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Particles, Volume 3, Issue 1 (March 2020) – 19 articles

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Open AccessArticle
Heavy Baryon Spectroscopy in the Relativistic Quark Model
Particles 2020, 3(1), 234-244; https://doi.org/10.3390/particles3010019 - 16 Mar 2020
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Abstract
Masses of heavy baryons are calculated in the framework of the relativistic quark-diquark picture and QCD. The obtained results are in good agreement with available experimental data including recent measurements by the LHCb Collaboration. Possible quantum numbers of excited heavy baryon states are [...] Read more.
Masses of heavy baryons are calculated in the framework of the relativistic quark-diquark picture and QCD. The obtained results are in good agreement with available experimental data including recent measurements by the LHCb Collaboration. Possible quantum numbers of excited heavy baryon states are discussed. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Detectable Optical Signatures of QED Vacuum Nonlinearities Using High-Intensity Laser Fields
Particles 2020, 3(1), 223-233; https://doi.org/10.3390/particles3010018 - 06 Mar 2020
Viewed by 270
Abstract
Up to date, quantum electrodynamics (QED) is the most precisely tested quantum field theory. Nevertheless, particularly in the high-intensity regime it predicts various phenomena that so far have not directly been accessible in all-optical experiments, such as photon-photon scattering phenomena induced by quantum [...] Read more.
Up to date, quantum electrodynamics (QED) is the most precisely tested quantum field theory. Nevertheless, particularly in the high-intensity regime it predicts various phenomena that so far have not directly been accessible in all-optical experiments, such as photon-photon scattering phenomena induced by quantum vacuum fluctuations. Here, we focus on all-optical signatures of quantum vacuum effects accessible in the high-intensity regime of electromagnetic fields. We present an experimental setup giving rise to signal photons distinguishable from the background. This configuration is based on two optical pulsed petawatt lasers: one generates a narrow but high-intensity scattering center to be probed by the other one. We calculate the differential number of signal photons attainable with this field configuration analytically and compare it with the background of the driving laser beams. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Semileptonic Decays of Heavy Baryons in the Relativistic Quark Model
Particles 2020, 3(1), 208-222; https://doi.org/10.3390/particles3010017 - 06 Mar 2020
Viewed by 214
Abstract
Semileptonic and rare semileptonic decays of heavy baryons are studied in the framework of the relativistic quark model based on the quark-diquark picture, quasipotential approach, and quantum chromodynamics (QCD). The form factors parametrizing the matrix elements of the weak transitions are calculated in [...] Read more.
Semileptonic and rare semileptonic decays of heavy baryons are studied in the framework of the relativistic quark model based on the quark-diquark picture, quasipotential approach, and quantum chromodynamics (QCD). The form factors parametrizing the matrix elements of the weak transitions are calculated in the whole accessible kinematical range with the comprehensive account of the relativistic effects. The obtained results for the branching ratios and other observables agree well with the available experimental data. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
D * Polarization as an Additional Constraint on New Physics in the b ν ¯ τ Transition
Particles 2020, 3(1), 193-207; https://doi.org/10.3390/particles3010016 - 05 Mar 2020
Viewed by 318
Abstract
Measurements of the branching fractions of the semileptonic decays B D ( * ) τ ν ¯ τ and B c J / ψ τ ν ¯ τ systematically exceed the Standard Model predictions, pointing to possible signals of new physics [...] Read more.
