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Article

The Leaky Feeder, a Reliable Medium for Vehicle to Infrastructure Communications

1
Department of Electrical Engineering, The University of Jordan, Amman 11242, Jordan
2
Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Ryerson University, Toronto, ON M5B2K3, Canada
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Appl. Syst. Innov. 2019, 2(4), 36; https://doi.org/10.3390/asi2040036
Received: 25 September 2019 / Revised: 30 October 2019 / Accepted: 4 November 2019 / Published: 8 November 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Transport Systems and Infrastructures)
Reliable vehicular communications is fast becoming a necessity. Vehicle to infrastructure (V2I) communication, which is critical for safety, is often interrupted when vehicles travel in tunnels. Leaky Feeder (LF) or radiating cable have been the primary solution to provide wireless access in tunnels and mines, but being overlooked until now. The LF is a natural multi antenna transceiver ideal for broadband short rage access. In this work, we model the LF as a linear antenna array and derive the average bit error rate (BER) in Rayleigh fading channel considering Quadrature Phase Shift Keying (QPSK) and M-Array Quadrature Amplitude (M-QAM) Modulations. We consider maximal ratio transmission (MRT) at the transmission end and coherent detection and maximal ratio combining (MRC) at the receiving end. Analytical expressions are derived for the BER. The effects of slot spacing and carrier frequency on the BER are also studied. Numerical evaluations show that the LF is a strong candidate for tunnels with much lower BER than a single antenna transmitter with the same SNR. View Full-Text
Keywords: leaky feeder; BER; QPSK; antenna array; Rayleigh fading; channel gain leaky feeder; BER; QPSK; antenna array; Rayleigh fading; channel gain
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MDPI and ACS Style

Farahneh, H.; Fernando, X. The Leaky Feeder, a Reliable Medium for Vehicle to Infrastructure Communications. Appl. Syst. Innov. 2019, 2, 36. https://doi.org/10.3390/asi2040036

AMA Style

Farahneh H, Fernando X. The Leaky Feeder, a Reliable Medium for Vehicle to Infrastructure Communications. Applied System Innovation. 2019; 2(4):36. https://doi.org/10.3390/asi2040036

Chicago/Turabian Style

Farahneh, Hasan, and Xavier Fernando. 2019. "The Leaky Feeder, a Reliable Medium for Vehicle to Infrastructure Communications" Applied System Innovation 2, no. 4: 36. https://doi.org/10.3390/asi2040036

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