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Safety, Volume 5, Issue 3 (September 2019)

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Cover Story (view full-size image) Yards are notoriously dangerous for railroad workers, with more than 30% of accidents happening due [...] Read more.
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Open AccessArticle
Identifying Equipment Factors Associated with Snowplow Operator Fatigue
Safety 2019, 5(3), 62; https://doi.org/10.3390/safety5030062 - 01 Sep 2019
Viewed by 502
Abstract
A recent body of research in fatigue management indicates that other factors, including in-cab and external equipment, contribute to operator fatigue. The goal of this project was to identify winter road maintenance equipment (in-cab and external) that may increase or mitigate snowplow operator [...] Read more.
A recent body of research in fatigue management indicates that other factors, including in-cab and external equipment, contribute to operator fatigue. The goal of this project was to identify winter road maintenance equipment (in-cab and external) that may increase or mitigate snowplow operator fatigue. To accomplish this goal, questionnaires from 2011 snowplow operators were collected from 23 states in the U.S. Results confirmed previous research that fatigue is prevalent in winter road maintenance operations. Winter road maintenance equipment that produced excessive vibrations, noise, reduced visibility, and complex task demands were found to increase snowplow operators’ self-reported fatigue. Similarly, equipment that reduced vibrations and external noise, improved visibility, and limited secondary tasks were found to reduce snowplow operator’s self-reported fatigue. Based on the questionnaire responses and the feasibility of implementation, the following equipment may help to mitigate or prevent snowplow operator fatigue: dimmable interior lighting, LED bulbs for exterior lighting, dimmable warning lights, a CD player or satellite radio in each vehicle, heated windshield, snow deflectors, narrow-beam auxiliary lighting, and more ergonomically designed seats with vibration dampening/air-ride technology. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Coopetition as an Emerging Trend in Research: Perspectives for Safety & Security
Safety 2019, 5(3), 61; https://doi.org/10.3390/safety5030061 - 01 Sep 2019
Viewed by 838
Abstract
The study of coopetition has been evolving with rapid growth in the number of academic publications in this field. A number of literature reviews have been published focusing on nature, antecedents of coopetition and future perspectives of its implementation. Coopetition is proved to [...] Read more.
The study of coopetition has been evolving with rapid growth in the number of academic publications in this field. A number of literature reviews have been published focusing on nature, antecedents of coopetition and future perspectives of its implementation. Coopetition is proved to be beneficial for joint investments and Research and development (R&D) projects, and yet competitive games take place in the global markets that may lead to safety hazards. There are few studies that investigate possible perspectives of coopetition strategy for solutions in safety and security, and therefore considering the global tendencies objective, necessity arises for a more detailed study of it. The analysis begins by identifying over 600 published studies where the terms “coopetition”, “safety”, “security” were used. Using rigorous bibliometric tools, established and emergent research clusters were identified, as well as the most influential studies, the most contributing authors and topical areas for further investigations. The systematic combination of quantitative and qualitative analytical tools helps to identify the potential directions for future research. By combining bibliometric analysis and content analysis, the main perspective areas for coopetition implementation towards safety and security were identified. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Safety Design and Perception-Based Safety)
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Open AccessArticle
Comparison Analysis between Real Accident Locations and Simulated Risk Areas in An Urban Road Network
Safety 2019, 5(3), 60; https://doi.org/10.3390/safety5030060 - 27 Aug 2019
Viewed by 616
Abstract
Recently, many researchers have employed a microsimulation technique to study the chain of interactions among vehicles, which generates an accident occurrence in some circumstances. This new approach to studying road safety is named traffic conflict technique. The aim of this paper is to [...] Read more.
Recently, many researchers have employed a microsimulation technique to study the chain of interactions among vehicles, which generates an accident occurrence in some circumstances. This new approach to studying road safety is named traffic conflict technique. The aim of this paper is to assess how the microscopic simulation is a useful tool to identify potentially unsafe vehicle interactions and how high-risk locations identified by a microsimulation technique are similar to the ones identified by using historical accident data. Results show that high-risk locations identified by the simulation framework are superimposable to those identified by using the historical accident database. In particular, the statistical analysis employed based on Pearson’s correlation demonstrates a significative correspondence between a risk rate defined with simulation and an accident rate determined by the observed accidents dataset. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Alignment of the Safety Assessment Method with New Zealand Legislative Responsibilities
Safety 2019, 5(3), 59; https://doi.org/10.3390/safety5030059 - 23 Aug 2019
Viewed by 629
Abstract
Need—National legislative health and safety (H&S) frameworks impose requirements but grant self-management to organisations. Consequently variability arises in management systems, and some organisations struggle to achieve successful implementation. The risk assessment process is key to the H&S management system, and could benefit from [...] Read more.
