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Feasibility of Determination of Foodborne Microbe Contamination of Fresh-Cut Shredded Cabbage Using SW-NIR

1
Postharvest Technology Program, School of Bioresources and Technology, King Mongkut’s University of Technology Thonburi, Bangkok 10150, Thailand
2
Graduate School of Science and Technology, Niigata University, 8050, Ikarashi 2-no-cho, Nishi-ku, Niigata 950-2181, Japan
3
Postharvest Technology Innovation Center, Office of the Higher Education Commission, Bangkok 10400, Thailand
4
Postharvest Technology Research Center, Faculty of Agriculture, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200, Thailand
5
Environmental Science and Technology, Institute of Science and Technology, Niigata University, 8050, Ikarashi 2-no-cho, Nishi-ku, Niigata 950-2181, Japan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
AgriEngineering 2019, 1(2), 246-256; https://doi.org/10.3390/agriengineering1020018
Received: 15 January 2019 / Revised: 13 May 2019 / Accepted: 14 May 2019 / Published: 16 May 2019
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Abstract

Shredded cabbage is widely used in much ready-to-eat food. Therefore, rapid methods for detecting and monitoring the contamination of foodborne microbes is essential. Short wavelength near infrared (SW-NIR) spectroscopy was applied on two types of solutions, a drained solution from the outer surface of the shredded cabbage (SC) and a ground solution of shredded cabbage (GC) which were inoculated with a mixture of two bacterial suspensions, Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhimurium. NIR spectra of around 700 to 1100 nm were collected from the samples after 0, 4, and 8 h at 37 °C incubation, along with the growth of total bacteria, E. coli and S. typhimurium. The raw spectra were obtained from both sample types, clearly separated with the increase of incubation time. The first derivative, a Savitzky–Golay pretreatment, was applied on the GC spectra, while the second derivative was applied on the SC spectra before developing the calibration equation, using partial least squares regression (PLS). The obtained correlation (r) of the SC spectra was higher than the GC spectra, while the standard error of cross-validation (SECV) was lower. The ratio of prediction of deviation (RPD) of the SC spectra was higher than the GC spectra, especially in total bacteria, quite normal for the E. coli but relatively low for the S. typhimurium. The prediction results of microbial spoilage were more reliable on the SC than on the GC spectra. Total bacterial detection was best for quantitative measurement, as E. coli contamination could only be distinguished between high and low values. Conversely, S. typhimurium predictions were not optimal for either sample type. The SW-NIR shows the feasibility for detecting the existence of microbes in the solution obtained from SC, but for a more specific application for discrimination or quantitation is needed, proving further research in still required. View Full-Text
Keywords: shredded cabbage; SW-NIR; total bacteria; E. coli; S. typhimurium shredded cabbage; SW-NIR; total bacteria; E. coli; S. typhimurium
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Matulaprungsan, B.; Wongs-Aree, C.; Penchaiya, P.; Maniwara, P.; Kanlayanarat, S.; Ohashi, S.; Nakano, K. Feasibility of Determination of Foodborne Microbe Contamination of Fresh-Cut Shredded Cabbage Using SW-NIR. AgriEngineering 2019, 1, 246-256.

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