Gust Influences on Aerospace

A special issue of Aerospace (ISSN 2226-4310).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 30 June 2024 | Viewed by 5769

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
College of Energy and Power Engineering, Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Nanjing 210016, China
Interests: fluid dynamics; atmosphere

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Guest Editor
Institute of Physics and ForWind, University of Oldenburg, 26129 Oldenburg, Germany
Interests: fluid dynamics and turbulence

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

An important prerequisite for the design, assessment and certification of aircraft and their associated control systems is the quantitative specification of the environment in which the aircraft is intended to operate, for example, atmospheric wind gust. Wind gust is a common atmospheric turbulence in nature; however, it has very complex physical characteristics, including its scale, velocity profile, and power spectral density. Thus, it can affect both the natural atmosphere and human activities through a variety of perspectives. This Special Issue aims to form a comprehensive collection of essays regarding wind gusts in aerospace, including but not limited to gust properties, gust research methods, atmospheric influences, aerodynamic and aeroelastic responses of aircraft and engine, aircraft design considerations, gust alleviation measures, etc. Submissions are encouraged from all researchers engaged in aircraft gust aerodynamics and aeroelastics.

Prof. Dr. Zhenlong Wu
Dr. Michael Hölling
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

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Keywords

  • gust
  • aerodynamics
  • aeroelastics
  • aircraft
  • structural dynamics
  • fluid-structure coupling
  • reduced-order modeling
  • CFD
  • wind-tunnel experiment
  • gust alleviation

Published Papers (6 papers)

