Special Issue "The Perspective of Visual Space"

A special issue of Vision (ISSN 2411-5150).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 September 2018).

Special Issue Editor

Prof. Dr. Casper Erkelens
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Experimental Psychology, Helmholtz Institute, Utrecht University, 3584 CS Utrecht, The Netherlands
Interests: visual perception; depth perception; stereopsis

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Two types of perspective, linear and natural, are relevant to human vision. Linear perspective results from the projection of the three-dimensional world on a planar surface. Linear perspective has been widely applied in drawings and paintings to create an illusion of depth. Natural perspective is an aspect of our visual perception of the three-dimensional world, i.e., visual space. The literature on linear perspective is extensive whereas the literature on natural perspective is scarce. Many questions regarding the perspective nature of visual space are yet unanswered. Questions like (how) does the perspective of visual space develop with age? Does perspective depend on the structure of the biotope? Are there cultural differences in how perspective is experienced? Is perspective represented in animals? What and where is the neural correlate of perspective? What has been the influence of perspective on the development of visual art? Can perspective play a role in computer vision?

Papers are invited on all aspects of the perspective of visual space. A wide range of scientific research will be considered that addresses one of the above or related questions. Welcome are conceptual and theoretical analyses, psychophysical and neurophysiological work, as well as historical and philosophical overviews.

Prof. Dr. Casper Erkelens
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Vision is an international peer-reviewed open access quarterly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Visual Space

  • Geometry

  • Natural Perspective

  • Linear Perspective

Published Papers (4 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle
A Riemannian Geometry Theory of Three-Dimensional Binocular Visual Perception
Vision 2018, 2(4), 43; https://doi.org/10.3390/vision2040043 - 05 Dec 2018
Abstract
We present a Riemannian geometry theory to examine the systematically warped geometry of perceived visual space attributable to the size–distance relationship of retinal images associated with the optics of the human eye. Starting with the notion of a vector field of retinal image [...] Read more.
We present a Riemannian geometry theory to examine the systematically warped geometry of perceived visual space attributable to the size–distance relationship of retinal images associated with the optics of the human eye. Starting with the notion of a vector field of retinal image features over cortical hypercolumns endowed with a metric compatible with that size–distance relationship, we use Riemannian geometry to construct a place-encoded theory of spatial representation within the human visual system. The theory draws on the concepts of geodesic spray fields, covariant derivatives, geodesics, Christoffel symbols, curvature tensors, vector bundles and fibre bundles to produce a neurally-feasible geometric theory of visuospatial memory. The characteristics of perceived 3D visual space are examined by means of a series of simulations around the egocentre. Perceptions of size and shape are elucidated by the geometry as are the removal of occlusions and the generation of 3D images of objects. Predictions of the theory are compared with experimental observations in the literature. We hold that the variety of reported geometries is accounted for by cognitive perturbations of the invariant physically-determined geometry derived here. When combined with previous description of the Riemannian geometry of human movement this work promises to account for the non-linear dynamical invertible visual-proprioceptive maps and selection of task-compatible movement synergies required for the planning and execution of visuomotor tasks. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Perspective of Visual Space)
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Open AccessArticle
Multiple Photographs of a Perspective Scene Reveal the Principles of Picture Perception
Vision 2018, 2(3), 26; https://doi.org/10.3390/vision2030026 - 26 Jun 2018
Cited by 3
Abstract
A picture is a powerful and convenient medium for inducing the illusion that one perceives a three-dimensional scene. The relative invariance of picture perception across viewing positions has aroused the interest of painters, photographers, and visual scientists. This study explores variables that may [...] Read more.
A picture is a powerful and convenient medium for inducing the illusion that one perceives a three-dimensional scene. The relative invariance of picture perception across viewing positions has aroused the interest of painters, photographers, and visual scientists. This study explores variables that may underlie the invariance. It presents a computational analysis of distances and directions in sets of two photographs of perspective scenes taken from different camera positions. Focal lengths of the lens and picture sizes are chosen such that the sizes of one of the familiar objects are equally large in both photographs. The selected object is perceived at the same distance in both photographs, independent of viewing distance, showing that pictorial distance is fully determined by angular size of the object. Pictorial distance is independent of camera position, focal length of the lens, and picture size. Distances and directions of pictorial objects are computed as a function of viewing distance, and compared with distances and directions of the physical objects as a function of camera position. The computations show that ratios between pictorial distances, directions, and angular sizes of objects in a photograph are constant, as a function of viewing distance. The constant ratios are proposed as the reason for invariance of picture perception over a range of viewing distances. Reanalysis of distance judgments obtained from the literature shows that perspective space, previously proposed as the model for visual space, is also a good model for pictorial space. The geometry of pictorial space contradicts some conceptions about picture perception. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Perspective of Visual Space)
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Open AccessArticle
Differentiating between Affine and Perspective-Based Models for the Geometry of Visual Space Based on Judgments of the Interior Angles of Squares
Vision 2018, 2(2), 22; https://doi.org/10.3390/vision2020022 - 02 Jun 2018
Cited by 2
Abstract
This paper attempts to differentiate between two models of visual space. One model suggests that visual space is a simple affine transformation of physical space. The other proposes that it is a transformation of physical space via the laws of perspective. The present [...] Read more.
This paper attempts to differentiate between two models of visual space. One model suggests that visual space is a simple affine transformation of physical space. The other proposes that it is a transformation of physical space via the laws of perspective. The present paper reports two experiments in which participants are asked to judge the size of the interior angles of squares at five different distances from the participant. The perspective-based model predicts that the angles within each square on the side nearest to the participant should seem smaller than those on the far side. The simple affine model under our conditions predicts that the perceived size of the angles of each square should remain 90°. Results of both experiments were most consistent with the perspective-based model. The angles of each square on the near side were estimated to be significantly smaller than the angles on the far side for all five squares in both experiments. In addition, the sum of the estimated size of the four angles of each square declined with increasing distance from the participant to the square and was less than 360° for all but the nearest square. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Perspective of Visual Space)
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Open AccessArticle
Natural Perspective: Mapping Visual Space with Art and Science
Vision 2018, 2(2), 21; https://doi.org/10.3390/vision2020021 - 07 May 2018
Cited by 1
Abstract
Following its discovery in fifteenth-century Italy, linear perspective has often been hailed as the most accurate method of projecting three-dimensional visual space onto a two-dimensional picture plane. However, when we survey the history of European art it is evident that few artists fully [...] Read more.
Following its discovery in fifteenth-century Italy, linear perspective has often been hailed as the most accurate method of projecting three-dimensional visual space onto a two-dimensional picture plane. However, when we survey the history of European art it is evident that few artists fully complied with its mathematical rules, despite many of them being rigorously trained in its procedures. In this paper, we will consider how artists have actually depicted visual space, and present evidence that images created according to a “natural” perspective (NP) used by artists are judged as better representations of visual space than those created using standard linear (LP) and curvilinear fisheye (FP) projective geometries. In this study, we built a real three-dimensional scene and produced photographs of the scene in three different perspectives (NP, LP and FP). An online experiment in which we asked people to rank the perspectives in order of preference showed a clear preference for NP compared to the FP and LP. In a second experiment, participants were asked to view the real scene and rate each perspective on a range of psychological variables. Results showed that NP was the most preferred and the most effective in depicting the physical space naturally. We discuss the implications of these results and the advantages and limitations of our approach for studying the global metric and geometrical structure of visual space. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Perspective of Visual Space)
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