Strategies for Nitrous Oxide Emission Mitigation in Agrosystems

A special issue of Agriculture (ISSN 2077-0472). This special issue belongs to the section "Ecosystem, Environment and Climate Change in Agriculture".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (15 January 2022) | Viewed by 17263

Special Issue Editor


E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Agroécologie, AgroSup Dijon, INRA, Université de Bourgogne, Université de Bourgogne Franche-Comté, 21000 Dijon, France
Interests: denitrification; nitrogen; greenhouse gases; soil analysis; sustainable agriculture

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The objectives of the Paris Agreement require the rapid reduction of global greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Nitrous oxide (N2O) is a powerful GHG estimated to account for 6% of the change in radiative forcing since 1750. This gas is now also considered as the major ozone-depleting substance in the atmosphere. Agriculture, through soil emissions, is the main anthropogenic source of N2O. Soils can act both as a source and a sink of N2O. However, on the global scale, the activity of soil as a source largely dominates its activity as a sink. The production and consumption of N2O in soils mainly involve biotic processes such as denitrification and nitrification, and depend on multiple factors.

While different strategies to decrease N2O emissions from agricultural soils have been identified, for example (i) increasing N use efficiency concomitantly with lowering total N input, and/or (ii) decreasing the release of N2O per unit of nitrogen from nitrification and denitrifcation, etc., technical options remain to be specified at the operational scale. Moreover, the adoption of the mitigation options proposed also requires multi-GHG and multi-disciplinary approaches to take into account the different services of soils and the possible socioeconomic barriers.

Therefore, we would like to invite researchers from a large number of regions and countries to submit papers presenting options for mitigating soil N2O emissions, based either on biotechnical or multidisciplinary research, for publication in this Special Issue. All types of articles, such as original research, opinions, and reviews, either mono or multidisciplinary, are welcome.

Dr. Catherine Hénault
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Agriculture is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Nitrous oxide
  • Soils
  • Nitrogen
  • Microbial processes
  • Mitigation options
  • Ecosystemic services
  • Biotechnical options
  • Multidisciplinary approaches

Published Papers (6 papers)

Order results
Result details
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:

Research

30 pages, 8797 KiB  
Article
Effects of Organic Maize Cropping Systems on Nitrogen Balances and Nitrous Oxide Emissions
by Felizitas Winkhart, Thomas Mösl, Harald Schmid and Kurt-Jürgen Hülsbergen
Agriculture 2022, 12(7), 907; https://doi.org/10.3390/agriculture12070907 - 22 Jun 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1939
Abstract
Silage maize cultivation is gaining importance in organic farming, and thus its environmental and climate impacts. The effects of digestate fertilization in combination with different catch crops and tillage intensities in maize cultivation are investigated in a long-term field experiment in southern Germany. [...] Read more.
Silage maize cultivation is gaining importance in organic farming, and thus its environmental and climate impacts. The effects of digestate fertilization in combination with different catch crops and tillage intensities in maize cultivation are investigated in a long-term field experiment in southern Germany. The tested variants are (a) maize after winter rye, plowed, unfertilized and (b) fertilized with biogas digestate, (c) maize after legume-rich cover crop mixture, mulch seeding, fertilized with digestate, and (d) maize in a white clover living mulch system, fertilized with digestate. Over three years (2019 to 2021), crop yields and N balance were analyzed, N2O emissions were measured in high temporal resolution using the closed chamber method, and soil moisture, ammonium, and nitrate contents were continuously determined. Maize dry matter yields ranged from 4.2 Mg ha−1 (variant a, 2021) to 24.4 Mg ha−1 (variant c, 2020) depending on cropping intensity and annual weather conditions. Despite relatively high nitrogen fertilization with digestate, the N balances were negative or nearly balanced; only in 2021 did the N surplus exceed 100 kg ha−1 (variant b and c) due to low yields. In maize cultivation, relatively low N2O-N emissions (1.0 to 3.2 kg ha−1) were measured in the unfertilized variant (a), and very high emissions in variant b (5.6 to 19.0 kg ha−1). The sometimes extremely high N2O emissions are also due to soil and climatic conditions (high denitrification potential). The experimental results show that cover crops, living mulch, and reduced tillage intensity in silage maize cultivation can reduce N2O emissions, improve nitrogen balance and increase maize yields. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Strategies for Nitrous Oxide Emission Mitigation in Agrosystems)
Show Figures