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Research

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16 pages, 2702 KiB  
Article
Experimental Validation of a Passive-Adaptive Slat Concept and Characterization under Sinusoidal Fluctuations in the Angle of Attack
by Piyush Singh, Florian Schmidt, Jochen Wild, Johannes Riemenschneider, Joachim Peinke and Michael Hölling
Aerospace 2024, 11(5), 353; https://doi.org/10.3390/aerospace11050353 - 29 Apr 2024
Viewed by 675
Abstract
This article presents an experimental investigation of a passive-adaptive slat concept, an aerodynamic control mechanism aimed at avoiding separation in the inwards region of a horizontal axis wind turbine blade. The passive-adaptive slat is designed to autonomously adjust its position due to the [...] Read more.
This article presents an experimental investigation of a passive-adaptive slat concept, an aerodynamic control mechanism aimed at avoiding separation in the inwards region of a horizontal axis wind turbine blade. The passive-adaptive slat is designed to autonomously adjust its position due to the aerodynamic forces acting on it, without the need of any active control system or external power source. The slat opens when the angle of attack increases beyond a certain threshold so that stall is delayed and closes for smaller angles of attack to increase the lift-to-drag ratio of the airfoil. A thorough aerodynamic characterisation of the passive-adaptive slat is performed in the wind tunnel followed by testing it under different sinusoidal inflows generated by a 2D active grid. It is observed that the slat system is able to leverage the advantages of both a clean airfoil and an airfoil with a fixed slat. It has the capability of delaying stalls for higher angles of attack, as well as having higher lift-to-drag ratio for lower angles of attack. It is also observed that, for fluctuating inflow, the passive-adaptive slat is able to achieve similar mean lift values as an airfoil with fixed slat while showing significant reduction in the lift fluctuations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Gust Influences on Aerospace)
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20 pages, 19914 KiB  
Article
Investigation of the Internal Flow Characteristics of a Tiltrotor Aircraft Engine Inlet in a Gust Environment
by Haicheng Zhu, Xiaoming He, Yue Zhang, Daishu Cheng, Ziyun Wang, Yufeng Huang and Huijun Tan
Aerospace 2024, 11(5), 342; https://doi.org/10.3390/aerospace11050342 - 25 Apr 2024
Viewed by 492
Abstract
In the vertical take-off and landing (VTOL) state of tiltrotor aircraft, the inlet entrance encounters the incoming airflow at a 90° attack angle, resulting in highly complex internal flow characteristics that are extremely susceptible to gusts. Meanwhile, the flow quality at the inlet [...] Read more.
In the vertical take-off and landing (VTOL) state of tiltrotor aircraft, the inlet entrance encounters the incoming airflow at a 90° attack angle, resulting in highly complex internal flow characteristics that are extremely susceptible to gusts. Meanwhile, the flow quality at the inlet exit directly affects the performance of the aircraft’s engine. This work made use of an unsteady numerical simulation method based on sliding meshes to investigate the internal flow characteristics of the inlet during the hover state of a typical tiltrotor aircraft and the effects of head-on gusts on the inlet’s aerodynamic characteristics. The results show that during the hover state, the tiltrotor aircraft inlet features three pairs of transverse vortices and one streamwise vortex at the aerodynamic interface plane (AIP). The transverse vortices generated due to the rotational motion of the air have the largest scale and exert the strongest influence on the inlet’s performance, which is characterized by pronounced unsteady features. Additionally, strong unsteady characteristics are present within the inlet. Head-on gusts mainly affect the mechanical energy and non-uniformity of the air sucked into the inlet by influencing the direction of the rotor’s induced slipstream, thereby impacting the performance of the inlet. The larger head-on gusts have beneficial effects on the performance of the inlet. When the gust velocity reaches 12 m/s, there is a 1.01% increase in the total pressure recovery (σ) of the inlet, a 25.72% decrease in the circumferential distortion index (DC60), and a reduction of 62.84% in the area where the swirl angle |α| exceeds 15°. Conversely, when the gust velocity of head-on gusts reaches 12 m/s in the opposite direction, the inlet’s total pressure recovery decreases by 1.13%, the circumferential distortion index increases by 14.57%, and the area where the swirl angle exceeds 15° increases by 69.59%, adversely affecting the performance of the inlet. Additionally, the presence of gusts alters the unsteady characteristics within the inlet. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Gust Influences on Aerospace)
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18 pages, 8358 KiB  
Article
Wind Tunnel Investigation of Transient Propeller Loads for Non-Axial Inflow Conditions
by Catharina Moreira, Nikolai Herzog and Christian Breitsamter
Aerospace 2024, 11(4), 274; https://doi.org/10.3390/aerospace11040274 - 30 Mar 2024
Viewed by 911
Abstract
Recent developments in electrical Vertical Take-off and Landing (eVTOL) vehicles show the need for a better understanding of transient aero-mechanical propeller loads for non-axial inflow conditions. The variety of vehicle configurations conceptualized with different propellers in terms of blade geometry, number of blades, [...] Read more.
Recent developments in electrical Vertical Take-off and Landing (eVTOL) vehicles show the need for a better understanding of transient aero-mechanical propeller loads for non-axial inflow conditions. The variety of vehicle configurations conceptualized with different propellers in terms of blade geometry, number of blades, and their general integration concept results in aerodynamic loads on the propellers which are different from those on conventional fixed-wing aircraft propellers or helicopter rotors. Such varying aerodynamic loads have to be considered in the vehicle design as a whole and also in the detailed design of their respective electric propulsion systems. Therefore, an experimental approach is conducted on two different propeller blade geometries and a varying number of blades with the objective to explore the characteristics at non-axial inflow conditions. Experimental data are compared with calculated results of a low-fidelity Blade Element Momentum Theory (BEMT) approach. Average thrust and side force coefficients are shown to increase with inflow angle, and this trend is captured by the implemented numerical method. Measured thrust and in-plane forces are shown to oscillate at the blade passing frequency and its harmonics, with higher amplitudes at higher angles of inflow or lower number of blades. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Gust Influences on Aerospace)
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19 pages, 6507 KiB  
Article
Development of a Novel Small-Scale Gust Generator Research Facility
by Zhenlong Wu, Tianyu Zhang, Yuan Gao and Huijun Tan
Aerospace 2024, 11(1), 95; https://doi.org/10.3390/aerospace11010095 - 19 Jan 2024
Viewed by 971
Abstract
In this paper, a novel small-scale gust generator research facility was designed and examined for generating Sears-type gusts. The design scheme, integration with the wind tunnel, experiment and validation of its capability are presented in detail. To help design the gust generator and [...] Read more.
In this paper, a novel small-scale gust generator research facility was designed and examined for generating Sears-type gusts. The design scheme, integration with the wind tunnel, experiment and validation of its capability are presented in detail. To help design the gust generator and validate the experimental results of the flow field characteristics generated by the developed gust generator, two numerical simulation methods, the field velocity method (FVM) and oscillating vane method (OVM), were utilized to detect the impacts of the geometrical parameters of the oscillating vanes and the downstream test model. The filtered experimental measurement results agree well with the numerical data, validating the capability of the developed gust generator to produce sinusoidal gusts. However, it should be noted that necessary measures are needed to prevent mechanical noise from interfering with the gusty flow field, which will be a focus of future research. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Gust Influences on Aerospace)
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22 pages, 11257 KiB  
Article
Suction Control of a Boundary Layer Ingestion Inlet
by Lei Liu, Guozhan Li, Ban Wang and Shaofeng Wu
Aerospace 2023, 10(12), 989; https://doi.org/10.3390/aerospace10120989 - 24 Nov 2023
Viewed by 1174
Abstract
This study presents a numerical investigation of suction control in an aggressive S-shaped air intake with large boundary ingestion. The results show that the variation of suction control parameters such as suction location, suction pipe diameter, and suction angle all have an impact [...] Read more.
This study presents a numerical investigation of suction control in an aggressive S-shaped air intake with large boundary ingestion. The results show that the variation of suction control parameters such as suction location, suction pipe diameter, and suction angle all have an impact on the effectiveness of the flow control. In general, further upstream suction, such as near the throat, is favorable for the decrease of the second flow intensity and the area of the low-energy fluid region at the exit of the S-shaped inlet. However, it is bad for the total pressure recovery and the circumferential total pressure uniform distribution. From the perspective of the uniformity of the total pressure distribution at the air intake exit, there is an optimal location for suction between the throat and the separation start point. A bigger suction pipe diameter brings better effects as the suction location and suction angle keep constant, due to more low-energy fluid being sucked out. But this doesn’t mean the largest mass flow suction results in the biggest improvement. Overall, sucking at the 1st bend, with suction angle and suction pipe diameter equaling 15 degrees and 12 mm, respectively, is the optimal suction scheme here. Since the change rule of the cross-section area along the centerline has not changed during suction control, the second flow and complex surface streamline at the air intake exit cannot be eliminated, though they can be decreased a lot with reasonable suction control. Similarly, owing to large boundary ingestion, the remarkable low-energy fluid region always exists despite the significant reduction of the separation and second flow, which is very different from the results of this kind of micro-suction executed in the non-BLI S-duct. To pursue a higher improvement, suction combined with vortex generator vanes has been further studied. Corresponding results analysis shows that the hybrid flow control method has great potential and should be investigated in detail in the future. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Gust Influences on Aerospace)
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Review

