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Int. J. Neonatal Screen., Volume 4, Issue 4 (December 2018)

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Open AccessArticle Performance of the Four-Plex Tandem Mass Spectrometry Lysosomal Storage Disease Newborn Screening Test: The Necessity of Adding a 2nd Tier Test for Pompe Disease
Int. J. Neonatal Screen. 2018, 4(4), 41; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijns4040041
Received: 26 September 2018 / Revised: 18 November 2018 / Accepted: 13 December 2018 / Published: 18 December 2018
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Abstract
Early diagnosis of lysosomal storage diseases (LSDs) through newborn screening (NBS) has been adapted widely. The National Taiwan University Hospital Newborn Screening Center launched the four-plex tandem mass spectrometry LSD newborn screening test in 2015. The test determined activities of acid α-glucosidase (GAA;
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Early diagnosis of lysosomal storage diseases (LSDs) through newborn screening (NBS) has been adapted widely. The National Taiwan University Hospital Newborn Screening Center launched the four-plex tandem mass spectrometry LSD newborn screening test in 2015. The test determined activities of acid α-glucosidase (GAA; Pompe), acid α-galactosidase (GLA; Fabry), acid β-glucocerebrosidase (ABG; Gaucher), and acid α-l-iduronidase (IDUA; MPS-I) in dried blood spots (DBS). Through 2017, 64,148 newborns were screened for these four LSDs. The screening algorithm includes enzyme activity/ratio as the cutoffs for the first screening test and a second-tier test for Pompe disease screening. The second-tier Pompe disease screening test measured activity inhibition by acarbose. Twenty-nine newborns required a confirmatory test; six were confirmed to have Pompe disease, and nine were confirmed to have Fabry disease. The screen-positive rate for Pompe disease was 0.031%. Therefore, in Pompe disease newborn screening, a validated 2nd tier test is necessary to decrease false positives. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Newborn Screening for Lysosomal Storage Disorders)
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Open AccessReview Introducing Newborn Screening for Severe Combined Immunodeficiency (SCID) in the Dutch Neonatal Screening Program
Int. J. Neonatal Screen. 2018, 4(4), 40; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijns4040040
Received: 15 September 2018 / Revised: 4 December 2018 / Accepted: 4 December 2018 / Published: 12 December 2018
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Abstract
The implementation of newborn screening for severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) in the Netherlands is a multifaceted process in which several parties are involved. The Dutch Ministry of Health adopted the advice of the Dutch Health Council to include SCID in the Dutch newborn
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The implementation of newborn screening for severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) in the Netherlands is a multifaceted process in which several parties are involved. The Dutch Ministry of Health adopted the advice of the Dutch Health Council to include SCID in the Dutch newborn screening program in 2015. As newborn screening for SCID is executed with a new, relatively expensive assay for the Dutch screening laboratory, an implementation pilot study is deemed instrumental for successful implementation. A feasibility study was performed in which the practicalities and preconditions of expanding the newborn screening program were defined. Cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA) indicated that SCID screening in the Netherlands might be cost-effective, recognizing that there are still many uncertainties in the variables underlying the CEA. Data and experience of the pilot study should provide better estimates of these parameters, thus enabling the actualization of CEA results. Prior to the implementation pilot study, a comparison study of two commercially available SCID screening assays was performed. A prospective implementation pilot study or so-called SONNET study (SCID screening research in the Netherlands with TRECs) started in April 2018 and allows the screening for SCID of all newborns in three provinces of the Netherlands for one year. Based on the results of the SONNET study, the Dutch Ministry of Health will make a final decision about national implementation of newborn screening for SCID in the Netherlands. Full article
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Open AccessReview Newborn Screening for Sickle Cell Disease and Other Hemoglobinopathies: A Short Review on Classical Laboratory Methods—Isoelectric Focusing, HPLC, and Capillary Electrophoresis
Int. J. Neonatal Screen. 2018, 4(4), 39; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijns4040039
Received: 30 September 2018 / Revised: 31 October 2018 / Accepted: 1 November 2018 / Published: 5 December 2018
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Abstract
Sickle cell disease (SCD) and other hemoglobinopathies are a major health concern with a high burden of disease worldwide. Since the implementation of newborn screening (NBS) for SCD and other hemoglobinopathies in several regions of the world, technical progress of laboratory methods was
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Sickle cell disease (SCD) and other hemoglobinopathies are a major health concern with a high burden of disease worldwide. Since the implementation of newborn screening (NBS) for SCD and other hemoglobinopathies in several regions of the world, technical progress of laboratory methods was achieved. This short review aims to summarize the current practice of classical laboratory methods for the detection of SCD and other hemoglobinopathies. This includes the newborn screening technologies of high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), capillary electrophoresis (CE), and isoelectric focusing (IEF). Full article
