Previous Issue
Volume 2, IOCA 2021

Comput. Sci. Math. Forum, 2022, AIBSD 2022

AAAI Workshop on Artificial Intelligence with Biased or Scarce Data (AIBSD)

Online | 28 February 2022

Volume Editors: Kuan-Chuan Peng and Ziyan Wu
  • Issues are regarded as officially published after their release is announced to the table of contents alert mailing list.
  • You may sign up for e-mail alerts to receive table of contents of newly released issues.
  • PDF is the official format for papers published in both, html and pdf forms. To view the papers in pdf format, click on the "PDF Full-text" link, and use the free Adobe Readerexternal link to open them.
Cover Story (view full-size image): With the increasing appetite for data in data-driven methods, the issues of biased and scarce data have become a major bottleneck in developing generalizable and scalable artificial intelligence [...] Read more.
Order results
Result details
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:

Other

Proceeding Paper
Electricity Consumption Forecasting for Out-of-Distribution Time-of-Use Tariffs
Comput. Sci. Math. Forum 2022, 3(1), 1; https://doi.org/10.3390/cmsf2022003001 - 08 Apr 2022
Viewed by 153
Abstract
In electricity markets, electricity retailers or brokers want to maximize profits by allocating tariff profiles to end-consumers. One of the objectives of such demand response management is to incentivize the consumers to adjust their consumption so that the overall electricity procurement in the [...] Read more.
In electricity markets, electricity retailers or brokers want to maximize profits by allocating tariff profiles to end-consumers. One of the objectives of such demand response management is to incentivize the consumers to adjust their consumption so that the overall electricity procurement in the wholesale markets is minimized, e.g., it is desirable that consumers consume less during peak hours when the cost of procurement for brokers from wholesale markets are high. We consider a greedy solution to maximize the overall profit for brokers by optimal tariff profile allocation, i.e., allocate that tariff profile to a consumer that maximizes the profit with respect to that consumer. This, in turn, requires forecasting electricity consumption for each user for all tariff profiles. This forecasting problem is challenging compared to standard forecasting problems due to following reasons: (1) the number of possible combinations of hourly tariffs is high and retailers may not have considered all combinations in the past resulting in a biased set of tariff profiles tried in the past, i.e., the retailer may want to consider new tariff profiles that may achieve better profits; (2) the profiles allocated in the past to each user is typically based on certain policy, i.e., tariff profile allocation for historical electricity consumption data is biased. These reasons violate the standard IID assumptions as there is a need to evaluate new tariff profiles on existing customers and historical data is biased by the policies used in the past for tariff allocation. In this work, we consider several scenarios for forecasting and optimization under these conditions. We leverage the underlying structure of how consumers respond to variable tariff rates by comparing tariffs across hours and shifting loads, and propose suitable inductive biases in the design of deep neural network based architectures for forecasting under such scenarios. More specifically, we leverage attention mechanisms and permutation equivariant networks that allow desirable processing of tariff profiles to learn tariff representations that are insensitive to the biases in the data and still representative of the task. Through extensive empirical evaluation using the PowerTAC simulator, we show that the proposed approach significantly improves upon standard baselines that tend to overfit to the historical tariff profiles. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Proceeding Paper
Measuring Embedded Human-Like Biases in Face Recognition Models
Comput. Sci. Math. Forum 2022, 3(1), 2; https://doi.org/10.3390/cmsf2022003002 - 11 Apr 2022
Viewed by 175
Abstract
Recent works in machine learning have focused on understanding and mitigating bias in data and algorithms. Because the pre-trained models are trained on large real-world data, they are known to learn implicit biases in a way that humans unconsciously constructed for a long [...] Read more.
Recent works in machine learning have focused on understanding and mitigating bias in data and algorithms. Because the pre-trained models are trained on large real-world data, they are known to learn implicit biases in a way that humans unconsciously constructed for a long time. However, there has been little discussion about social biases with pre-trained face recognition models. Thus, this study investigates the robustness of the models against racial, gender, age, and an intersectional bias. We also present the racial bias with a different ethnicity other than white and black: Asian. In detail, we introduce the Face Embedding Association Test (FEAT) to measure the social biases in image vectors of faces with different race, gender, and age. It measures social bias in the face recognition models under the hypothesis that a specific group is more likely to be associated with a particular attribute in a biased manner. The presence of these biases within DeepFace, DeepID, VGGFace, FaceNet, OpenFace, and ArcFace critically mitigate the fairness in our society. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Proceeding Paper
Measuring Gender Bias in Contextualized Embeddings
Comput. Sci. Math. Forum 2022, 3(1), 3; https://doi.org/10.3390/cmsf2022003003 - 11 Apr 2022
Viewed by 131
Abstract
Transformer models are now increasingly being used in real-world applications. Indiscriminately using these models as automated tools may propagate biases in ways we do not realize. To responsibly direct actions that will combat this problem, it is of crucial importance that we detect [...] Read more.