Jump to: Research

13 pages, 2662 KiB  
Review
A Mini-Review of Recent Developments in Plenoptic Background-Oriented Schlieren Technology for Flow Dynamics Measurement
by Yulan Liu, Feng Xing, Liwei Su, Huijun Tan and Depeng Wang
Aerospace 2024, 11(4), 303; https://doi.org/10.3390/aerospace11040303 - 12 Apr 2024
Viewed by 637
Abstract
To uncover the underlying fluid mechanisms, it is crucial to explore imaging techniques for high-resolution and large-scale three-dimensional (3D) measurements of the flow field. Plenoptic background-oriented schlieren (Plenoptic BOS), an emerging volumetric method in recent years, has demonstrated being able to resolve volumetric [...] Read more.
To uncover the underlying fluid mechanisms, it is crucial to explore imaging techniques for high-resolution and large-scale three-dimensional (3D) measurements of the flow field. Plenoptic background-oriented schlieren (Plenoptic BOS), an emerging volumetric method in recent years, has demonstrated being able to resolve volumetric flow dynamics with a single plenoptic camera. The focus-stack-based plenoptic BOS system can qualitatively infer the position of the density gradient in 3D space based on the relative sharpness of the refocused BOS image. Plenoptic BOS systems based on tomography or specular enhancement techniques are realized for use in high-fidelity 3D flow measurements due to the increased number of acquisition views. Here, we first review the fundamentals of plenoptic BOS, and then discuss the system configuration and typical application of single-view and multi-view plenoptic BOS. We also discuss the related challenges and outlook on the potential development of plenoptic BOS in the future. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Gust Influences on Aerospace)
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Planned Papers

The below list represents only planned manuscripts. Some of these manuscripts have not been received by the Editorial Office yet. Papers submitted to MDPI journals are subject to peer-review.

Title: Investigation of Internal Flow Characteristics of Tiltrotor Aircraft Inlet in Gust Environment
Authors: Haicheng Zhu; Xiaoming He; Yue Zhang; Daishu Cheng; Ziyun Wang; YuFeng Huang; Huijun Tan
Affiliation: College of Energy and Power Engineering, Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics
Abstract: In the vertical takeoff and landing (VTOL) state of tiltrotor aircraft, the inlet angle encounters the incoming airflow at 90 degrees, resulting in highly complex internal flow characteristics that are extremely susceptible to gusts. Meanwhile, the flow quality at the outlet of the inlet directly affects the performance of the aircraft's engine. This paper utilizes an unsteady numerical simulation method based on sliding meshes to investigate the internal flow characteristics of the inlet during the hover state of a typical tiltrotor aircraft and the effects of head-on gusts on the aerodynamic Characteristics of the inlet. The results show that during hover state, tiltrotor aircraft inlet exhibits three pairs of transverse vortices and one Streamwise Vortex at the aerodynamic interface plane (AIP). Among these, the transverse vortices generated due to the rotational motion of the gas have the largest scale and exert the strongest influence on the inlet's performance, characterized by pronounced unsteady features. Additionally, there are strong unsteady characteristics present within the inlet. Head-on gusts primarily affect the performance of the inlet by influencing the direction of the slipstream generated by the rotor, thereby influencing the mechanical energy and the non-distribution of the ingested gas within the inlet. The larger head-on gusts have a beneficial effects on the performance of the inlet. When the gust velocity reaches 12 m/s, there is a 1.01% increase in the total pressure recovery () of the inlet, a 25.72% decrease in the circumferential distortion index (DC60), and a reduction of 62.84% in the area where |α| exceeds 15°. Conversely, when the gust velocity of head-on gusts reaches 12 m/s in the opposite direction, the inlet's total pressure recovery decreases by 1.13%, the circumferential distortion index increases by 14.57%, and the area where |α| exceeds 15° increases by 69.59%, adversely affecting the performance of the inlet. Additionally, the presence of gusts alters the unsteady characteristics within the inlet.

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