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Organics, Volume 3, Issue 3 (September 2022) – 8 articles

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Article
Dihydrooxazine Byproduct of a McMurry–Melton Reaction en Route to a Synthetic Bacteriochlorin
Organics 2022, 3(3), 262-274; https://doi.org/10.3390/org3030019 - 08 Aug 2022
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Abstract
A synthetic route to gem-dimethyl-substituted bacteriochlorins—models of native bacteriochlorophylls—relies on the formation of a dihydrodipyrrin precursor via a series of established reactions: van Leusen pyrrole formation, Vilsmeier formylation, Henry reaction, borohydride reduction, Michael addition, and McMurry–Melton pyrroline formation. The latter is the least [...] Read more.
A synthetic route to gem-dimethyl-substituted bacteriochlorins—models of native bacteriochlorophylls—relies on the formation of a dihydrodipyrrin precursor via a series of established reactions: van Leusen pyrrole formation, Vilsmeier formylation, Henry reaction, borohydride reduction, Michael addition, and McMurry–Melton pyrroline formation. The latter is the least known of the series. Here, the McMurry–Melton reaction of a 2-(6-oxo-2-nitrohexyl)pyrrole in the presence of TiCl3 and an ammonium acetate buffer formed the expected Δ1-pyrroline, as well as an unexpected polar, cyclic byproduct (a 5,6-dihydro-4H-1,2-oxazin-6-ol), each attached to the 2-methylpyrrole unit. Both species were characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. The McMurry–Melton reaction is a type of intercepted Nef reaction (the transformation of a nitroalkyl motif into a carbonyl group), where both the Δ1-pyrroline and the dihydrooxazine derive from the reaction of the nitrogen derived from the nitro group upon complete or partial reductive deoxygenation, respectively, with the γ-keto group. The report also considers competing Nef and McMurry–Melton reactions, the nature of available TiCl3 reagents, and the use of ammonium acetate for buffering the TiCl3/HCl reagent. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Chemistry of Heterocycles)
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Review
Specific Bifunctionalization on the Surface of Phosphorus Dendrimers Syntheses and Properties
Organics 2022, 3(3), 240-261; https://doi.org/10.3390/org3030018 - 03 Aug 2022
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Abstract
Dendrimers are highly branched macromolecules possessing, in most cases, identical terminal functions. However, it is sometimes desirable to have two types of surface functions in order to fulfil specific properties. The stochastic functionalization is frequently used for such purposes, but the presence of [...] Read more.
Dendrimers are highly branched macromolecules possessing, in most cases, identical terminal functions. However, it is sometimes desirable to have two types of surface functions in order to fulfil specific properties. The stochastic functionalization is frequently used for such purposes, but the presence of an uncontrolled number of each type of terminal function, albeit acceptable for research purposes, has no practical use. Thus, it is highly desirable to find strategies suitable for the precise grafting of two different functional groups on the surface of dendrimers. The easiest way, and the most widely used, consists in using a bifunctional monomer to be grafted to all of the surface functions of the dendrimers. Two other strategies are known but are rarely used: the modification of an existing function, to generate two functions, and the sequential grafting of one function then of a second function. The three methods are illustrated in this review with polyphosphorhydrazone (PPH) dendrimers, together with their properties as catalysts, for materials, and as biological tools. Full article
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Review
Palladium-Catalyzed Cross-Coupling Reactions of Borylated Alkenes for the Stereoselective Synthesis of Tetrasubstituted Double Bond
Organics 2022, 3(3), 210-239; https://doi.org/10.3390/org3030017 - 20 Jul 2022
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Abstract
The stereoselective formation of tetrasubstituted alkenes remains one of the key goals of modern organic synthesis. In addition to other methods, the stereoselective synthesis of tetrasubstituted alkenes can be achieved by means of cross-coupling reactions of electrophilic and nucleophilic alkene templates. The use [...] Read more.
