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External Field Assisted Freeze Casting

1
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Clemson University, Clemson, SC 29634, USA
2
Materials Science and Engineering Program, University of California, La Jolla, CA 92093, USA
3
Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT 84112, USA
4
Department of NanoEngineering, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093, USA
5
Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University of California, La Jolla, CA 92093, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Ceramics 2019, 2(1), 208-234; https://doi.org/10.3390/ceramics2010018
Received: 6 February 2019 / Revised: 6 March 2019 / Accepted: 15 March 2019 / Published: 24 March 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ice-Templated and Freeze-Cast Ceramics)
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Abstract

Freeze casting under external fields (magnetic, electric, or acoustic) produces porous materials having local, regional, and global microstructural order in specific directions. In freeze casting, porosity is typically formed by the directional solidification of a liquid colloidal suspension. Adding external fields to the process allows for structured nucleation of ice and manipulation of particles during solidification. External control over the distribution of particles is governed by a competition of forces between constitutional supercooling and electromagnetism or acoustic radiation. Here, we review studies that apply external fields to create porous ceramics with different microstructural patterns, gradients, and anisotropic alignments. The resulting materials possess distinct gradient, core–shell, ring, helical, or long-range alignment and enhanced anisotropic mechanical properties. View Full-Text
Keywords: magnetic; electric; acoustic; ice templating; porous scaffolds; anisotropic mechanical properties magnetic; electric; acoustic; ice templating; porous scaffolds; anisotropic mechanical properties
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Niksiar, P.; Su, F.Y.; Frank, M.B.; Ogden, T.A.; Naleway, S.E.; Meyers, M.A.; McKittrick, J.; Porter, M.M. External Field Assisted Freeze Casting. Ceramics 2019, 2, 208-234.

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