Next Issue
Previous Issue

Table of Contents

Vision, Volume 2, Issue 4 (December 2018)

  • Issues are regarded as officially published after their release is announced to the table of contents alert mailing list.
  • You may sign up for e-mail alerts to receive table of contents of newly released issues.
  • PDF is the official format for papers published in both, html and pdf forms. To view the papers in pdf format, click on the "PDF Full-text" link, and use the free Adobe Readerexternal link to open them.
View options order results:
result details:
Displaying articles 1-7
Export citation of selected articles as:
Open AccessArticle Differentiation of Types of Visual Agnosia Using EEG
Received: 5 December 2018 / Revised: 5 December 2018 / Accepted: 13 December 2018 / Published: 18 December 2018
Viewed by 449 | PDF Full-text (3423 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Visual recognition deficits are the hallmark symptom of visual agnosia, a neuropsychological disorder typically associated with damage to the visual system. Most research into visual agnosia focuses on characterizing the deficits through detailed behavioral testing, and structural and functional brain scans are used [...] Read more.
Visual recognition deficits are the hallmark symptom of visual agnosia, a neuropsychological disorder typically associated with damage to the visual system. Most research into visual agnosia focuses on characterizing the deficits through detailed behavioral testing, and structural and functional brain scans are used to determine the spatial extent of any cortical damage. Although the hierarchical nature of the visual system leads to clear predictions about the temporal dynamics of cortical deficits, there has been little research on the use of neuroimaging methods with high temporal resolution to characterize the temporal profile of agnosia deficits. Here, we employed high-density electroencephalography (EEG) to investigate alterations in the temporal dynamics of the visual system in two individuals with visual agnosia. In the context of a steady state visual evoked potential paradigm (SSVEP), individuals viewed pattern-reversing checkerboards of differing spatial frequency, and we assessed the responses of the visual system in the frequency and temporal domain. JW, a patient with early visual cortex damage, showed impaired SSVEP response relative to a control group and to the second patient (SM) who had right temporal lobe damage. JW also showed lower decoding accuracy for early visual responses (around 100 ms). SM, whose lesion is more anterior in the visual system, showed good decoding accuracy initially but low decoding after 500 ms. Overall, EEG and multivariate decoding methods can yield important insights into the temporal dynamics of visual responses in individuals with visual agnosia. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Visual Perception and Its Neural Mechanisms)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle A Riemannian Geometry Theory of Three-Dimensional Binocular Visual Perception
Received: 3 September 2018 / Revised: 2 November 2018 / Accepted: 27 November 2018 / Published: 5 December 2018
Viewed by 620 | PDF Full-text (4361 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
We present a Riemannian geometry theory to examine the systematically warped geometry of perceived visual space attributable to the size–distance relationship of retinal images associated with the optics of the human eye. Starting with the notion of a vector field of retinal image [...] Read more.
We present a Riemannian geometry theory to examine the systematically warped geometry of perceived visual space attributable to the size–distance relationship of retinal images associated with the optics of the human eye. Starting with the notion of a vector field of retinal image features over cortical hypercolumns endowed with a metric compatible with that size–distance relationship, we use Riemannian geometry to construct a place-encoded theory of spatial representation within the human visual system. The theory draws on the concepts of geodesic spray fields, covariant derivatives, geodesics, Christoffel symbols, curvature tensors, vector bundles and fibre bundles to produce a neurally-feasible geometric theory of visuospatial memory. The characteristics of perceived 3D visual space are examined by means of a series of simulations around the egocentre. Perceptions of size and shape are elucidated by the geometry as are the removal of occlusions and the generation of 3D images of objects. Predictions of the theory are compared with experimental observations in the literature. We hold that the variety of reported geometries is accounted for by cognitive perturbations of the invariant physically-determined geometry derived here. When combined with previous description of the Riemannian geometry of human movement this work promises to account for the non-linear dynamical invertible visual-proprioceptive maps and selection of task-compatible movement synergies required for the planning and execution of visuomotor tasks. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Perspective of Visual Space)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Evidence Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation Can Improve Saccadic Eye Movement Control in Older Adults