The stereoselective formation of tetrasubstituted alkenes remains one of the key goals of modern organic synthesis. In addition to other methods, the stereoselective synthesis of tetrasubstituted alkenes can be achieved by means of cross-coupling reactions of electrophilic and nucleophilic alkene templates. The use of electrophilic templates for the stereoselective synthesis of tetrasubstituted alkenes has previously been described. Therefore, the present review summarizes the procedures available for the stereoselective preparation of tetrasubstituted alkenes using stable and isolable nucleophilic templates. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Advanced Research Papers in Organics)
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Article
Synthesis and Theoretical Studies of Aromatic Azaborines
Organics 2022, 3(3), 196-209; https://doi.org/10.3390/org3030016 - 11 Jul 2022
Viewed by 256
Abstract
Organoboron compounds are well known for their use as synthetic building blocks in several significant reactions, e.g., palladium-catalyzed Suzuki-Miyaura cross-coupling. As an element, boron is fascinating; as part of a molecule it structurally resembles a three-valent atom, but if there is a lone [...] Read more.
Organoboron compounds are well known for their use as synthetic building blocks in several significant reactions, e.g., palladium-catalyzed Suzuki-Miyaura cross-coupling. As an element, boron is fascinating; as part of a molecule it structurally resembles a three-valent atom, but if there is a lone pair of electrons nearby, the boron atom’s empty p-orbital may capture the lone pair and form a covalent bond. This is the main aspect that is challenging chemistry during the synthesis of boron containing molecules and may lead into unexpected reactions and products. To study this, we synthesized and studied novel aromatic azaborines for better understanding of their structures and reactions. Here, we report a one-pot method for the synthesis of substituted aromatic azaborines and computational studies of their structure to explain their observed chemical properties. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Advanced Research Papers in Organics)
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Article
Enantioselective Total Synthesis of Multifidene, a Sex Pheromone of Brown Algae
Organics 2022, 3(3), 187-195; https://doi.org/10.3390/org3030015 - 08 Jul 2022
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Abstract
The total synthesis of multifidene, a sex pheromone found in brown algae, is described. The synthesis features the highly enantioselective and diastereoselective addition reaction of an aldehyde to a nitroolefin in the presence of a Hayashi–Jørgensen catalyst and a Nef reaction initiated by [...] Read more.
The total synthesis of multifidene, a sex pheromone found in brown algae, is described. The synthesis features the highly enantioselective and diastereoselective addition reaction of an aldehyde to a nitroolefin in the presence of a Hayashi–Jørgensen catalyst and a Nef reaction initiated by visible light irradiation. These key reactions enabled the 11-step synthesis from commercially available compounds. The synthetic pheromones are examined with gametes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Reactions and Strategies for Natural Product Synthesis)
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Article
Mo2C as Pre-Catalyst for the C-H Allylic Oxygenation of Alkenes and Terpenoids in the Presence of H2O2
Organics 2022, 3(3), 173-186; https://doi.org/10.3390/org3030014 - 04 Jul 2022
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Abstract
In this study, commercially available molybdenum carbide (Mo2C) was used, in the presence of H2O2, as an efficient pre-catalyst for the selective C-H allylic oxygenation of several unsaturated molecules into the corresponding allylic alcohols. Under these basic [...] Read more.
In this study, commercially available molybdenum carbide (Mo2C) was used, in the presence of H2O2, as an efficient pre-catalyst for the selective C-H allylic oxygenation of several unsaturated molecules into the corresponding allylic alcohols. Under these basic conditions, an air-stable, molybdenum-based polyoxometalate cluster (Mo-POM) was formed in situ, leading to the generation of singlet oxygen (1O2), which is responsible for the oxygenation reactions. X-ray diffraction, SEM/EDX and HRMS analyses support the formation mainly of the Mo6O192− cluster. Following the proposed procedure, a series of cycloalkenes, styrenes, terpenoids and methyl oleate were successfully transformed into hydroperoxides. After subsequent reduction, the corresponding allylic alcohols were produced with good yields and in lab-scale quantities. A mechanistic study excluded a hydrogen atom transfer pathway and supported the twix-selective oxygenation of cycloalkenes on the more sterically hindered side via the 1O2 generation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Photocatalysis and Free Radicals in Organic Synthesis)
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Article
Regioselective N- versus P-Deprotonation of Aminophosphane Tungsten(0) Complexes
Organics 2022, 3(3), 161-172; https://doi.org/10.3390/org3030013 - 22 Jun 2022
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Abstract
1,2-Bifunctional ligands are rare, in general, which holds especially for those with a P-N linkage. Herein, we report on the synthesis of P-tert-butyl substituted aminophosphane W(CO)5 complexes 3a-f (a: R = R’ = H; b: R = H, R = Me; [...] Read more.