Figure 1

20 pages, 1097 KiB  
Article
Understanding the Impact of Liquid Organic Fertilisation and Associated Application Techniques on N2, N2O and CO2 Fluxes from Agricultural Soils
by Balázs Grosz, Björn Kemmann, Stefan Burkart, Søren O. Petersen and Reinhard Well
Agriculture 2022, 12(5), 692; https://doi.org/10.3390/agriculture12050692 - 13 May 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2412
Abstract
The prediction of liquid manure effects on N transformations in soils and the associated N2O and N2 fluxes is poor because previous investigations have mostly excluded N2. The objectives of this study were thus to quantify N2 [...] Read more.
The prediction of liquid manure effects on N transformations in soils and the associated N2O and N2 fluxes is poor because previous investigations have mostly excluded N2. The objectives of this study were thus to quantify N2, N2O and CO2 fluxes, the source processes of N2O, N2O reduction and the depth distribution of moisture, NO3, NH4+, water-extractable organic carbon concentration and pH in a laboratory incubation study with sandy arable soil using 15N tracing to quantify N processes and gaseous fluxes. The soil was amended with and without artificial slurry in various manure treatments (control, surface and injected) and incubated for 10 days at varying moisture levels, where the depth distribution of control parameters was determined twice during the experiment. Manure application was found to increase N2 and N2O fluxes from denitrification, with the highest fluxes occurring in the wet manure injection treatment (33 ± 32 mg N m−2 d−1 and 36.1 ± 39.1 mg N m−2 d−1, respectively), confirming that manure injection under wet conditions enhances denitrification and possibly also N2O fluxes. This study concluded that the current dataset is suitable as a first step towards improving the capability of biogeochemical models to predict manure application effects, but further studies with more soils and refined experiments are needed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Strategies for Nitrous Oxide Emission Mitigation in Agrosystems)
Show Figures

Figure 1

12 pages, 1151 KiB  
Article
New Insights into the Use of Rhizobia to Mitigate Soil N2O Emissions
by Catherine Hénault, Elodie Barbier, Alain Hartmann and Cécile Revellin
Agriculture 2022, 12(2), 271; https://doi.org/10.3390/agriculture12020271 - 15 Feb 2022
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 3109
Abstract
Agriculture is a major anthropogenic source of the greenhouse gas N2O, which is also involved in stratospheric ozone depletion. While the use of rhizobial inoculants has already been reported as an emerging option for mitigating soil N2O emissions, this [...] Read more.
Agriculture is a major anthropogenic source of the greenhouse gas N2O, which is also involved in stratospheric ozone depletion. While the use of rhizobial inoculants has already been reported as an emerging option for mitigating soil N2O emissions, this study presents an in situ abatement of 70% of soil N2O emission using the strain nosZ+ G49 vs. nosZ USDA138 in association with soybean. Therefore, we consider that the choice of the inoculant strain of a leguminous crop should take into account the capacity of strains to reduce nitrous oxide in addition to their N fixation capacity. This study also clearly suggests that this mitigation option could be considered not only for soybean but also for different leguminous crops, with emphasis currently placed on lupin because of the potential of its association with the nosZ+ LL200 strain. The clear demonstration of the N2O reduction capacity of clover symbiotic strains suggests that opportunities for mitigation might also occur on grassland. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Strategies for Nitrous Oxide Emission Mitigation in Agrosystems)
Show Figures

Figure 1

12 pages, 425 KiB  
Article
Ammonium Fertilizer Reduces Nitrous Oxide Emission Compared to Nitrate Fertilizer While Yielding Equally in a Temperate Grassland
by Niharika Rahman and Patrick J. Forrestal
Agriculture 2021, 11(11), 1141; https://doi.org/10.3390/agriculture11111141 - 14 Nov 2021
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 3231
Abstract
Emissions of nitrous oxide (N2O), a potent greenhouse gas, are a challenge associated with application of nitrogen (N) fertilizers to soil. However, N source selection can play a role in reducing these emissions. Nitrous oxide emissions were measured from ammonium (ammonium [...] Read more.
Emissions of nitrous oxide (N2O), a potent greenhouse gas, are a challenge associated with application of nitrogen (N) fertilizers to soil. However, N source selection can play a role in reducing these emissions. Nitrous oxide emissions were measured from ammonium (ammonium sulfate) and nitrate (calcium nitrate) fertilizers over one year in temperate grassland using the closed static chamber method. Nitrogen was applied at a system representative rate of 220 kg ha−1 y−1 in six split applications. Cumulative annual N2O-N emissions were 0.29 kg ha−1 for the control, 1.07 kg ha−1 for the ammonium fertilizer and significantly higher at 2.54 kg ha−1 for the nitrate fertilizer. The annual emission factor (EF) for the ammonium fertilizer was 0.35% vs 1.02% for the nitrate fertilizer, a 66% reduction in the EF for ammonium vs nitrate and a 2.9 times higher EF for nitrate compared with ammonium. No difference in grass yield or N uptake was detected between fertilizers. This study shows that an ammonium fertilizer produces the same yield and N efficiency as a nitrate fertilizer with lower N2O emissions. The results also demonstrate that the nitrate portion of fertilizers is a key factor in N2O emissions in temperate grassland. This work is the first of its kind detailing the annual EF of both a solely ammonium-N and a solely nitrate-N fertilizer we could find. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Strategies for Nitrous Oxide Emission Mitigation in Agrosystems)
Show Figures

