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Coasts, Volume 3, Issue 2 (June 2023) – 3 articles

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15 pages, 3248 KiB  
Article
Automated Technique for Identification of Prominent Nearshore Sandbars
by Nicole Zuck, Laura Kerr and Jon Miller
Coasts 2023, 3(2), 145-159; https://doi.org/10.3390/coasts3020009 - 26 May 2023
Viewed by 1346
Abstract
Nearshore sandbars are common features along sandy coasts. However, identifying sandbars within a beach profile traditionally requires a large historical dataset or subjective input from an observer. Several existing methodologies rely on reference profiles, which is problematic for new study sites with limited [...] Read more.
Nearshore sandbars are common features along sandy coasts. However, identifying sandbars within a beach profile traditionally requires a large historical dataset or subjective input from an observer. Several existing methodologies rely on reference profiles, which is problematic for new study sites with limited data sets and for nourished beaches that have drastic fluctuations in the cross-shore. This novel technique is suitable for beaches where a reference profile does not exist, as it identifies morphological sandbar features by a quantitative automated process. The technique identifies sandbars with a minimum steepness of 2% grade and a minimum height of 0.2 m. The morphological boundaries of sandbars were previously not well-defined, especially the seaward limit of the sandbar, contributing to difficulty in comparing surveys and sandbar morphologies. This technique standardizes the definitions of the bar limits mathematically via standard MATLAB functions, thus removing subjectivity and allowing results to be replicated. Bar identification is focused on the beach profile below the mean high water line, not cross on-shore positions, making the technique appropriate for nourished shorelines as well as those with large seasonal fluctuations. The automated technique was tested on 840 profiles collected near a recently completed beach nourishment project in Long Branch, NJ, USA. Results indicate success in identifying prominent sandbars within the test data set. Full article
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20 pages, 3593 KiB  
Article
Impact of Metal Accumulation on Photosynthetic Pigments, Carbon Assimilation, and Oxidative Metabolism in Mangroves Affected by the Fundāo Dam Tailings Plume
by Veronica D’Addazio, Monica Maria Pereira Tognella, Adriano Alves Fernandes, Antelmo Ralph Falqueto, Marcelo Barcellos da Rosa, Ivoney Gontijo and Marcelo Antônio de Oliveira
Coasts 2023, 3(2), 125-144; https://doi.org/10.3390/coasts3020008 - 14 Apr 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2110
Abstract
The effects of iron, manganese, zinc, copper, and lead on the chlorophyll content, carbon assimilation, and the antiradical activity of Rhizophora mangle and Laguncularia racemosa were evaluated in regions affected by the Fundão dam disruption in Brazil. The mine waste which settled and [...] Read more.
The effects of iron, manganese, zinc, copper, and lead on the chlorophyll content, carbon assimilation, and the antiradical activity of Rhizophora mangle and Laguncularia racemosa were evaluated in regions affected by the Fundão dam disruption in Brazil. The mine waste which settled and accumulated in the sediments could represent long-term contamination. It can be expected that the iron oxyhydroxides deposited in the sediments will be solubilized, leading to chronic contamination by trace metals and the accumulation of these metals in the biota. In this sense, biological indicators prove to be important tools to assess this type of damage. The different bioaccumulation of metals by the species revealed that R. mangle was more impacted by Mn and Cu and that L. racemosa showed alterations in its physiological responses in the presence of Cu, Zn, and Fe. The concentration of these metals in the leaves, with values above previous local reference limits, was associated with reductions in the chlorophyll-a and chlorophyll-b content and carbon assimilation, mainly in L. racemosa. The antiradical activity was also altered, suggesting a lower ability of both species to eliminate reactive oxygen species (ROS). A possible reason for the symptoms of oxidative stress may be due to the reduced efficiency of antioxidant defense by Cu2+ and Zn2+. In addition, the presence of Pb in the leaf tissue may be toxic to the fauna and the bioaccumulation of this metal and trace elements can be a way to transfer them into the food web by biomagnification. Full article
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12 pages, 2797 KiB  
Article
Temporal and Spatial Evolution of Seasonal Sea Ice of Arctic Bay, Nunavut
by Slawomir Kowal, William A. Gough and Kenneth Butler
Coasts 2023, 3(2), 113-124; https://doi.org/10.3390/coasts3020007 - 3 Apr 2023
Viewed by 1304
Abstract
The temporal and spatial variation in seasonal sea ice in Arctic Bay, Nunavut, are examined using time series and spatial clustering analyses. For the period of 1971 to 2018, a time series of sea ice break-up, and freeze-up, dates and ice-free season length [...] Read more.
The temporal and spatial variation in seasonal sea ice in Arctic Bay, Nunavut, are examined using time series and spatial clustering analyses. For the period of 1971 to 2018, a time series of sea ice break-up, and freeze-up, dates and ice-free season length at nine grid points are generated from sea ice charts derived from satellites and other data. These data are analysed temporally and spatially. The temporal analyses indicate an unambiguous response to a warming climate with statistically significant earlier break-up dates, later freeze-up dates, and longer ice-free seasons with clear statistically significant linkages to local air temperature. The rate of change in freeze-up dates and ice-free season length was particularly strong in the early 2000s and less in the 2010s. Spatial clustering analysis indicated a roughly linear pathway of south to north behaviour, following the contours of the bay with the exception of modified behaviour for landfast sea ice near the hamlet of Arctic Bay. The temporal analysis confirms and expands upon an earlier time series analysis of local seasonal sea ice. The spatial analysis indicates that while the ice-free season is increasing, it does not provide clear evidence that there has been a regime change in the seasonal characteristics of how sea ice forms and melts each year. Full article
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