Need—National legislative health and safety (H&S) frameworks impose requirements but grant self-management to organisations. Consequently variability arises in management systems, and some organisations struggle to achieve successful implementation. The risk assessment process is key to the H&S management system, and could benefit from greater consistency and better external alignment with the legislative framework of the jurisdiction. Approach—The harm categories in the New Zealand (NZ) Act were adapted into a consequence scale. A non-linear scale was developed for the consequence axis to represent the disproportional nature of catastrophic harm outcomes compared to minor injuries. A hazard assessment process was devised based on systems engineering methods. Organisational decision-criteria were derived from the communications requirement in the Act, and these thresholds linked to expected treatments. Originality—A method is providing for aligning risk assessments with a national legislative framework, and integrating the technical aspects of risk assessment with the management processes. The approach also more explicitly includes recovery actions in contrast to existing methods where prevention dominates. Regarding the management aspects, it shows how thresholds may be defined relative to the legislation, to give clear expectations regarding treatment and internal communication, thereby assisting executives (‘officers’ in terms of the NZ Act) meet their duties. Full article
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Open AccessCase Report
Drinking Water Risk Management Plan: A Case Study in the Ore Processing Industry
Safety 2019, 5(3), 58; https://doi.org/10.3390/safety5030058 - 23 Aug 2019
Viewed by 649
Abstract
All of the water supply system development needs to be safe and meet health requirements. Due to the expansion of the ore processing industry, water supply providers are required to identify the risks that may arise from dangerous and hazardous events. The purpose [...] Read more.
All of the water supply system development needs to be safe and meet health requirements. Due to the expansion of the ore processing industry, water supply providers are required to identify the risks that may arise from dangerous and hazardous events. The purpose of this study was to build a structured approach to drinking water risk management plans (RMPs). We used risk assessments with reference to the environmental management system, risk management, and the food safety management system. The results of the risk assessment show two critical control points (CCPs) of high risk: Dam (catchment) and pipe reticulation. Some CCPs were categorized as posing very high risks of hazardous events due to pathogen contamination, including the clean water tank, the disinfectant injector, and pipe reticulation. The RMPs recorded and identified various preventive measures that could be taken to reduce and eliminate the risks. Daily operational requirements can be implemented to prepare for these hazards and risks that have the potential to negatively affect the quality of the drinking water supplied to the workers. Risk assessments were conducted in two stages: Preventive measures and operational monitoring. The involvement of all departments and authority agencies was crucial to ensure the success in the development and review of the operational aspects of these RMPs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water Resources Protection: Water Safety)
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Open AccessArticle
Can Automated Vehicles Improve Cyclist Safety in Urban Areas?
Safety 2019, 5(3), 57; https://doi.org/10.3390/safety5030057 - 23 Aug 2019
Viewed by 666
Abstract
Automated vehicles (AVs) are expected to assist in decreasing road traffic fatalities, particularly among passenger cars. However, until now limited research has been conducted on how they will impact the safety of vulnerable road users (VRUs) (i.e., cyclists and pedestrians). Therefore, there is [...] Read more.
Automated vehicles (AVs) are expected to assist in decreasing road traffic fatalities, particularly among passenger cars. However, until now limited research has been conducted on how they will impact the safety of vulnerable road users (VRUs) (i.e., cyclists and pedestrians). Therefore, there is a clear need to start taking into account the interactions between AVs and VRUs as an integrated element of the transport network, especially in urban areas where they are dominant. The objective of this study is to verify whether the anticipated implementation of AVs can actually improve cyclists’ safety. For this purpose, the microscopic traffic flow simulation software PTV Vissim combined with the surrogate safety assessment model (SSAM) were utilized. The road network used for this analysis was generated based on a real study case in a medium-sized city in Belgium, where narrow streets in the city center are shared on many occasions between vehicles and cyclists. The findings of the analysis show a notable reduction in the total number of conflicts between cars, but also between cars and cyclists, compared to the current situation, assuming a 100% market penetration scenario for AVs. Moreover, the severity level of conflicts also decreased as a result of the lack of human-driven vehicles in the traffic streams. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Mathematical Modeling of Heat Transfer in an Element of Combustible Plant Material When Exposed to Radiation from a Forest Fire
Safety 2019, 5(3), 56; https://doi.org/10.3390/safety5030056 - 15 Aug 2019
Viewed by 770
Abstract
The last few decades have been characterized by an increase in the frequency and burned area of forest fires in many countries of the world. Needles, foliage, branches, and herbaceous plants are involved in burning during forest fires. Most forest fires are surface [...] Read more.
