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Radial-Concentric Freeze Casting Inspired by Porcupine Fish Spines

External Field Assisted Freeze Casting

Department of Mechanical Engineering, Clemson University, Clemson, SC 29634, USA
Materials Science and Engineering Program, University of California, La Jolla, CA 92093, USA
Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT 84112, USA
Department of NanoEngineering, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093, USA
Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University of California, La Jolla, CA 92093, USA
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Ceramics 2019, 2(1), 208-234;
Received: 6 February 2019 / Revised: 6 March 2019 / Accepted: 15 March 2019 / Published: 24 March 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ice-Templated and Freeze-Cast Ceramics)
Freeze casting under external fields (magnetic, electric, or acoustic) produces porous materials having local, regional, and global microstructural order in specific directions. In freeze casting, porosity is typically formed by the directional solidification of a liquid colloidal suspension. Adding external fields to the process allows for structured nucleation of ice and manipulation of particles during solidification. External control over the distribution of particles is governed by a competition of forces between constitutional supercooling and electromagnetism or acoustic radiation. Here, we review studies that apply external fields to create porous ceramics with different microstructural patterns, gradients, and anisotropic alignments. The resulting materials possess distinct gradient, core–shell, ring, helical, or long-range alignment and enhanced anisotropic mechanical properties. View Full-Text
Keywords: magnetic; electric; acoustic; ice templating; porous scaffolds; anisotropic mechanical properties magnetic; electric; acoustic; ice templating; porous scaffolds; anisotropic mechanical properties
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MDPI and ACS Style

Niksiar, P.; Su, F.Y.; Frank, M.B.; Ogden, T.A.; Naleway, S.E.; Meyers, M.A.; McKittrick, J.; Porter, M.M. External Field Assisted Freeze Casting. Ceramics 2019, 2, 208-234.

AMA Style

Niksiar P, Su FY, Frank MB, Ogden TA, Naleway SE, Meyers MA, McKittrick J, Porter MM. External Field Assisted Freeze Casting. Ceramics. 2019; 2(1):208-234.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Niksiar, Pooya, Frances Y. Su, Michael B. Frank, Taylor A. Ogden, Steven E. Naleway, Marc A. Meyers, Joanna McKittrick, and Michael M. Porter. 2019. "External Field Assisted Freeze Casting" Ceramics 2, no. 1: 208-234.

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