Transformer models are now increasingly being used in real-world applications. Indiscriminately using these models as automated tools may propagate biases in ways we do not realize. To responsibly direct actions that will combat this problem, it is of crucial importance that we detect and quantify these biases. Robust methods have been developed to measure bias in non-contextualized embeddings. Nevertheless, these methods fail to apply to contextualized embeddings due to their mutable nature. Our study focuses on the detection and measurement of stereotypical biases associated with gender in the embeddings of T5 and mT5. We quantify bias by measuring the gender polarity of T5’s word embeddings for various professions. To measure gender polarity, we use a stable gender direction that we detect in the model’s embedding space. We also measure gender bias with respect to a specific downstream task and compare Swedish with English, as well as various sizes of the T5 model and its multilingual variant. The insights from our exploration indicate that the use of a stable gender direction, even in a Transformer’s mutable embedding space, can be a robust method to measure bias. We show that higher status professions are associated more with the male gender than the female gender. In addition, our method suggests that the Swedish language carries less bias associated with gender than English, and the higher manifestation of gender bias is associated with the use of larger language models. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Proceeding Paper
The Details Matter: Preventing Class Collapse in Supervised Contrastive Learning
Comput. Sci. Math. Forum 2022, 3(1), 4; https://doi.org/10.3390/cmsf2022003004 - 15 Apr 2022
Viewed by 116
Abstract
Supervised contrastive learning optimizes a loss that pushes together embeddings of points from the same class while pulling apart embeddings of points from different classes. Class collapse—when every point from the same class has the same embedding—minimizes this loss but loses critical information [...] Read more.
Supervised contrastive learning optimizes a loss that pushes together embeddings of points from the same class while pulling apart embeddings of points from different classes. Class collapse—when every point from the same class has the same embedding—minimizes this loss but loses critical information that is not encoded in the class labels. For instance, the “cat” label does not capture unlabeled categories such as breeds, poses, or backgrounds (which we call “strata”). As a result, class collapse produces embeddings that are less useful for downstream applications such as transfer learning and achieves suboptimal generalization error when there are strata. We explore a simple modification to supervised contrastive loss that aims to prevent class collapse by uniformly pulling apart individual points from the same class. We seek to understand the effects of this loss by examining how it embeds strata of different sizes, finding that it clusters larger strata more tightly than smaller strata. As a result, our loss function produces embeddings that better distinguish strata in embedding space, which produces lift on three downstream applications: 4.4 points on coarse-to-fine transfer learning, 2.5 points on worst-group robustness, and 1.0 points on minimal coreset construction. Our loss also produces more accurate models, with up to 4.0 points of lift across 9 tasks. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Proceeding Paper
DAP-SDD: Distribution-Aware Pseudo Labeling for Small Defect Detection
Comput. Sci. Math. Forum 2022, 3(1), 5; https://doi.org/10.3390/cmsf2022003005 - 20 Apr 2022
Viewed by 166
Abstract
Detecting defects, especially when they are small in the early manufacturing stages, is critical to achieving a high yield in industrial applications. While numerous modern deep learning models can improve detection performance, they become less effective in detecting small defects in practical applications [...] Read more.
Detecting defects, especially when they are small in the early manufacturing stages, is critical to achieving a high yield in industrial applications. While numerous modern deep learning models can improve detection performance, they become less effective in detecting small defects in practical applications due to the scarcity of labeled data and significant class imbalance in multiple dimensions. In this work, we propose a distribution-aware pseudo labeling method (DAP-SDD) to detect small defects accurately while using limited labeled data effectively. Specifically, we apply bootstrapping on limited labeled data and then utilize the approximated label distribution to guide pseudo label propagation. Moreover, we propose to use the t-distribution confidence interval for threshold setting to generate more pseudo labels with high confidence. DAP-SDD also incorporates data augmentation to enhance the model’s performance and robustness. We conduct extensive experiments on various datasets to validate the proposed method. Our evaluation results show that, overall, our proposed method requires less than 10% of labeled data to achieve comparable results of using a fully-labeled (100%) dataset and outperforms the state-of-the-art methods. For a dataset of wafer images, our proposed model can achieve above 0.93 of AP (average precision) with only four labeled images (i.e., 2% of labeled data). Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Proceeding Paper
Quantifying Bias in a Face Verification System
Comput. Sci. Math. Forum 2022, 3(1), 6; https://doi.org/10.3390/cmsf2022003006 - 20 Apr 2022
Viewed by 201
Abstract
Machine learning models perform face verification (FV) for a variety of highly consequential applications, such as biometric authentication, face identification, and surveillance. Many state-of-the-art FV systems suffer from unequal performance across demographic groups, which is commonly overlooked by evaluation measures that do not [...] Read more.