Received: 1 November 2018 / Revised: 23 November 2018 / Accepted: 29 November 2018 / Published: 3 December 2018
Viewed by 441 | PDF Full-text (952 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Objectives: Ageing is associated with declines in voluntary eye movement control, which negatively impact the performance of daily activities. Therapies treating saccadic eye movement control deficits are currently lacking. To address the need for an effective therapy to treat age-related deficits in saccadic [...] Read more.
Objectives: Ageing is associated with declines in voluntary eye movement control, which negatively impact the performance of daily activities. Therapies treating saccadic eye movement control deficits are currently lacking. To address the need for an effective therapy to treat age-related deficits in saccadic eye movement control, the current study investigated whether saccadic behaviour in older adults can be improved by anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) over the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex using a montage that has been proven to be effective at improving nonoculomotor control functions. Method: The tDCS protocol entailed a 5 cm × 7 cm anodal electrode and an encephalic cathodal reference electrode positioned over the contralateral supraorbital area. In two experiments, healthy older men completed one active (1.5 mA current for 10 min) and one sham stimulation session, with the session order counterbalanced across participants, and eye movement testing following stimulation. In the first experiment, participants rested during the tDCS (offline), whereas in the follow-up experiment, participants engaged in antisaccades during the tDCS (online). Results: Analyses revealed improvements in saccadic performance following active anodal tDCS relative to sham stimulation in the online experiment, but not in the offline experiment, which was presumably due to the activation of the relevant networks during tDCS promoting more targeted effects. Discussion: These outcomes converge with findings pertaining to nonoculomotor cognitive functions, and provide evidence that tDCS can improve saccadic eye movement control in older adults. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Visual Orienting and Conscious Perception)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Investigating Human Visual Sensitivity to Binocular Motion-in-Depth for Anti- and De-Correlated Random-Dot Stimuli
Received: 17 September 2018 / Revised: 26 October 2018 / Accepted: 29 October 2018 / Published: 1 November 2018
Viewed by 376 | PDF Full-text (27093 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Motion-in-depth can be detected by using two different types of binocular cues: change of disparity (CD) and inter-ocular velocity differences (IOVD). To investigate the underlying detection mechanisms, stimuli can be constructed that isolate these cues or contain both (FULL cue). Two different methods [...] Read more.
Motion-in-depth can be detected by using two different types of binocular cues: change of disparity (CD) and inter-ocular velocity differences (IOVD). To investigate the underlying detection mechanisms, stimuli can be constructed that isolate these cues or contain both (FULL cue). Two different methods to isolate the IOVD cue can be employed: anti-correlated (aIOVD) and de-correlated (dIOVD) motion signals. While both types of stimuli have been used in studies investigating the perception of motion-in-depth, for the first time, we explore whether both stimuli isolate the same mechanism and how they differ in their relative efficacy. Here, we set out to directly compare aIOVD and dIOVD sensitivity by measuring motion coherence thresholds. In accordance with previous results by Czuba et al. (2010), we found that motion coherence thresholds were similar for aIOVD and FULL cue stimuli for most participants. Thresholds for dIOVD stimuli, however, differed consistently from thresholds for the two other cues, suggesting that aIOVD and dIOVD stimuli could be driving different visual mechanisms. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Changes in Fixation Stability with Time during Binocular and Monocular Viewing in Maculopathy
Received: 8 September 2018 / Revised: 13 October 2018 / Accepted: 21 October 2018 / Published: 23 October 2018
Viewed by 348 | PDF Full-text (2815 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The purpose of this study was to examine changes in fixation stability over time during binocular and monocular viewing in patients with age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Seventeen patients with AMD and 17 controls were enrolled. Using an EyeLink eyetracker (SR Research Ltd., Mississauga, [...] Read more.