The last few decades have been characterized by an increase in the frequency and burned area of forest fires in many countries of the world. Needles, foliage, branches, and herbaceous plants are involved in burning during forest fires. Most forest fires are surface ones. The purpose of this study was to develop a mathematical model of heat transfer in an element of combustible plant material, namely, in the stem of a herbaceous plant, when exposed to radiation from a surface forest fire. Mathematically, the process of heat transfer in an element of combustible plant material was described by a system of non-stationary partial differential equations with corresponding initial and boundary conditions. The finite difference method was used to solve this system of equations in combination with a locally one-dimensional method for solving multidimensional tasks of mathematical physics. Temperature distributions were obtained as a result of modeling in a structurally inhomogeneous stem of a herbaceous plant for various scenarios of the impact of a forest fire. The results can be used to develop new systems for forest fire forecasting and their environmental impact prediction. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fire Safety 2019)
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Open AccessArticle
A Novel Method of Near-Miss Event Detection with Software Defined RADAR in Improving Railyard Safety
Safety 2019, 5(3), 55; https://doi.org/10.3390/safety5030055 - 14 Aug 2019
Viewed by 762
Abstract
Railyards are one of the most challenging and complex workplace environments in any industry. Railyard workers are constantly surrounded by dangerous moving objects, in a noisy environment where distractions can easily result in accidents or casualties. Throughout the years, yards have been contributing [...] Read more.
Railyards are one of the most challenging and complex workplace environments in any industry. Railyard workers are constantly surrounded by dangerous moving objects, in a noisy environment where distractions can easily result in accidents or casualties. Throughout the years, yards have been contributing 20–30% of the total accidents that happen in railroads. Monitoring the railyard workspace to keep personnel safe from falls, slips, being struck by large object, etc. and preventing fatal accidents can be particularly challenging due to the sheer number of factors involved, such as the need to protect a large geographical space, the inherent dynamicity of the situation workers find themselves in, the presence of heavy rolling stock, blind spots, uneven surfaces and a plethora of trip hazards, just to name a few. Since workers spend the majority of time outdoors, weather conditions also play an important role, i.e., snow, fog, rain, etc. Conventional sensor deployments in yards thus fail to consistently monitor this workspace. In this paper, the authors have identified these challenges and addressed them with a novel detection method using a multi-sensor approach. They have also proposed novel algorithms to detect, classify and remotely monitor Employees-on-Duty (EoDs) without hindering real-time decision-making of the EoD. In the proposed solution, the authors have used a fast spherical-to-rectilinear transform algorithm on fish-eye images to monitor a wide area and to address blindspots in visual monitoring, and employed Software-Defined RADAR (SDRADAR) to address the low-visibility problem. The sensors manage to monitor the workspace for 100 m with blind detection and classification. These algorithms have successfully maintained real-time processing delay of ≤0.1 s between consecutive frames for both SDRADAR and visual processing. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Railway Safety)
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Open AccessArticle
The Relationship between Fitness and Marksmanship in Police Officers
Safety 2019, 5(3), 54; https://doi.org/10.3390/safety5030054 - 14 Aug 2019
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 775
Abstract
Police officers may be required to discharge their weapon under physical duress. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between fitness and marksmanship to facilitate future strategies to improve marksmanship. Retrospective data were provided for thirty-four police officers (mean age [...] Read more.
Police officers may be required to discharge their weapon under physical duress. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between fitness and marksmanship to facilitate future strategies to improve marksmanship. Retrospective data were provided for thirty-four police officers (mean age = 40.48 ± 6.66 years: mean weight = 100.60 ± 19.82 kg: mean height = 180.42 ± 6.87 cm) from a US-based law enforcement agency. Data included four different fitness measures and three different shooting scenarios. No significant relationship was observed between the three different shooting scenarios. There was a significant relationship between shuttle run and static shoot (r = 0.528, p = 0.002), grip strength and the dynamic scenario (r = −0.367, p = 0.035) and leg strength and the positive identification scenario (r = 0.344, p = 0.050). This study demonstrated that a high variety of fitness training and marksmanship practice, under various occupational scenarios, may be required to ensure optimal police shooting accuracy whilst in the field. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Design of a Self-Audit Tool for the Application of Lockout on Machinery in the Province of Quebec, Canada to Control Hazardous Energies
Safety 2019, 5(3), 53; https://doi.org/10.3390/safety5030053 - 13 Aug 2019
Viewed by 877
Abstract
Failure to apply lockout procedures for the control of hazardous energies is one of the main causes of machinery-related fatal and serious injuries in North America. The absence of audits of lockout or the lack of proper tools for auditing lockout is prevalent, [...] Read more.
