# Design and Fabrication of Modified SMA-Connector Sensor for Detecting Water Adulteration in Honey and Natural Latex

^{1}

^{2}

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## Abstract

**:**

## 1. Introduction

## 2. Materials and Methods

#### 2.1. Preparation of Honey Samples

#### 2.2. Design of the Proposed Sensor

## 3. Results and Discussions

^{−1}at the frequency of 0.6 GHz. Figure 11 shows the FOM1. The FOM1 is performed at the frequency of 4.0 GHz as well. Its FOM1 is equal to 0.715 (%w/w)

^{−1}. From the results, it shows that the real part of the complex relative permittivity is the most appropriate indicator in water adulteration detection in honey at 0.6 GHz, and the FOM1 is equal to 1.108 (%w/w)

^{−1}.

^{−1}at the frequency of 3.74 GHz. Therefore, the frequency of 3.74 GHz is the most appropriate frequency when the electrical conductivity is considered the indicator.

^{−1}at the frequency of 4.0 GHz. The frequency of 4.0 GHz is the most suitable frequency when the phase constant is considered the indicator.

^{2}) for the real part of complex relative permittivity, the electrical conductivity, and the phase constant, curve fitting is the process of determining which model best fits specific curves in the data set. It is found that the real part of complex relative permittivity at the frequency of 0.6 GHz has the polynomial relationship with the adulterations. The relationship is shown in Equation (13) and Figure 14 shows the curve fitting of real part of relative permittivity at 0.6 GHz on water adulteration in honey samples with R

^{2}of 0.9968.

^{2}of 0.9833.

^{2}of 0.9977.

^{−6}, p2 = 0.006855, p3 = 0.2673 and x = %w/w at 4.0 GHz.

^{−1}at the frequency of 0.5 GHz. The frequency of 0.5 GHz is the most suitable frequency when the real part of the complex relative permittivity is considered the indicator. Figure 20 shows the imaginary part of complex relative permittivity of the natural samples with different DRCs. The imaginary part of the complex relative permittivity increases when the DRC in the natural latex sample decreases. The maximum figure of merit is equal to 0.2759 (%w/w)

^{−1}at the frequency of 4.0 GHz. Therefore, the frequency of 4.0 GHz is the most appropriate frequency when the imaginary part of the complex relative permittivity is considered the indicator. Figure 21 demonstrates the electrical conductivity of the natural latex samples with different DRCs. When the DRC in the natural latex sample decreases, the electrical conductivity is slightly changed in the frequency range of 0.5–1.0 GHz while the significant increase occurs in the higher frequency range of 1.0–4.0 GHz. The maximum FOM2 is equal to 0.0612 S/m * (%w/w)

^{−1}at the frequency of 4.0 GHz. Therefore, when considering the electrical conductivity as an indicator, the frequency of 4.0 GHz is the optimum frequency. Figure 22 depicts the phase constant of the natural latex samples with different DRCs. The phase constant is inversely proportional to the DRC over the frequency range of 0.5–4.0 GHz. The significant increase of the phase constant occurs over the frequency range of 0.7–4.0 GHz. The maximum FOM3 is equal to 0.0093 rad/mm * (%w/w)

^{−1}at the frequency of 4.0 GHz. When using the phase constant as an indicator, the frequency of 4.0 GHz is the most suitable frequency.

## 4. Conclusions

^{−1}. The electrical conductivity of the honey sample is directly proportional to the frequency. The electrical conductivity of the honey sample increases when the water adulteration increases. To use the electrical conductivity as an indicator to detect water adulteration in honey, the frequency of 3.74 GHz is the most appropriate frequency since the FOM2 is the highest at this frequency at 0.069 S/m * (%w/w)

^{−1}. The phase constant of the honey sample is directly proportional to the frequency. For the phase constant as an indicator to detect water adulteration in honey, the frequency of 4.0 GHz is the most appropriate frequency because the maximum FOM3 is at this frequency at 0.007 rad/mm * (%w/w)

^{−1}.

