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Infrastructures, Volume 5, Issue 5 (May 2020) – 6 articles

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Cover Story (view full-size image) This paper presents models of path and control planning for the parking, docking, and movement of [...] Read more.
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Open AccessArticle
Optimal Speed Plan for the Overtaking of Autonomous Vehicles on Two-Lane Highways
Infrastructures 2020, 5(5), 44; https://doi.org/10.3390/infrastructures5050044 - 18 May 2020
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Abstract
In passing maneuvers on two-lane highways, assessing the needed distance and the potential power reserve to ensure the required speed mode of the passing vehicle is a critical task of speed planning. This task must meet several mutually exclusive conditions that lead to [...] Read more.
In passing maneuvers on two-lane highways, assessing the needed distance and the potential power reserve to ensure the required speed mode of the passing vehicle is a critical task of speed planning. This task must meet several mutually exclusive conditions that lead to successful maneuvers. This paper addresses three main aspects. First, the issues associated with a rational distribution of the speed of the passing vehicle for overtaking a long commercial vehicle on two-lane highways are discussed. The factors that affect the maneuver effectiveness are analyzed, considering the safety and cost. Second, a heuristic algorithm is proposed based on the rationale for choosing the necessary space and time for overtaking. The initial prediction’s sensitivity to fluctuations of the current measurements of the position and speed of the overtaking participants is examined. Third, an optimization technique for the passing vehicle speed distribution during the overtaking time using the finite element method is presented. Adaptive model predictive control is applied for tracking the references being generated. The presented model is illustrated using a simulation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Smart Mobility)
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Open AccessReview
Railway Transition Curves: A Review of the State-of-the-Art and Future Research
Infrastructures 2020, 5(5), 43; https://doi.org/10.3390/infrastructures5050043 - 18 May 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 718
Abstract
Transition curves are a useful tool for lateral alignment of railway segments. Their design is important to ensure safe and comfortable travel for passengers and cargo. Well designed transition curves can lead to reduced wear of tracks and vehicles, which is beneficial from [...] Read more.
Transition curves are a useful tool for lateral alignment of railway segments. Their design is important to ensure safe and comfortable travel for passengers and cargo. Well designed transition curves can lead to reduced wear of tracks and vehicles, which is beneficial from a maintenance point of view. Extensive studies have been performed through decades to find transition curves that can replace existing railway segments for the purpose of enhancing certain properties. Those studies seek to form curves that satisfy desired evaluation criteria, which are often connected to geometric continuity between the curve segments, and vehicle dynamics, to secure a smooth ride. This research topic is still ongoing and active at present. Recent results and findings are in line with the developments on the topic of vehicle dynamics and within the railway industry. For this reason it is appropriate to collect and discuss the latest work, since there are no up-to-date detailed literature reviews available. This paper explores the present state-of-the-art of railway transition curves, and identifies some of the research challenges and future research opportunities in the field. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Path and Control Planning for Autonomous Vehicles in Restricted Space and Low Speed
Infrastructures 2020, 5(5), 42; https://doi.org/10.3390/infrastructures5050042 - 12 May 2020
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Abstract
This paper presents models of path and control planning for the parking, docking, and movement of autonomous vehicles at low speeds, considering space constraints. Given the low speed of motion, and in order to test and approve the proposed algorithms, vehicle kinematic models [...] Read more.
This paper presents models of path and control planning for the parking, docking, and movement of autonomous vehicles at low speeds, considering space constraints. Given the low speed of motion, and in order to test and approve the proposed algorithms, vehicle kinematic models are used. Recent works on the development of parking algorithms for autonomous vehicles are reviewed. Bicycle kinematic models for vehicle motion are considered for three basic types of vehicles: passenger car, long wheelbase truck, and articulated vehicles with and without steered semitrailer axes. Mathematical descriptions of systems of differential equations in matrix form and expressions for determining the linearization elements of nonlinear motion equations that increase the speed of finding the optimal solution are presented. Options are proposed for describing the interaction of vehicle overall dimensions with the space boundaries, within which a maneuver should be performed. An original algorithm that considers numerous constraints is developed for determining vehicle permissible positions within the closed boundaries of the parking area, which are directly used in the iterative process of searching for the optimal plan solution using nonlinear model predictive control (NMPC). The process of using NMPC to find the best trajectories and control laws while moving in a semi-limited space of constant curvature (turnabouts, roundabouts) are described. Simulation tests were used to validate the proposed models for both constrained and unconstrained conditions and the output (state-space) and control parameters’ dependencies are shown. The proposed models represent an initial effort to model the movement of autonomous vehicles for parking and have the potential for other highway applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Smart Mobility)
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Open AccessArticle
BIM Approach for Modeling Airports Terminal Expansion
Infrastructures 2020, 5(5), 41; https://doi.org/10.3390/infrastructures5050041 - 07 May 2020
Viewed by 720
Abstract
Smart societies will make more intelligent use of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), which has the potential to transform the way to plan and manage infrastructures. New developments in computer hardware, as well as new applications and software, are changing the face of [...] Read more.
Smart societies will make more intelligent use of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), which has the potential to transform the way to plan and manage infrastructures. New developments in computer hardware, as well as new applications and software, are changing the face of the infrastructure sector and society more generally, driving greater efficiency, increasing productivity, and greatly simplifying construction processes and life-of-asset maintenance. In European countries, the adoption of Building Information Modeling (BIM) standards have been expedited. In this research article, the architectural-structural model in a BIM environment of the elevated walkway connecting the gate with the runway, a project named “IV Bridge” under construction for the expansion of the departure area of Naples Capodichino International Airport, is carried out. Software including Autodesk family, Revit for the architectural/structural model, Robot Structural Analysis (RSA) for the analytical verification and Naviswork (NW) for the 4D/5D model were used. The effectiveness and benefits obtained by implementing the BIM methodology are discussed, showing a reduction in terms of construction times and costs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Smart Cities and Infrastructures)
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Open AccessArticle
A Novel Solution to Find the Dynamic Response of an Euler–Bernoulli Beam Fitted with Intraspan TMDs under Poisson Type Loading
Infrastructures 2020, 5(5), 40; https://doi.org/10.3390/infrastructures5050040 - 07 May 2020
Viewed by 704
Abstract
This contribution considers a virtual experiment on the vibrational response of rail and road bridges equipped with smart devices in the form of damping elements to mitigate vibrations. The internal damping of the bridge is considered a discontinuity that contain a dashpot. Exact [...] Read more.
This contribution considers a virtual experiment on the vibrational response of rail and road bridges equipped with smart devices in the form of damping elements to mitigate vibrations. The internal damping of the bridge is considered a discontinuity that contain a dashpot. Exact complex eigenvalues and eigenfunctions are derived from a characteristic equation built as the determinant of a 4 × 4 matrix; this is accomplished through the use of the theory of generalized functions to find the response variables at the positions of the damping elements. To relate this to real world applications, the response of a bridge under Poisson type white noise is evaluated; this is similar to traffic loading that would be seen in a bridge’s service life. The contribution also discusses the importance of smart damping and dampers to sustainability efforts through the reduction of required materials, and it discusses the role played by robust mathematical modelling in the design phase. Full article
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Open AccessEditorial
Advances in Dam Engineering
Infrastructures 2020, 5(5), 39; https://doi.org/10.3390/infrastructures5050039 - 29 Apr 2020
Viewed by 848
Abstract
The expansion of water resources is the key factor in the socio-economic development of all countries [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Dam Engineering)
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