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Open AccessArticle Consumer Satisfaction with Newborn Pulse Oximetry Screening in a Midwifery-Led Maternity Setting
Int. J. Neonatal Screen. 2018, 4(4), 38; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijns4040038
Received: 5 November 2018 / Revised: 21 November 2018 / Accepted: 30 November 2018 / Published: 2 December 2018
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Abstract
Pulse oximetry screening to detect hypoxaemia in newborn infants was introduced at birthing facilities in New Zealand during a feasibility study determining barriers and enablers to universal screening in a midwifery-led maternity system focused on community values and partnership with, and participation by,
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Pulse oximetry screening to detect hypoxaemia in newborn infants was introduced at birthing facilities in New Zealand during a feasibility study determining barriers and enablers to universal screening in a midwifery-led maternity system focused on community values and partnership with, and participation by, consumers. During the 2-year study period, parents of infants who underwent pulse oximetry screening were invited to complete a written survey to investigate consumer satisfaction. Respondents ranked their satisfaction with the test and with information resources on a five-level Likert scale. Additional comments were added in a free text space. Participation was voluntary and anonymous. A total of 657 surveys were included for analysis. Consumers were satisfied with the screening procedure; 94% either agreed or strongly agreed that it is an important health check. Although the quality of information sources was deemed good, a third of participants indicated a wish to obtain more information. Some participants stated that retention of information was an issue, reporting that they were fatigued following the birth. Consumers are receptive to pulse oximetry screening. Sharing information (while considering the receptivity of parents) and engaging the parents of newborn infants are factors that are paramount to the success of newborn screening initiatives. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Neonatal Screening for Sickle Cell Disease in Belgium for More than 20 Years: An Experience for Comprehensive Care Improvement
Int. J. Neonatal Screen. 2018, 4(4), 37; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijns4040037
Received: 7 October 2018 / Revised: 15 November 2018 / Accepted: 20 November 2018 / Published: 27 November 2018
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Abstract
Our previous results reported that compared to sickle cell patients who were not screened at birth, those who benefited from it had a lower incidence of a first bacteremia and a reduced number and days of hospitalizations. In this context, this article reviews
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Our previous results reported that compared to sickle cell patients who were not screened at birth, those who benefited from it had a lower incidence of a first bacteremia and a reduced number and days of hospitalizations. In this context, this article reviews the Belgian experience on neonatal screening for sickle cell disease (SCD). It gives an update on the two regional neonatal screening programs for SCD in Belgium and their impact on initiatives to improve clinical care for sickle cell patients. Neonatal screening in Brussels and Liège Regions began in 1994 and 2002, respectively. Compiled results for the 2009 to 2017 period demonstrated a birth prevalence of sickle cell disorder above 1:2000. In parallel, to improve clinical care, (1) a committee of health care providers dedicated to non-malignant hematological diseases has been created within the Belgian Haematology Society; (2) a clinical registry was implemented in 2008 and has been updated in 2018; (3) a plan of action has been proposed to the Belgian national health authority. To date, neonatal screening is not integrated into the respective Belgian regional neonatal screening programs, the ongoing initiatives in Brussels and Liège Regions are not any further funded and better management of the disease through the implementation of specific actions is not yet perceived as a public health priority in Belgium. Full article
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Open AccessReview Newborn Screening for SCD in the USA and Canada
Int. J. Neonatal Screen. 2018, 4(4), 36; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijns4040036
Received: 3 October 2018 / Revised: 19 November 2018 / Accepted: 20 November 2018 / Published: 26 November 2018
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Abstract
Sickle cell disease (SCD) encompasses a group of inherited red cell disorders characterized by an abnormal hemoglobin, Hb S. The most common forms of SCD in the United States and Canada are identified through universal newborn screening (NBS) programs. Now carried out in
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Sickle cell disease (SCD) encompasses a group of inherited red cell disorders characterized by an abnormal hemoglobin, Hb S. The most common forms of SCD in the United States and Canada are identified through universal newborn screening (NBS) programs. Now carried out in all fifty U.S. states and 8 Canadian provinces, NBS for SCD represents one of the major public health advances in North America. The current status of NBS programs for hemoglobinopathies and the screening techniques employed in many regions worldwide reflect in large part the U.S. and Canadian experiences. Although the structure, screening algorithms and laboratory procedures, as well as reporting and follow up, vary between NBS programs, the overall workflow is similar. The current review summarized the historical background, current approaches, and methods used to screen newborns for SCD in the United States and Canada. Full article
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Open AccessReview Newborn Sickle Cell Disease Screening Using Electrospray Tandem Mass Spectrometry
Int. J. Neonatal Screen. 2018, 4(4), 35; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijns4040035