Measurements of the branching fractions of the semileptonic decays B D ( * ) τ ν ¯ τ and B c J / ψ τ ν ¯ τ systematically exceed the Standard Model predictions, pointing to possible signals of new physics that can violate lepton flavor universality. The unknown origin of new physics realized in these channels can be probed using a general effective Hamiltonian constructed from four-fermion operators and the corresponding Wilson coefficients. Previously, constraints on these Wilson coefficients were obtained mainly from the experimental data for the branching fractions. Meanwhile, polarization observables were only theoretically studied. The situation has changed with more experimental data having become available, particularly those regarding the polarization of the tau and the D * meson. In this study, we discuss the implications of the new data on the overall picture. We then include them in an updated fit of the Wilson coefficients using all hadronic form factors from our covariant constituent quark model. The use of our form factors provides an analysis independent of those in the literature. Several new-physics scenarios are studied with the corresponding theoretical predictions provided, which are useful for future experimental studies. In particular, we find that under the one-dominant-operator assumption, no operator survives at 1 σ . Moreover, the scalar operators O S L and O S R are ruled out at 2 σ if one uses the constraint B ( B c τ ν τ ) 10 % , while the more relaxed constraint B ( B c τ ν τ ) 30 % still allows these operators at 2 σ , but only minimally. The inclusion of the new data for the D * polarization fraction F L D * reduces the likelihood of the right-handed vector operator O V R and significantly constrains the tensor operator O T L . Specifically, the F L D * alone rules out O T L at 1 σ . Finally, we show that the longitudinal polarization P L τ of the tau in the decays B D * τ ν ¯ τ and B c J / ψ τ ν ¯ τ is extremely sensitive to the tensor operator. Within the 2 σ allowed region, the best-fit value T L = 0.04 + i 0.17 predicts P L τ ( D * ) = 0.33 and P L τ ( J / ψ ) = 0.34 , which are at about 33% larger than the Standard Model (SM) prediction P L τ ( D * ) = 0.50 and P L τ ( J / ψ ) = 0.51 . Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Exploring the Partonic Phase at Finite Chemical Potential in and out-of Equilibrium
Particles 2020, 3(1), 178-192; https://doi.org/10.3390/particles3010015 - 02 Mar 2020
Viewed by 296
Abstract
We study the influence of the baryon chemical potential μ B on the properties of the Quark–Gluon–Plasma (QGP) in and out-of equilibrium. The description of the QGP in equilibrium is based on the effective propagators and couplings from the Dynamical QuasiParticle Model (DQPM) [...] Read more.
We study the influence of the baryon chemical potential μ B on the properties of the Quark–Gluon–Plasma (QGP) in and out-of equilibrium. The description of the QGP in equilibrium is based on the effective propagators and couplings from the Dynamical QuasiParticle Model (DQPM) that is matched to reproduce the equation-of-state of the partonic system above the deconfinement temperature T c from lattice Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD). We study the transport coefficients such as the ratio of shear viscosity η and bulk viscosity ζ over entropy density s, i.e., η / s and ζ / s in the ( T , μ ) plane and compare to other model results available at μ B = 0 . The out-of equilibrium study of the QGP is performed within the Parton–Hadron–String Dynamics (PHSD) transport approach extended in the partonic sector by explicitly calculating the total and differential partonic scattering cross sections based on the DQPM and the evaluated at actual temperature T and baryon chemical potential μ B in each individual space-time cell where partonic scattering takes place. The traces of their μ B dependences are investigated in different observables for symmetric Au + Au and asymmetric Cu + Au collisions such as rapidity and m T -distributions and directed and elliptic flow coefficients v 1 , v 2 in the energy range 7.7 GeV s N N 200 GeV. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Using the Beth–Uhlenbeck Approach to Describe the Kaon to Pion Ratio in a 2 + 1 Flavor PNJL Model
Particles 2020, 3(1), 169-177; https://doi.org/10.3390/particles3010014 - 02 Mar 2020
Viewed by 205
Abstract
The kaon to pion ratios are discussed in the framework of a 2 + 1 flavor PNJL model. In order to interpret the behavior of bound states in medium, the Beth–Uhlenbeck approach is used. It is shown that, in terms of phase shifts [...] Read more.
The kaon to pion ratios are discussed in the framework of a 2 + 1 flavor PNJL model. In order to interpret the behavior of bound states in medium, the Beth–Uhlenbeck approach is used. It is shown that, in terms of phase shifts in the K + channel, an additional low-energy mode could appear as a bound state in medium, since the masses of the quark constituents are different. The comparison with experimental data for the ratios is performed and the influence of the anomalous mode to the “horn” effect in the K + / π + ratio is discussed. Full article
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Open AccessConference Report
The DsTau Experiment: A Study for Tau-Neutrino Production
Particles 2020, 3(1), 164-168; https://doi.org/10.3390/particles3010013 - 01 Mar 2020
Viewed by 249
Abstract
For clarifying the validity of the Lepton Universality hypothesis, one of the fundamental statements of the Standard Model, the interaction cross section for all three flavors of leptons have to be known with high precision. In neutrino sector, for electron and muon neutrinos, [...] Read more.