Failure to apply lockout procedures for the control of hazardous energies is one of the main causes of machinery-related fatal and serious injuries in North America. The absence of audits of lockout or the lack of proper tools for auditing lockout is prevalent, and thus the application of lockout is often not fully in compliance with standards and regulations. A self-audit tool for the application of lockout procedures for machinery was developed on the basis of the current standards and regulations, and previous research. The tool was then tested for content validity through experts’ opinions and qualitative feedback from six organizations in the province of Quebec in Canada. The developed audit tool defines the actual procedures to audit, as well as the surrounding conditions that are needed and the prerequisites based on standards, regulations, and findings from previous research. The results showed that the tool displayed a high content validity index and demonstrated that the usability, applicability, and comprehensiveness of the tool were adequate. This self-audit tool helps organizations monitor the application of lockout on machinery for the safety of workers and to ensure that the actual practice of controlling hazardous energy is in compliance with relevant standards and regulations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Occupational Health and Safety New Challenges for Industry)
Open AccessArticle
Agent-Based Modeling of a Self-Organized Food Safety System
Safety 2019, 5(3), 52; https://doi.org/10.3390/safety5030052 - 12 Aug 2019
Viewed by 798
Abstract
“The wisdom of crowds” is often observed in social discourses and activities around us. The manifestations of it are, however, so intrinsically embedded and behaviorally accepted that an elaboration of a social phenomenon evidencing such wisdom is often considered a discovery; or at [...] Read more.
“The wisdom of crowds” is often observed in social discourses and activities around us. The manifestations of it are, however, so intrinsically embedded and behaviorally accepted that an elaboration of a social phenomenon evidencing such wisdom is often considered a discovery; or at least an astonishing fact. One such scenario is explored here, namely, the conceptualization and modeling of a food safety system—a system directly related to social cognition. The first contribution of this paper is the re-evaluation of Knowles’s model towards a more conscious understanding of “the wisdom of crowds” effects on inspection and consumption behaviors. The second contribution is augmenting the model with social networking capabilities, which acts as a medium to spread information about stores and help consumers find uncontaminated stores. Simulation results revealed that stores respecting social cognition improve the effectiveness of the food safety system for consumers as well as for the stores. Simulation findings also revealed that active societies have the capability to self-organize effectively, even if they lack regulatory obligations. Full article
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Open AccessReview
A Review of Virtual and Mixed Reality Applications in Construction Safety Literature
Safety 2019, 5(3), 51; https://doi.org/10.3390/safety5030051 - 12 Aug 2019
Viewed by 895
Abstract
Over the last decade, researchers have used virtual- and mixed-reality (VR-MR) techniques for various safety-related applications such as training, hazard monitoring, and preconstruction planning. This paper reviews the recent trends in virtual- and mixed-reality applications in construction safety, explicitly focusing on virtual-reality and [...] Read more.
Over the last decade, researchers have used virtual- and mixed-reality (VR-MR) techniques for various safety-related applications such as training, hazard monitoring, and preconstruction planning. This paper reviews the recent trends in virtual- and mixed-reality applications in construction safety, explicitly focusing on virtual-reality and mixed-reality techniques as the two major types of computer-generated simulated experiences. Following a systematic literature assessment methodology, this study summarizes the results of articles that have been published over the last decade and illustrates the research trends of virtual- and mixed-reality applications in construction safety while focusing on the technological components of individual studies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Occupational Health and Safety New Challenges for Industry)
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Open AccessArticle
Examination of Strenuous Activity Preceding Cardiac Death during Firefighting Duties
Safety 2019, 5(3), 50; https://doi.org/10.3390/safety5030050 - 09 Aug 2019
Viewed by 798
Abstract
Sudden cardiac death accounts for approximately 45% of duty-related fatalities among United States firefighters. Strenuous physical exertion is recognized as a trigger of sudden cardiac events. This study describes the duration of strenuous physical exertion on-scene preceding a fatal cardiac event by situation [...] Read more.
