity, disease resistance and intestinal microbiota of channel catfish. A total of 252 catfish (67.20 ± 1.46 g) [...] Read more.
The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of probiotics L. casei YYL3 (Lc) and L. plantarum YYL5 (Lp) on growth performance, innate immunity, disease resistance and intestinal microbiota of channel catfish. A total of 252 catfish (67.20 ± 1.46 g) were randomly divided into 3 groups which were fed with basal diet, Lc-added (3.0 × 108 cfu/g) or Lp-added (3.0 × 108 cfu/g) diets, respectively. After 4 weeks of feeding, Lc significantly enhanced the growth and feed utilization of channel catfish compared with the control group (CG). Following that, the catfish were challenged with an intraperitoneal injection of 200 μL of the pathogenic E.ictaluri (2.0 × 106 cfu/mL), the relative percent survival of Lc and Lp were 38.28% and 12.76%, respectively. High-throughput sequencing indicated Lc and Lp reduced the alpha diversity of the intestinal microbiota in channel catfish. Lactobacillus were overwhelming in the guts during probiotics treatment, but almost vanished away after 2 weeks post-cessation of probiotics administration. Compared to CG, Lc and Lp resulted in an increased abundance of Pseudomonas and decreased amount of Aeromonas. Functional analysis revealed that Lc treatment upregulated the relative abundance of Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathways including lipid metabolism, metabolism of other amino acids, metabolism of terpenoids and polyketides, xenobiotics biodegradation and metabolism, and nucleotide metabolism. Combined, our data revealed that Lc, as a feed additive at 3.0 × 108 cfu/g, could promote the growth performance, disease resistance and dramatically change the composition of intestinal microbiota of channel catfish. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Healthy and High-Quality Fish Farming)
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