For clarifying the validity of the Lepton Universality hypothesis, one of the fundamental statements of the Standard Model, the interaction cross section for all three flavors of leptons have to be known with high precision. In neutrino sector, for electron and muon neutrinos, the interaction cross section is known fairly well, but for tau neutrino only poor estimations exist. In particular, the most direct measurement by the DONuT experiment was performed with rather poor accuracy due to low statistics and an uncertainty of the tau neutrino flux. The DsTau experiment proposes to study tau-neutrino production process and thus to improve significantly the accuracy of calculations of tau neutrino flux for neutrino accelerator experiments. To study reactions providing most of tau neutrinos, the experiment uses a setup based on high resolution nuclear emulsions, capable to register short lived particle decays created in proton-nucleus interactions. The present report is an overview of the DsTau experiment together with some of the preliminary results from the pilot run. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Probes of Lepton Flavor Universality in bu Transitions
Particles 2020, 3(1), 145-163; https://doi.org/10.3390/particles3010012 - 27 Feb 2020
Viewed by 334
Abstract
Anomalies recently observed in semileptonic b c ν ¯ and b s + transitions point to violation of Lepton Flavour Universality. Strategies for new analyses of different modes are required, in particular for the modes [...] Read more.
Anomalies recently observed in semileptonic b c ν ¯ and b s + transitions point to violation of Lepton Flavour Universality. Strategies for new analyses of different modes are required, in particular for the modes induced by the b u transition. We describe the purely leptonic B decay, the B ¯ π ν ¯ channel and the B semileptonic modes to ρ ( 770 ) and a 1 ( 1260 ) in extensions of the Standard Model involving Lepton Flavour Universality violating b u operators. In particular, we review the observables in the four-dimensional angular B ¯ ρ ( π π ) ν ¯ and B ¯ a 1 ( ρ π ) ν ¯ distributions, suitable to pin down deviations from the Standard Model. We discuss the complementarity among the various modes for New Physics searches. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Nonleptonic Decays of Doubly Charmed Baryons
Particles 2020, 3(1), 123-144; https://doi.org/10.3390/particles3010011 - 19 Feb 2020
Viewed by 268
Abstract
In this lecture, we provide a basic introduction into the topic of charmed baryons and their nonleptonic two-body decays. Some features of the baryon weak decays on the quark level are discussed in detail in the framework of effective field theory. The calculation [...] Read more.
In this lecture, we provide a basic introduction into the topic of charmed baryons and their nonleptonic two-body decays. Some features of the baryon weak decays on the quark level are discussed in detail in the framework of effective field theory. The calculation of the matrix elements of the four-quark operators arising in the effective theory proceeds by using the covariant constituent quark model. The model allows one to evaluate not only the factorizing tree-level diagrams but also more complicated diagrams with the internal W–exchange. The technique required for such calculation is discussed in some detail. Finally, the numerical results are presented, and comparison of the contributions coming from the W–exchange diagrams with those from the tree-level are carefully performed. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Particle Production in XeXe Collisions at the LHC within the Integrated Hydrokinetic Model
Particles 2020, 3(1), 114-122; https://doi.org/10.3390/particles3010010 - 18 Feb 2020
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Abstract
The paper is devoted to the theoretical study of particle production in the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) Xe+Xe collisions at the energy s N N = 5 . 44 TeV. The description of common bulk observables, such as mean charged particle multiplicity, particle [...] Read more.
The paper is devoted to the theoretical study of particle production in the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) Xe+Xe collisions at the energy s N N = 5 . 44 TeV. The description of common bulk observables, such as mean charged particle multiplicity, particle number ratios, and p T spectra, is obtained within the integrated hydrokinetic model, and the simulation results are compared to the corresponding experimental points. The comparison shows that the model is able to adequately describe the measured data for the considered collision type, similarly as for the cases of Pb+Pb LHC collisions and top Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) energy Au+Au collisions, analyzed in our previous works. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Analytic Properties of Triangle Feynman Diagrams in Quantum Field Theory
Particles 2020, 3(1), 99-113; https://doi.org/10.3390/particles3010009 - 12 Feb 2020
Viewed by 240
Abstract
We discuss dispersion representations for the triangle diagram F ( q 2 , p 1 2 , p 2 2 ) , the single dispersion representation in q 2 and the double dispersion representation in p 1 2 and p 2 2 , [...] Read more.
We discuss dispersion representations for the triangle diagram F ( q 2 , p 1 2 , p 2 2 ) , the single dispersion representation in q 2 and the double dispersion representation in p 1 2 and p 2 2 , with special emphasis on the appearance of the anomalous singularities and the anomalous cuts in these representations. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
New Canonical and Grand Canonical Density of States Techniques for Finite Density Lattice QCD
Particles 2020, 3(1), 87-98; https://doi.org/10.3390/particles3010008 - 10 Feb 2020
Viewed by 212
Abstract
We discuss two new density of states approaches for finite density lattice QCD (Quantum Chromo Dynamics). The paper extends a recent presentation of the new techniques based on Wilson fermions, while here, we now discuss and test the case of finite density QCD [...] Read more.