Received: 7 September 2018 / Revised: 20 November 2018 / Accepted: 22 November 2018 / Published: 24 November 2018
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Abstract
There is a growing demand for newborn sickle cell disease screening globally. Historically techniques have relied on the separation of intact haemoglobin tetramers using electrophoretic or liquid chromatography techniques. These techniques also identify haemoglobin variants of no clinical significance. Specific electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry-mass
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There is a growing demand for newborn sickle cell disease screening globally. Historically techniques have relied on the separation of intact haemoglobin tetramers using electrophoretic or liquid chromatography techniques. These techniques also identify haemoglobin variants of no clinical significance. Specific electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry-mass spectrometry techniques to analyse targeted peptides formed after digestion of the haemoglobin with trypsin were reported in 2005. Since this time the method has been further developed and adopted in several European countries. It is estimated that more than one million babies have been screened with no false-negative cases reported. This review reports on the current use of the technique and reviews the related publications. Full article
Open AccessReview Point-of-Care Testing for G6PD Deficiency: Opportunities for Screening
Int. J. Neonatal Screen. 2018, 4(4), 34; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijns4040034
Received: 1 October 2018 / Revised: 13 November 2018 / Accepted: 14 November 2018 / Published: 19 November 2018
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Abstract
Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency, an X-linked genetic disorder, is associated with increased risk of jaundice and kernicterus at birth. G6PD deficiency can manifest later in life as severe hemolysis, when the individual is exposed to oxidative agents that range from foods such as
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Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency, an X-linked genetic disorder, is associated with increased risk of jaundice and kernicterus at birth. G6PD deficiency can manifest later in life as severe hemolysis, when the individual is exposed to oxidative agents that range from foods such as fava beans, to diseases such as typhoid, to medications such as dapsone, to the curative drugs for Plasmodium (P.) vivax malaria, primaquine and tafenoquine. While routine testing at birth for G6PD deficiency is recommended by the World Health Organization for populations with greater than 5% prevalence of G6PD deficiency and to inform P. vivax case management using primaquine, testing coverage is extremely low. Test coverage is low due to the need to prioritize newborn interventions and the complexity of currently available G6PD tests, especially those used to inform malaria case management. More affordable, accurate, point-of-care (POC) tests for G6PD deficiency are emerging that create an opportunity to extend testing to populations that do not have access to high throughput screening services. Some of these tests are quantitative, which provides an opportunity to address the gender disparity created by the currently available POC qualitative tests that misclassify females with intermediate G6PD activity as normal. In populations where the epidemiology for G6PD deficiency and P. vivax overlap, screening for G6PD deficiency at birth to inform care of the newborn can also be used to inform malaria case management over their lifetime. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Utilising the ‘Getting to Outcomes®’ Framework in Community Engagement for Development and Implementation of Sickle Cell Disease Newborn Screening in Kaduna State, Nigeria
Int. J. Neonatal Screen. 2018, 4(4), 33; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijns4040033
Received: 8 October 2018 / Revised: 6 November 2018 / Accepted: 11 November 2018 / Published: 16 November 2018
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Abstract
Background: Sickle Cell Disease (SCD) has been designated by WHO as a public health problem in sub-Saharan Africa, and the development of newborn screening (NBS) is crucial to the reduction of high SCD morbidity and mortality. Strategies from the field of implementation science
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Background: Sickle Cell Disease (SCD) has been designated by WHO as a public health problem in sub-Saharan Africa, and the development of newborn screening (NBS) is crucial to the reduction of high SCD morbidity and mortality. Strategies from the field of implementation science can be useful for supporting the translation of NBS evidence from high income countries to the unique cultural context of sub-Saharan Africa. One such strategy is community engagement at all levels of the healthcare system, and a widely-used implementation science framework, “Getting to Outcomes®” (GTO), which incorporates continuous multilevel evaluation by stakeholders about the quality of the implementation. Objectives: (1) to obtain critical information on potential barriers to NBS in the disparate ethnic groups and settings (rural and urban) in the healthcare system of Kaduna State in Nigeria; and, (2) to assist in the readiness assessment of Kaduna in the implementation of a sustainable NBS programme for SCD. Methods: Needs assessment was conducted with stakeholder focus groups for two days in Kaduna state, Nigeria, in November 2017. Results: The two-day focus group workshop had a total of 52 participants. Asking and answering the 10 GTO accountability questions provided a structured format to understand strengths and weaknesses in implementation. For example, we found a major communication gap between policy-makers and user groups. Conclusion: In a two-day community engagement workshop, stakeholders worked successfully together to address SCD issues, to engage with each other, to share knowledge, and to prepare to build NBS for SCD in the existing healthcare system. Full article
