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Humans, Volume 1, Issue 2 (December 2021) – 3 articles

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10 pages, 230 KiB  
Article
Women’s Trade-Offs between Fertility and Employment during Industrialisation
by Fhionna Moore, Ethan Lumb, Charlotte Starkey, James McIntosh, Jaime Benjamin, Mairi Macleod and Indrikis Krams
Humans 2021, 1(2), 47-56; https://doi.org/10.3390/humans1020007 - 30 Nov 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2830
Abstract
Modelling fertility decline in post-industrial populations in the context of life history theory has allowed us to better understand the environmental pressures that shape reduced family size. One such pressure, which has received relatively little attention from ecologists, is the movement of women [...] Read more.
Modelling fertility decline in post-industrial populations in the context of life history theory has allowed us to better understand the environmental pressures that shape reduced family size. One such pressure, which has received relatively little attention from ecologists, is the movement of women into the labour market. Analyses of effects of employment on fertility in contemporary developing or post-demographic transition populations are limited by the widespread use of modern contraceptives: while uptake of these methods may be a mechanism by which reduced fertility is enacted, their use may obscure effects of employment on fertility. Here, we investigated the impact of women’s employment on family size during a period of the movement of women into the workforce but prior to the use of modern contraceptives. We analysed the effects of women’s employment on family size using census records from 1901 for a regional-level analysis of parishes in Scotland, and for 1851–1901 for an individual-level analysis of the Scottish city of Dundee. Women in employment had fewer children than those not in employment. Income was inversely related with family size, and this was independent of the effects of women’s employment on family size. We suggest that female employment contributes to the evolution of smaller family sizes and that this takes place in the context of prevailing and emerging gender roles, and in interaction with opportunities for employment and wealth. Full article
3 pages, 422 KiB  
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TINA Is Dead: Reflecting on Postcapitalist Futures
by Loris Serafino and Fabrizia Ghezzo
Humans 2021, 1(2), 44-46; https://doi.org/10.3390/humans1020006 - 23 Nov 2021
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Abstract
Social sciences in recent years have clearly proven that TINA—There Is No Alternative (to capitalism)—is no longer tenable. Today, alterity to capitalism comes in many forms and blossoms from inside its borders. Ethnographies of experimentations that span from [...] Read more.
Social sciences in recent years have clearly proven that TINA—There Is No Alternative (to capitalism)—is no longer tenable. Today, alterity to capitalism comes in many forms and blossoms from inside its borders. Ethnographies of experimentations that span from ecovillages and community economies to alternative forms of work, production, and consumption are now countless. One common denominator of these experiences is that communal forms of social relation take over market relations. The main theoretical issue raised by this empirical work is whether this ferment of scattered, small scale alternative ways of organizing economy and society can coalesce into a fully fledged postcapitalist future or whether it is doomed to be stay marginal and transient at best. Anthropology can be at the forefront of this theoretical challenge. We close this brief commentary by addressing the importance of a future-oriented thinking in Anthropology and for the social science in general. Full article
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15 pages, 6810 KiB  
Article
Preliminary Report on Golden Langur (Trachypithecus geei) Winter Sleep Sites
by Kuenzang Dorji, Lori K. Sheeran, Ratan Giri, Kathleen Barlow, Namgay Pem Dorji and Timothy Englund
Humans 2021, 1(2), 29-43; https://doi.org/10.3390/humans1020005 - 28 Oct 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 4498
Abstract
Golden langurs (Trachypithecus geei) in Bhutan have received little research attention in the anthropic environments where most of the population lives. We recorded group sizes and compositions and documented sleep sites for 24 golden langur groups living in a biological corridor [...] Read more.
Golden langurs (Trachypithecus geei) in Bhutan have received little research attention in the anthropic environments where most of the population lives. We recorded group sizes and compositions and documented sleep sites for 24 golden langur groups living in a biological corridor (N = 9) and near a human settlement (N = 15) in central Bhutan. We used scan sampling to document behaviors and direct observation and camera traps to record potential predators, and we recorded occurrences of mortality, including two cases of electrocution, one case of roadkill, and one langur skull recovered from a possible leopard prey cache. Golden langur groups were on average significantly larger near human settlements (13.73 individuals) than in the biological corridor (9.55 individuals), and the adult sex ratio was greater near human settlements. The golden langurs usually slept in more than one tree, and our preliminary results indicated rare re-use of the same sleep site. Golden langurs in our study area most often slept in Sapium insigne trees. Sleep trees’ mean DBH was 51.58 cm and the mean height was 19.37 m. We intend for our preliminary data to establish the foundation for future research on the behavior and ecology of golden langurs in Bhutan. Full article
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