Figure 1

18 pages, 13573 KiB  
Article
The Influence of Grain Legume and Tillage Strategies on CO2 and N2O Gas Exchange under Varied Environmental Conditions
by Emilie Marie Øst Hansen, Henrik Hauggaard-Nielsen, Eric Justes, Per Ambus and Teis Nørgaard Mikkelsen
Agriculture 2021, 11(5), 464; https://doi.org/10.3390/agriculture11050464 - 19 May 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2751
Abstract
By this in vitro study addressing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from soil-plant mesocosms, we suggest a method to investigate the joint effects of environmental conditions, growth of plants, and agricultural soil management. Soils from two long-term agricultural trials in France were placed in [...] Read more.
By this in vitro study addressing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from soil-plant mesocosms, we suggest a method to investigate the joint effects of environmental conditions, growth of plants, and agricultural soil management. Soils from two long-term agricultural trials in France were placed in climate chambers. The rotation trial was with or without grain legumes, and the tillage trial used plowing or reduced tillage. Environmental conditions consisted of two contrasting temperature regimes combined with ambient (400 ppm) or high (700 ppm) CO2 concentrations in climate chambers. The plant growth went from seeding to vegetative growth. Carbon dioxide gas exchange measurements were conducted in both soil types for a period representing initial plant growth. The CO2 exchange was influenced by the growing plants increasing the mesocosm respiration and gross ecosystem production. The environmental settings had no noticeable impact on the CO2 exchange in the soils from the legume trial. The CO2 exchange from the tillage trial soils exhibited variations induced by the environmental conditions depending on the tillage treatment. The N2O emission measurements in the legume trial soils showed little variability based on rotation, however, in soils with legumes, indications that higher temperatures will lead to more N2O emission were seen. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Strategies for Nitrous Oxide Emission Mitigation in Agrosystems)
Show Figures

Figure 1

15 pages, 3166 KiB  
Article
Irrigation Scheduling with Soil Gas Diffusivity as a Decision Tool to Mitigate N2O Emissions from a Urine-Affected Pasture
by Camille Rousset, Timothy J. Clough, Peter R. Grace, David W. Rowlings and Clemens Scheer
Agriculture 2021, 11(5), 443; https://doi.org/10.3390/agriculture11050443 - 13 May 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2510
Abstract
Pastures require year-round access to water and in some locations rely on irrigation during dry periods. Currently, there is a dearth of knowledge about the potential for using irrigation to mitigate N2O emissions. This study aimed to mitigate N2O [...] Read more.
Pastures require year-round access to water and in some locations rely on irrigation during dry periods. Currently, there is a dearth of knowledge about the potential for using irrigation to mitigate N2O emissions. This study aimed to mitigate N2O losses from intensely managed pastures by adjusting irrigation frequency using soil gas diffusivity (Dp/Do) thresholds. Two irrigation regimes were compared; a standard irrigation treatment based on farmer practice (15 mm applied every 3 days) versus an optimised irrigation treatment where irrigation was applied when soil Dp/Do was ≈0.033 (equivalent to 50% of plant available water). Cow urine was applied at a rate of 700 kg N ha−1 to simulate a ruminant urine deposition event. In addition to N2O fluxes, soil moisture content was monitored hourly, Dp/Do was modelled, and pasture dry matter production was measured. Standard irrigation practices resulted in higher (p = 0.09) cumulative N2O emissions than the optimised irrigation treatment. Pasture growth rates under treatments did not differ. Denitrification during re-wetting events (irrigation and rain) contributed to soil N2O emissions. These results warrant further modelling of irrigation management as a mitigation option for N2O emissions from pasture soils, based on Dp/Do thresholds, rainfall, plant water demands and evapotranspiration. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Strategies for Nitrous Oxide Emission Mitigation in Agrosystems)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Back to TopTop