1,2-Bifunctional ligands are rare, in general, which holds especially for those with a P-N linkage. Herein, we report on the synthesis of P-tert-butyl substituted aminophosphane W(CO)5 complexes 3a-f (a: R = R’ = H; b: R = H, R = Me; c: R = H, R’ = ally; d: R = H, R’ = i-Pr; e: R = H, R’ = t-Bu; f: R = R’ = Me) obtained via formal N-H insertion reactions of Li/Cl phosphinidenoid complex 2 into NH bonds of ammonia and different amines. The 1,2-bifunctionality of 3b was addressed in targeted regioselective deprotonation reactions leading to amidophosphane complexes M-4b or M/N(H)Me phosphinidenoid complexes M-5b, respectively (M = Li, K). Remarkable was the observation that reactions of M-4b and M-5b with MeI as the electrophile resulted in the formation of the same product 7b. The constitution of all the compounds has been established by means of NMR and IR spectroscopy and mass spectrometry. Two possible reaction pathways were studied in detail using high-level DFT calculations. Full article
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Article
Regioselective Transfer Hydrogenative Defluorination of Polyfluoroarenes Catalyzed by Bifunctional Azairidacycle
Organics 2022, 3(3), 150-160; https://doi.org/10.3390/org3030012 - 22 Jun 2022
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Abstract
The catalytic hydrodefluorination (HDF) with a bifunctional azairidacycle using HCOOK was examined for cyano- and chloro-substituted fluoroarenes, including penta- and tetrafluorobenzonitriles, tetrafluoroterephthalonitrile, tetrafluorophthalonitrile, 3-chloro-2,4,5,6-tetrafluoropyridine, and 4-cyano-2,3,5,6-tetrafluoropyridine. The reaction was performed in the presence of a controlled amount of HCOOK with a substrate/catalyst ratio [...] Read more.
The catalytic hydrodefluorination (HDF) with a bifunctional azairidacycle using HCOOK was examined for cyano- and chloro-substituted fluoroarenes, including penta- and tetrafluorobenzonitriles, tetrafluoroterephthalonitrile, tetrafluorophthalonitrile, 3-chloro-2,4,5,6-tetrafluoropyridine, and 4-cyano-2,3,5,6-tetrafluoropyridine. The reaction was performed in the presence of a controlled amount of HCOOK with a substrate/catalyst ratio (S/C) of 100 in a 1:1 mixture of 1,2-dimethoxyethane (DME) and H2O at an ambient temperature of 30 °C to obtain partially fluorinated compounds with satisfactory regioselectivities. The C–F bond cleavage proceeded favorably at the para position of substituents other than fluorine, which is in consonance with the nucleophilic aromatic substitution mechanism. In the HDF of tetrafluoroterephthalonitrile and 4-cyano-2,3,5,6-tetrafluoropyridine, which do not contain a fluorine atom at the para position of the cyano group, the double defluorination occurred solely at the 2- and 5-positions, as confirmed by X-ray crystallography. The HDF of 3-chloro-2,4,5,6-tetrafluoropyridine gave preference to the C–F bond cleavage over the C–Cl bond cleavage, unlike the dehalogenation pathway via electron-transfer radical anion fragmentation. In addition, new azairidacycles with an electron-donating methoxy substituent on the C–N chelating ligand were synthesized and served as a catalyst precursor (0.2 mol%) for the transfer hydrogenative defluorination of pentafluoropyridine, leading to 2,3,5,6-tetrafluoropyridine with up to a turnover number (TON) of 418. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Advanced Research Papers in Organics)
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