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Article

Removal of Cyanotoxins–Microcystins from Water by Filtration through Granulated Composites of Bentonite with Micelles of the Cation Octadecyltrimethyl Ammonium (ODTMA)

1
Kinneret Limnological Laboratory, Israel Oceanographic and Limnological Research, P.O. Box 447, Migdal 14950, Israel
2
Water Industry Engineering, The Achi Racov School of Engineering, Kinneret Academic College, Jordan Valley 15132, Israel
3
The Robert H. Smith Faculty of Agriculture, Food and Environment, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Rehovot 76100, Israel
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Angelo Maria Taglietti
Appl. Nano 2021, 2(1), 67-81; https://doi.org/10.3390/applnano2010006
Received: 20 January 2021 / Revised: 22 February 2021 / Accepted: 23 February 2021 / Published: 10 March 2021
(This article belongs to the Collection Feature Papers for Applied Nano)
Cyanobacteria and their toxins present potential hazards to consumers of water from lakes, reservoirs and rivers; thus, their removal via water treatment is essential. Previously, we demonstrated that nanocomposites of octadecyltrimethyl ammonium (ODTMA) complexed with clay could efficiently remove cyanobacteria and their toxins from laboratory cultures and lake water. In this study, we determined the capacity of ODTMA nanocomposites to remove cyanotoxins, namely microcystins (MCs), from water to below 1 µg/L via filtration. This capacity was 1500 mg MC-LR per Kg of nanocomposite. Similar capacities were estimated for the removal of other MC congeners (MC-WR, MC-3aspWR and MC-YR), whereas substantially lower capacities were recorded for more positively charged MC congeners, such as MC-RR and MC-3aspRR. Filtration results were simulated with a filtration model, which considers convection and adsorption/desorption of one to several toxins. Model calculations for the removal of MC-LR, under a variety of situations, fitted well with all the experimentally measured values and also estimated the co-removal of several MC congeners. In agreement with model predictions, results demonstrated that in the presence of MC-WR, the emerging concentrations of MC-RR congeners eventually exceed their solution values. In conclusion, granulated nanocomposites of ODTMA–bentonite can be applied for the removal of microcystins from drinking water. View Full-Text
Keywords: Cyanobacteria; Microcystis; 3; cyanotoxins; microcystin; nanocomposite; micelle–bentonite complex; modeling of filtration; filtration removal efficiency Cyanobacteria; Microcystis; 3; cyanotoxins; microcystin; nanocomposite; micelle–bentonite complex; modeling of filtration; filtration removal efficiency
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MDPI and ACS Style

Sukenik, A.; Viner-Mozzini, Y.; Mizrahi, D.; Tamam, I.; Benitez, A.R.; Nir, S. Removal of Cyanotoxins–Microcystins from Water by Filtration through Granulated Composites of Bentonite with Micelles of the Cation Octadecyltrimethyl Ammonium (ODTMA). Appl. Nano 2021, 2, 67-81. https://doi.org/10.3390/applnano2010006

AMA Style

Sukenik A, Viner-Mozzini Y, Mizrahi D, Tamam I, Benitez AR, Nir S. Removal of Cyanotoxins–Microcystins from Water by Filtration through Granulated Composites of Bentonite with Micelles of the Cation Octadecyltrimethyl Ammonium (ODTMA). Applied Nano. 2021; 2(1):67-81. https://doi.org/10.3390/applnano2010006

Chicago/Turabian Style

Sukenik, Assaf, Yehudit Viner-Mozzini, Daniel Mizrahi, Imri Tamam, Ana R. Benitez, and Shlomo Nir. 2021. "Removal of Cyanotoxins–Microcystins from Water by Filtration through Granulated Composites of Bentonite with Micelles of the Cation Octadecyltrimethyl Ammonium (ODTMA)" Applied Nano 2, no. 1: 67-81. https://doi.org/10.3390/applnano2010006

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