Sudden cardiac death accounts for approximately 45% of duty-related fatalities among United States firefighters. Strenuous physical exertion is recognized as a trigger of sudden cardiac events. This study describes the duration of strenuous physical exertion on-scene preceding a fatal cardiac event by situation encountered during firefighting duties. Data provided by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health Fire Fighter Fatality Investigation and Prevention Program for duty-related firefighter fatalities over a 9-year period were analyzed. Among the 235 fatalities investigated, 45% had a cause of death that was cardiac in origin. Time (mean ± SD) spent on-scene in strenuous work was 30 ± 26 min, 14 ± 15 min, and 47 ± 52 min for fire, non-fire emergency, and training situations, respectively. Across all emergency operations and training, 31% of fatalities occurred among firefighters who performed ≤10 min of strenuous work, whereas 13% of fatalities occurred among those who performed >60 min. Study findings indicate that there is considerable variability in the duration of strenuous work preceding fatal cardiac events during firefighting duties. Notably, a high percentage of fatal cardiac events occurred after a relatively brief period of strenuous work, suggesting that the performance of any strenuous work, even that of short duration, may be sufficient to provoke a cardiac event in a firefighter with underlying cardiac disease. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fire Safety 2019)
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Open AccessArticle
Developing a Time-Based Evaluation Method for Functional Exercises of Emergency Medical Operations
Safety 2019, 5(3), 49; https://doi.org/10.3390/safety5030049 - 07 Aug 2019
Viewed by 924
Abstract
Public health service is one of the most important sectors in terms of saving lives. During a disaster, hospitals and medical groups implement extension tasks from their daily activities. Enhancing coordination across organizations contributes to the removal of communication barriers. Functional exercises are [...] Read more.
Public health service is one of the most important sectors in terms of saving lives. During a disaster, hospitals and medical groups implement extension tasks from their daily activities. Enhancing coordination across organizations contributes to the removal of communication barriers. Functional exercises are simulated trainings for emergency responders that aim to enhance coordination capabilities. The application of time elements in exercise evaluation methods is a significant area of potential research. We develop methods to quantitatively analyze time spent on completing unit tasks in functional exercises. This study focuses on analyzing observed time data in two functional exercises of the Disaster Medical Operation Center in Kitakyushu, which were repeated in October and November 2015. We employed a censored regression method to analyze the time spent on both complete and incomplete unit tasks together. Differences in processing time for 39 tasks, which were repeated in the two exercises, are visually inspected. Benefits of time study in the evaluation of exercises are presented. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Age-Related Differences in Motor-Vehicle Crash Severity in California
Safety 2019, 5(3), 48; https://doi.org/10.3390/safety5030048 - 07 Aug 2019
Viewed by 869
Abstract
With ongoing changes in the age distribution of drivers in the United States, it is important to obtain insights on how to make the roadways equally safe for drivers across different age groups. In light of this, the objective of this study is [...] Read more.
With ongoing changes in the age distribution of drivers in the United States, it is important to obtain insights on how to make the roadways equally safe for drivers across different age groups. In light of this, the objective of this study is to examine various crash characteristics and make recommendations on how to potentially improve roadway safety for all age groups. Using the Highway Safety Information System (HSIS) data, this study investigates the factors influencing motor-vehicle crash injury severity for young (aged 16–25), middle-aged (aged 26–64), and older drivers (above 64) in the state of California. A multinomial logit model was used to separately model crashes involving each age group and to evaluate the weight of different predictor variables on driver injury severity. The predictor variables were classified into four—driver, roadway, accident and environmental characteristics. Results suggest that there are close relationships between severity determinants for young and middle-aged drivers. However, older drivers tend to be most cautious among all age groups under all environmental and roadway conditions. Young drivers are more likely to explore their driving skills due to newness to driving. Middle-aged drivers are familiar with driving and tend to demonstrate less cautious behaviors, especially male drivers. Another insight obtained from this study is that older driver behavior is less dynamic compared to other age groups; their driving pattern is usually regular regardless of the surrounding conditions. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Consumer Preference between Fire Risk and Chemical Risk for Home Appliances Containing Flame Retardants in Plastic Parts
Safety 2019, 5(3), 47; https://doi.org/10.3390/safety5030047 - 30 Jul 2019
Viewed by 886
Abstract
A questionnaire survey was conducted to explore consumer preference between fire risk and chemical risk, with a focus on electric and electronic home appliances whose plastic parts either contain or do not contain flame retardants (FRs). The analytic hierarchy process was used to [...] Read more.