The purpose of this study was to examine changes in fixation stability over time during binocular and monocular viewing in patients with age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Seventeen patients with AMD and 17 controls were enrolled. Using an EyeLink eyetracker (SR Research Ltd., Mississauga, Ontario, Canada), fixation stability was recorded binocularly and monocularly with each eye for a duration of 15 s while the fellow eye was covered. Fixation stability was analyzed over 3 s intervals for each condition using a 68% bivariate contour ellipse area. Fixation stability did not change with time during binocular viewing for both groups, both monocular conditions for the control group, and monocular viewing with the better eye for the AMD group. However, during monocular viewing with the worse eye, the test of within-subject contrasts showed linear improvement in fixation stability with time (p = 0.016). In conclusion, in patients with AMD, monocular fixational control with the worse eye is poor, but improves with time. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Effects of Exogenous and Endogenous Attention on Metacontrast Masking
Received: 13 June 2018 / Revised: 21 September 2018 / Accepted: 22 September 2018 / Published: 10 October 2018
Viewed by 441 | PDF Full-text (5252 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
To efficiently use its finite resources, the visual system selects for further processing only a subset of the rich sensory information. Visual masking and spatial attention control the information transfer from visual sensory-memory to visual short-term memory. There is still a debate whether [...] Read more.
To efficiently use its finite resources, the visual system selects for further processing only a subset of the rich sensory information. Visual masking and spatial attention control the information transfer from visual sensory-memory to visual short-term memory. There is still a debate whether these two processes operate independently or interact, with empirical evidence supporting both arguments. However, recent studies pointed out that earlier studies showing significant interactions between common-onset masking and attention suffered from ceiling and/or floor effects. Our review of previous studies reporting metacontrast-attention interactions revealed similar artifacts. Therefore, we investigated metacontrast-attention interactions by using an experimental paradigm, in which ceiling/floor effects were avoided. We also examined whether metacontrast masking is differently influenced by endogenous and exogenous attention. We analyzed mean absolute-magnitude of response-errors and their statistical distribution. When targets are masked, our results support the hypothesis that manipulations of the levels of metacontrast and of endogenous/exogenous attention have largely independent effects. Moreover, statistical modeling of the distribution of response-errors suggests weak interactions modulating the probability of “guessing” behavior for some observers in both types of attention. Nevertheless, our data suggest that any joint effect of attention and metacontrast can be adequately explained by their independent and additive contributions. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Ex Vivo Hyperspectral Autofluorescence Imaging and Localization of Fluorophores in Human Eyes with Age-Related Macular Degeneration
Received: 2 April 2018 / Revised: 19 May 2018 / Accepted: 12 September 2018 / Published: 26 September 2018
Viewed by 553 | PDF Full-text (9421 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
To characterize fluorophore signals from drusen and retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) and their changes in age related macular degeneration (AMD), the authors describe advances in ex vivo hyperspectral autofluorescence (AF) imaging of human eye tissue. Ten RPE flatmounts from eyes with AMD and [...] Read more.
To characterize fluorophore signals from drusen and retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) and their changes in age related macular degeneration (AMD), the authors describe advances in ex vivo hyperspectral autofluorescence (AF) imaging of human eye tissue. Ten RPE flatmounts from eyes with AMD and 10 from eyes without AMD underwent 40× hyperspectral AF microscopic imaging. The number of excitation wavelengths tested was initially two (436 nm and 480 nm), then increased to three (436 nm, 480 nm, and 505 nm). Emission spectra were collected at 10 nm intervals from 420 nm to 720 nm. Non-negative matrix factorization (NMF) algorithms decomposed the hyperspectral images into individual emission spectra and their spatial abundances. These include three distinguishable spectra for RPE fluorophores (S1, S2, and S3) in both AMD and non-AMD eyes, a spectrum for drusen (SDr) only in AMD eyes, and a Bruch’s membrane spectrum that was detectable in normal eyes. Simultaneous analysis of datacubes excited atthree excitation wavelengths revealed more detailed spatial localization of the RPE spectra and SDr within drusen than exciting only at two wavelengths. Within AMD and non-AMD groups, two different NMF initialization methods were tested on each group and converged to qualitatively similar spectra. In AMD, the peaks of the SDr at ~510 nm (436 nm excitation) were particularly consistent. Between AMD and non-AMD groups, corresponding spectra in common, S1, S2, and S3, also had similar peak locations and shapes, but with some differences and further characterization warranted. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Age-Related Macular Degeneration)
Figures

Figure 1

Vision EISSN 2411-5150 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top