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Simulating Binary Neutron Stars with Hybrid Equation of States: Gravitational Waves, Electromagnetic Signatures and Challenges for Numerical Relativity

1
Centro de Ciências Naturais e Humanas, Universidade Federal do ABC, Santo André 09210-170, Brazil
2
Nikhef, Science Park, 1098 XG Amsterdam, The Netherlands
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Particles 2019, 2(3), 365-384; https://doi.org/10.3390/particles2030023
Received: 24 May 2019 / Revised: 1 July 2019 / Accepted: 2 August 2019 / Published: 8 August 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dense QCD and neutron stars)
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Abstract

The gravitational wave and electromagnetic signatures connected to the merger of two neutron stars allow us to test the nature of matter at supranuclear densities. Since the Equation of State governing the interior of neutron stars is only loosely constrained, there is even the possibility that strange quark matter exists inside the core of neutron stars. We investigate how strange quark matter cores affect the binary neutron star coalescence by performing numerical relativity simulations. Interestingly, the strong phase transition can cause a reduction of the convergence order of the numerical schemes to first order if the numerical resolution is not high enough. Therefore, an additional challenge is added in producing high-quality gravitational wave templates for Equation of States with a strong phase transition. Focusing on one particular configuration of an equal mass configuration consistent with GW170817, we compute and discuss the associated gravitational wave signal and some of the electromagnetic counterparts connected to the merger of the two stars. We find that existing waveform approximants employed for the analysis of GW170817 allow describing this kind of systems within the numerical uncertainties, which, however, are several times larger than for pure hadronic Equation of States, which means that even higher resolutions have been employed for an accurate gravitational wave model comparison. We also show that for the chosen Equation of State, quasi-universal relations describing the gravitational wave emission after the moment of merger seem to hold and that the electromagnetic signatures connected to our chosen setup would not be bright enough to explain the kilonova associated to GW170817. View Full-Text
Keywords: numerical relativity; equation of state; binary neutron stars; gravitational waves; phase transition; strange quark matter numerical relativity; equation of state; binary neutron stars; gravitational waves; phase transition; strange quark matter
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Gieg, H.; Dietrich, T.; Ujevic, M. Simulating Binary Neutron Stars with Hybrid Equation of States: Gravitational Waves, Electromagnetic Signatures and Challenges for Numerical Relativity. Particles 2019, 2, 365-384.

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