Machine learning models perform face verification (FV) for a variety of highly consequential applications, such as biometric authentication, face identification, and surveillance. Many state-of-the-art FV systems suffer from unequal performance across demographic groups, which is commonly overlooked by evaluation measures that do not assess population-specific performance. Deployed systems with bias may result in serious harm against individuals or groups who experience underperformance. We explore several fairness definitions and metrics, attempting to quantify bias in Google’s FaceNet model. In addition to statistical fairness metrics, we analyze clustered face embeddings produced by the FV model. We link well-clustered embeddings (well-defined, dense clusters) for a demographic group to biased model performance against that group. We present the intuition that FV systems underperform on protected demographic groups because they are less sensitive to differences between features within those groups, as evidenced by clustered embeddings. We show how this performance discrepancy results from a combination of representation and aggregation bias. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Proceeding Paper
Super-Resolution for Brain MR Images from a Significantly Small Amount of Training Data
Comput. Sci. Math. Forum 2022, 3(1), 7; https://doi.org/10.3390/cmsf2022003007 - 27 Apr 2022
Viewed by 100
Abstract
We propose two essential techniques to effectively train generative adversarial network-based super-resolution networks for brain magnetic resonance images, even when only a small number of training samples are available. First, stochastic patch sampling is proposed, which increases training samples by sampling many small [...] Read more.
We propose two essential techniques to effectively train generative adversarial network-based super-resolution networks for brain magnetic resonance images, even when only a small number of training samples are available. First, stochastic patch sampling is proposed, which increases training samples by sampling many small patches from the input image. However, sampling patches and combining them causes unpleasant artifacts around patch boundaries. The second proposed method, an artifact-suppressing discriminator, suppresses the artifacts by taking two-channel input containing an original high-resolution image and a generated image. With the introduction of the proposed techniques, the network achieved generation of natural-looking MR images from only ~40 training images, and improved the area-under-curve score on Alzheimer’s disease from 76.17% to 81.57%. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Proceeding Paper
Dual Complementary Prototype Learning for Few-Shot Segmentation
Comput. Sci. Math. Forum 2022, 3(1), 8; https://doi.org/10.3390/cmsf2022003008 - 29 Apr 2022
Viewed by 80
Abstract
Few-shot semantic segmentation aims to transfer knowledge from base classes with sufficient data to represent novel classes with limited few-shot samples. Recent methods follow a metric learning framework with prototypes for foreground representation. However, they still face the challenge of segmentation of novel [...] Read more.
Few-shot semantic segmentation aims to transfer knowledge from base classes with sufficient data to represent novel classes with limited few-shot samples. Recent methods follow a metric learning framework with prototypes for foreground representation. However, they still face the challenge of segmentation of novel classes due to inadequate representation of foreground and lack of discriminability between foreground and background. To address this problem, we propose the Dual Complementary prototype Network (DCNet). Firstly, we design a training-free Complementary Prototype Generation (CPG) module to extract comprehensive information from the mask region in the support image. Secondly, we design a Background Guided Learning (BGL) as a complementary branch of the foreground segmentation branch, which enlarges difference between the foreground and its corresponding background so that the representation of novel class in the foreground could be more discriminative. Extensive experiments on PASCAL-5i and COCO-20i demonstrate that our DCNet achieves state-of-the-art results. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Proceeding Paper
Extracting Salient Facts from Company Reviews with Scarce Labels
Comput. Sci. Math. Forum 2022, 3(1), 9; https://doi.org/10.3390/cmsf2022003009 - 29 Apr 2022
Viewed by 129
Abstract
In this paper, we propose the task of extracting salient facts from online company reviews. Salient facts present unique and distinctive information about a company, which helps the user in deciding whether to apply to the company. We formulate the salient fact extraction [...] Read more.
In this paper, we propose the task of extracting salient facts from online company reviews. Salient facts present unique and distinctive information about a company, which helps the user in deciding whether to apply to the company. We formulate the salient fact extraction task as a text classification problem, and leverage pretrained language models to tackle the problem. However, the scarcity of salient facts in company reviews causes a serious label imbalance issue, which hinders taking full advantage of pretrained language models. To address the issue, we developed two data enrichment methods: first, representation enrichment, which highlights uncommon tokens by appending special tokens, and second, label propagation, which interactively creates pseudopositive examples from unlabeled data. Experimental results on an online company review corpus show that our approach improves the performance of pretrained language models by up to an F1 score of 0.24. We also confirm that our approach competitively performs well against the state-of-the-art data augmentation method on the SemEval 2019 benchmark even when trained with only 20% of training data. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Previous Issue
Back to TopTop