We discuss two new density of states approaches for finite density lattice QCD (Quantum Chromo Dynamics). The paper extends a recent presentation of the new techniques based on Wilson fermions, while here, we now discuss and test the case of finite density QCD with staggered fermions. The first of our two approaches is based on the canonical formulation where observables at a fixed net quark number N are obtained as Fourier moments of the vacuum expectation values at imaginary chemical potential θ . We treat the latter as densities that can be computed with the recently developed functional fit approach. The second method is based on a direct grand canonical evaluation after rewriting the QCD partition sum in terms of a suitable pseudo-fermion representation. In this form, the imaginary part of the pseudo-fermion action can be identified and the corresponding density may again be computed with the functional fit approach. We develop the details of the two approaches and discuss some exploratory first tests for the case of free fermions where reference results for assessing the new techniques may be obtained from Fourier transformation. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
The Dirac Spectrum and the BEC-BCS Crossover in QCD at Nonzero Isospin Asymmetry
Particles 2020, 3(1), 80-86; https://doi.org/10.3390/particles3010007 - 04 Feb 2020
Viewed by 246
Abstract
For large isospin asymmetries, perturbation theory predicts the quantum chromodynamic (QCD) ground state to be a superfluid phase of u and d ¯ Cooper pairs. This phase, which is denoted as the Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer (BCS) phase, is expected to be smoothly connected to the [...] Read more.
For large isospin asymmetries, perturbation theory predicts the quantum chromodynamic (QCD) ground state to be a superfluid phase of u and d ¯ Cooper pairs. This phase, which is denoted as the Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer (BCS) phase, is expected to be smoothly connected to the standard phase with Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC) of charged pions at μ I m π / 2 by an analytic crossover. A first hint for the existence of the BCS phase, which is likely characterised by the presence of both deconfinement and charged pion condensation, comes from the lattice observation that the deconfinement crossover smoothly penetrates into the BEC phase. To further scrutinize the existence of the BCS phase, in this article we investigate the complex spectrum of the massive Dirac operator in 2+1-flavor QCD at nonzero temperature and isospin chemical potential. The spectral density near the origin is related to the BCS gap via a generalization of the Banks-Casher relation to the case of complex Dirac eigenvalues (derived for the zero-temperature, high-density limits of QCD at nonzero isospin chemical potential). Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Dense Baryonic Matter and Applications of QCD Phase Diagram Dualities
Particles 2020, 3(1), 62-79; https://doi.org/10.3390/particles3010006 - 19 Jan 2020
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Abstract
Recently it has been found that quantum chromodynamics (QCD) phase diagram possesses a duality between chiral symmetry breaking and pion condensation. For the first time this was revealed in the QCD motivated toy model. Then it was demonstrated in effective models as well [...] Read more.
Recently it has been found that quantum chromodynamics (QCD) phase diagram possesses a duality between chiral symmetry breaking and pion condensation. For the first time this was revealed in the QCD motivated toy model. Then it was demonstrated in effective models as well and new additional dualities being found. We briefly recap the main features of this story and then discuss its applications as a tool to explore the QCD phase structure. The most appealing application is the possibility of getting the results on the QCD phase diagram at large baryon density. Taking the idea from large 1 / N c universalities it was argued that the scenario of circumventing the sign problem with the help of dualities seems plausible. It is also discussed that there is a persistent problem about whether there should be catalysis or anti-catalysis of chiral symmetry breaking by chiral imbalance. One can probably say that the issue is settled after lattice results (first principle approach), where the catalysis was observed. But they used an unphysically large pion mass so it is still interesting to get additional indications that this is the case. It is shown just by the duality property that there exists catalysis of chiral symmetry breaking. So, having in mind our results and the earlier lattice simulations, one can probably claim that this issue is settled. It is demonstrated that the duality can be used to obtain new results. As an example, it is showcased how the phase structure of dense quark matter with chiral imbalance (with possibility of inhomogeneous phases) can be obtained from the knowledge of a QCD phase diagram with isopin asymmetry. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Probing Vacuum Polarization Effects with High-Intensity Lasers
Particles 2020, 3(1), 39-61; https://doi.org/10.3390/particles3010005 - 19 Jan 2020
Viewed by 368
Abstract
These notes provide a pedagogical introduction to the theoretical study of vacuum polarization effects in strong electromagnetic fields as provided by state-of-the-art high-intensity lasers. Quantum vacuum fluctuations give rise to effective couplings between electromagnetic fields, thereby supplementing Maxwell’s linear theory of classical electrodynamics [...] Read more.