^{−1}at the frequency of 0.5 GHz. The imaginary part of the complex relative permittivity increases when the DRC decreases. The maximum FOM is equal to 0.2759 (%w/w)

^{−1}at the frequency of 4.0 GHz. The electrical conductivity and the phase constant increase when the DRC decreases. The maximum FOMs for the electrical conductivity and the phase constant are 0.0612 S/m * (%w/w)

^{−1}and 0.0093 rad/mm * (%w/w)

^{−1}at the frequency of 4.0 GHz, respectively. The results demonstrate that it is possible to apply this technique to determine the DRC in the natural latex.

## Author Contributions

## Funding

## Data Availability Statement

## Acknowledgments

## Conflicts of Interest

## References

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**Figure 4.**Capacitance model and equivalent circuit of the open-ended sensor [20].

**Figure 6.**Sensor validation with (

**a**) real part of the complex relative permittivity (

**b**) imaginary part of the complex relative permittivity (

**c**) electrical conductivity (

**d**) phase constant using methanol as an unknown material.

**Figure 7.**(

**a**) Complex relative permittivity (

**b**) electrical conductivity (

**c**) phase constant of pure honey in the frequency range of 0.5–4.0 GHz at the temperature of 25 °C.

**Figure 8.**(

**a**) Real part (

**b**) imaginary part of the complex relative permittivity of honey samples which are adulterated by water with different concentrations over the frequency range of 0.5–4.0 GHz at the temperature of 25 °C.

**Figure 9.**Electrical conductivity of honey, which is adulterated by water with different concentrations over the frequency range of 0.5–4.0 GHz at the temperature of 25 °C.

**Figure 10.**Phase constant of honey which is adulterated by water with different concentrations over the frequency range of 0.5–4.0 GHz at the temperature of 25 °C.

**Figure 14.**The curve fitting of the real part of complex relative permittivity at the frequency of 0.6 GHz.

**Figure 18.**The complex relative permittivity of natural latex over the frequency range of 0.5–4.0 GHz at the temperature of 25 °C.

**Figure 19.**The real part of complex relative permittivity of natural latex samples with different DRCs in the frequency range of 0.5–4.0 GHz at the temperature of 25 °C.

**Figure 20.**The imaginary part of complex relative permittivity of natural latex samples with different DRCs in the frequency range of 0.5–4.0 GHz at the temperature of 25 °C.

**Figure 21.**Electrical conductivity of natural latex samples with different DRCs over the frequency range of 0.5–4.0 GHz at the temperature of 25 °C.

**Figure 22.**Phase constant of natural latex samples with different DRCs over the frequency range of 0.5–4.0 GHz at the temperature of 25 °C.

**Table 1.**Honey standards of Thailand [16].

Composition | %w/w |
---|---|

Moisture | less than 21.0 |

Reducing sugar | at least 65.0 |

Sucrose | less than 5.0 |

Ash | less than 0.6 |

Insoluble substances | less than 0.1 |

FOM | Indicator | Suitable Frequency (GHz) |
---|---|---|

FOM1 | Real part of complex relative permittivity $\left({\epsilon}_{r}^{\prime}\right)$ | 0.60 |

FOM2 | Electrical conductivity $\left(\sigma \right)$ | 3.74 |

FOM3 | Phase constant $\left(\beta \right)$ | 4.00 |

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**MDPI and ACS Style**

Nuan-On, A.; Angkawisittpan, N.; Piladaeng, N.; Soemphol, C.
Design and Fabrication of Modified SMA-Connector Sensor for Detecting Water Adulteration in Honey and Natural Latex. *Appl. Syst. Innov.* **2022**, *5*, 4.
https://doi.org/10.3390/asi5010004

**AMA Style**

Nuan-On A, Angkawisittpan N, Piladaeng N, Soemphol C.
Design and Fabrication of Modified SMA-Connector Sensor for Detecting Water Adulteration in Honey and Natural Latex. *Applied System Innovation*. 2022; 5(1):4.
https://doi.org/10.3390/asi5010004

**Chicago/Turabian Style**

Nuan-On, Adisorn, Niwat Angkawisittpan, Nawarat Piladaeng, and Chaiyong Soemphol.
2022. "Design and Fabrication of Modified SMA-Connector Sensor for Detecting Water Adulteration in Honey and Natural Latex" *Applied System Innovation* 5, no. 1: 4.
https://doi.org/10.3390/asi5010004