Open AccessEditorial European Union Should Actively Stimulate and Harmonise Neonatal Screening Initiatives
Int. J. Neonatal Screen. 2018, 4(4), 32; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijns4040032
Received: 27 September 2018 / Revised: 7 November 2018 / Accepted: 8 November 2018 / Published: 14 November 2018
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Abstract
Neonatal screening programmes have been introduced in almost all European countries. In practice there are large differences, especially in the panel of conditions that are screened for, often without clear reasons. Policy making on a European level is lacking in contrast to the
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Neonatal screening programmes have been introduced in almost all European countries. In practice there are large differences, especially in the panel of conditions that are screened for, often without clear reasons. Policy making on a European level is lacking in contrast to the situation in the USA. Professionals have the knowledge to expand the panels but are dependent on policy-makers for the necessary funds. This paper is a call on the EU Commission to take up a role in providing equal access to neonatal screening for all children within the EU. Full article
Open AccessReview Newborn Screening for Sickle Cell Disease: Indian Experience
Int. J. Neonatal Screen. 2018, 4(4), 31; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijns4040031
Received: 12 September 2018 / Revised: 5 November 2018 / Accepted: 7 November 2018 / Published: 13 November 2018
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Abstract
Sickle cell disease (SCD) is a major public health problem in India with the highest prevalence amongst the tribal and some non-tribal ethnic groups. The clinical manifestations are extremely variable ranging from a severe to mild or asymptomatic condition. Early diagnosis and providing
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Sickle cell disease (SCD) is a major public health problem in India with the highest prevalence amongst the tribal and some non-tribal ethnic groups. The clinical manifestations are extremely variable ranging from a severe to mild or asymptomatic condition. Early diagnosis and providing care is critical in SCD because of the possibility of lethal complications in early infancy in pre-symptomatic children. Since 2010, neonatal screening programs for SCD have been initiated in a few states of India. A total of 18,003 babies have been screened by automated HPLC using either cord blood samples or heel prick dried blood spots and 2944 and 300 babies were diagnosed as sickle cell carriers and SCD respectively. A follow up of the SCD babies showed considerable variation in the clinical presentation in different population groups, the disease being more severe among non-tribal babies. Around 30% of babies developed serious complications within the first 2 to 2.6 years of life. These pilot studies have demonstrated the feasibility of undertaking newborn screening programs for SCD even in rural areas. A longer follow up of these babies is required and it is important to establish a national newborn screening program for SCD in all of the states where the frequency of the sickle cell gene is very high followed by the development of comprehensive care centers along with counselling and treatment facilities. This comprehensive data will ultimately help us to understand the natural history of SCD in India and also help the Government to formulate strategies for the management and prevention of sickle cell disease in India. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Pulse Oximetry Values in Newborns with Critical Congenital Heart Disease upon ICU Admission at Altitude
Int. J. Neonatal Screen. 2018, 4(4), 30; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijns4040030
Received: 17 September 2018 / Revised: 25 October 2018 / Accepted: 27 October 2018 / Published: 31 October 2018
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Abstract
Pulse oximetry screening for critical congenital heart disease (CCHD) has been recommended by the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP). The objectives of this study are to describe saturation data, and to evaluate the effectiveness of AAP-recommended pulse oximetry screening guidelines applied retrospectively to
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Pulse oximetry screening for critical congenital heart disease (CCHD) has been recommended by the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP). The objectives of this study are to describe saturation data, and to evaluate the effectiveness of AAP-recommended pulse oximetry screening guidelines applied retrospectively to a cohort of newborns with known CCHD at moderate altitude (5557 feet, Aurora, Colorado). Data related to seven critical congenital heart disease diagnoses were extracted from electronic health records (pulse oximetry, prostaglandin administration, and oxygen supplementation). Descriptive epidemiologic data were calculated. 158 subjects were included in this analysis; the AAP pulse oximetry screening protocol was applied to 149 subjects. Mean pre-ductal and post-ductal pulse oximetry values of the infants known to have CCHD at 24 h of life were 87.1% ± 7.2 and 87.8% ± 6.3, respectively. Infants treated with prostaglandins and oxygen had lower oximetry readings. The screening algorithm would have identified 80.5% of infants with known CCHDs (120/149 subjects). Additionally, sequential pulse oximetry screening based on the AAP-recommended protocol was able to identify a true positive screen capture rate of 80.5% at moderate altitude. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Neonatal Screening for Critical Congenital Heart Defects)
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Int. J. Neonatal Screen. EISSN 2409-515X Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
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