These notes provide a pedagogical introduction to the theoretical study of vacuum polarization effects in strong electromagnetic fields as provided by state-of-the-art high-intensity lasers. Quantum vacuum fluctuations give rise to effective couplings between electromagnetic fields, thereby supplementing Maxwell’s linear theory of classical electrodynamics with nonlinearities. Resorting to a simplified laser pulse model, allowing for explicit analytical insights, we demonstrate how to efficiently analyze all-optical signatures of these effective interactions in high-intensity laser experiments. Moreover, we highlight several key features relevant for the accurate planning and quantitative theoretical analysis of quantum vacuum nonlinearities in the collision of high-intensity laser pulses. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Color Transparency and Hadron Formation Effects in High-Energy Reactions on Nuclei
Particles 2020, 3(1), 24-38; https://doi.org/10.3390/particles3010004 - 17 Jan 2020
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Abstract
An incoming or outgoing hadron in a hard collision with large momentum transfer gets squeezed in the transverse direction to its momentum. In the case of nuclear targets, this leads to the reduced interaction of such hadrons with surrounding nucleons which is known [...] Read more.
An incoming or outgoing hadron in a hard collision with large momentum transfer gets squeezed in the transverse direction to its momentum. In the case of nuclear targets, this leads to the reduced interaction of such hadrons with surrounding nucleons which is known as color transparency (CT). The identification of CT in exclusive processes on nuclear targets is of significant interest not only by itself but also due to the fact that CT is a necessary condition for the applicability of factorization for the description of the corresponding elementary process. In this paper we discuss the semiexclusive processes A ( e , e π + ) , A ( π , l l + ) and A ( γ , π p ) . Since CT is closely related to hadron formation mechanism, the reduced interaction of ’pre-hadrons’ with nucleons is a common feature of generic high-energy inclusive processes on nuclear targets, such as hadron attenuation in deep inelastic scattering (DIS). We will discuss the novel way to study hadron formation via slow neutron production induced by a hard photon interaction with a nucleus. Finally, the opportunity to study hadron formation effects in heavy-ion collisions in the NICA regime will be considered. Full article
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Open AccessEditorial
Acknowledgement to Reviewers of Particles in 2019
Particles 2020, 3(1), 23; https://doi.org/10.3390/particles3010003 - 15 Jan 2020
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Abstract
The editorial team greatly appreciates the reviewers who have dedicated their considerable time and expertise to the journal’s rigorous editorial process over the past 12 months, regardless of whether the papers are finally published or not [...] Full article
Open AccessArticle
Chiral Perturbation Theory vs. Linear Sigma Model in a Chiral Imbalance Medium
Particles 2020, 3(1), 15-22; https://doi.org/10.3390/particles3010002 - 08 Jan 2020
Viewed by 302
Abstract
We compare the chiral perturbation theory (ChPT) and the linear sigma model (LSM) as realizations of low energy quantum chromodynamics (QCD) for light mesons in a chirally-imbalanced medium. The relations between the low-energy constants of the chiral Lagrangian and the corresponding constants of [...] Read more.
We compare the chiral perturbation theory (ChPT) and the linear sigma model (LSM) as realizations of low energy quantum chromodynamics (QCD) for light mesons in a chirally-imbalanced medium. The relations between the low-energy constants of the chiral Lagrangian and the corresponding constants of the linear sigma model are established as well as the expressions for the decay constant of π -meson in the medium and for the mass of the a 0 . In the large N c count taken from QCD the correspondence of ChPT and LSM is remarkably good and provides a solid ground for the search of chiral imbalance manifestations in pion physics. A possible experimental detection of chiral imbalance (and therefore a phase with local parity breaking) is outlined in the charged pion decays inside the fireball. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Calculation of Acceleration Effects Using the Zubarev Density Operator
Particles 2020, 3(1), 1-14; https://doi.org/10.3390/particles3010001 - 03 Jan 2020
Viewed by 427
Abstract
The relativistic form of the Zubarev density operator can be used to study quantum effects associated with acceleration of the medium. In particular, it was recently shown that the calculation of perturbative corrections in acceleration based on the Zubarev density operator makes it [...] Read more.
The relativistic form of the Zubarev density operator can be used to study quantum effects associated with acceleration of the medium. In particular, it was recently shown that the calculation of perturbative corrections in acceleration based on the Zubarev density operator makes it possible to show the existence of the Unruh effect. In this paper, we present the details of the calculation of quantum correlators arising in the fourth order of the perturbation theory needed to demonstrate the Unruh effect. Expressions for the quantum corrections for massive fermions are also obtained. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nonequilibrium Phenomena in Strongly Correlated Systems)
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