A questionnaire survey was conducted to explore consumer preference between fire risk and chemical risk, with a focus on electric and electronic home appliances whose plastic parts either contain or do not contain flame retardants (FRs). The analytic hierarchy process was used to evaluate the change in consumer preference before and after watching a video describing the effects of FRs. The t-test was used to compare the priority of product alternatives for subjects grouped according to risk acceptance and risk-avoidance orientation. From the results, the degree of each consumer preference for “Safety” was the highest before watching the video, and the degree of preference for “Safety” increased and those for “Health” and “Environment” decreased after watching the video. The degrees of consumer preference for “The product with FRs” and “The product without FRs” were almost the same before watching the video, but the preference for “The product with FRs” increased after watching the video. This tendency to change the priority of products from before to after watching the video was generally the same in each group. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Exploring Flood-Related Unintentional Fatal Drowning of Children and Adolescents Aged 0–19 Years in Australia
Safety 2019, 5(3), 46; https://doi.org/10.3390/safety5030046 - 27 Jul 2019
Viewed by 1156
Abstract
Disasters, such as flooding, are predicted to increase. Drowning is one of the leading causes of death during times of flood. This study examined the little explored topic of child drowning during floods, with the aim of identifying risk factors to inform prevention [...] Read more.
Disasters, such as flooding, are predicted to increase. Drowning is one of the leading causes of death during times of flood. This study examined the little explored topic of child drowning during floods, with the aim of identifying risk factors to inform prevention strategies. A retrospective, total population examination of cases of children and adolescents aged 0–19 years who died from unintentional flood-related drowning in Australia for the 16-year period 1 July 2002 to 30 June 2018 was undertaken. Univariate and chi-square analysis was conducted, with Fisher’s exact test used for cell counts <5. Across the study period, 44 flood-related drowning deaths occurred among children and adolescents (63.6% male; 34.1% aged 10–14 years). Almost all (84.1%) occurred in rivers, creeks, or streams in flood, with the remaining incidents occurring in storm water drains (n = 7). Leading activities immediately prior to drowning were non-aquatic transport (40.9%), swimming in floodwaters (25.0%), and falls into floodwaters (15.9%). Flood-related fatal drowning among children and adolescents is rare (0.05 per 100,000 population), however flood-drowning risk increases as remoteness increases, with children and adolescents drowning in floodwaters in very remote areas at a rate 57 times that of major cities. All drownings are preventable, and this study has identified key causal factors that must be considered in advocacy and prevention efforts. These include: the importance of adult supervision, avoiding flooded waterways when driving or for recreational purposes, and the increased risks for those residing in geographically isolated and socially disadvantaged areas. Findings must be considered when developing interventions and advocacy for the purposes of the reduction of child and adolescent drowning during times of flood. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Disaster Risk Reduction)
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Open AccessArticle
Performance-Based Fire Engineering Design of a Heritage Building: McDougall House Case Study
Safety 2019, 5(3), 45; https://doi.org/10.3390/safety5030045 - 17 Jul 2019
Viewed by 1042
Abstract
The application of a performance-based fire engineering design has enabled the conservation of a heritage building in New Zealand. McDougall House is a two-story heritage building which suffered extensive damages during the Canterbury earthquakes in 2010 and 2011. The scope of the conservation [...] Read more.
The application of a performance-based fire engineering design has enabled the conservation of a heritage building in New Zealand. McDougall House is a two-story heritage building which suffered extensive damages during the Canterbury earthquakes in 2010 and 2011. The scope of the conservation plan included the preservation and restoration of the building external façade, the restoration of the ornamental plasterwork ceiling within the Ballroom, the reconstruction of all damaged internal lath and plaster linings, the adaptation of the fireplace, and the reconstruction of the damaged chimney. The fire engineering design adopted is the Verification Method C/VM2 with As Nearly As is Reasonably Practicable consideration for the heritage fabrics of the building. The combination of quantitative and qualitative analyses has demonstrated the building design compliance with the 10 design scenarios of C/VM2. These analyses include the assessment of minimum means of escape and fire protection provisions, the assessment of allowable unprotected areas in the external wall for horizontal fire spread, the assessment of firefighting provisions, the smoke and egress modelling of proposed design fires, and the benefit versus sacrifice analysis on the heritage fabrics. The application of C/VM2 results in an upgrade to the fire safety and fire protection systems of the building while also retaining and enhancing its heritage value. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fire Safety 2019)
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Open AccessArticle
A New Approach to the Assessment of the Reduction in Visibility Caused by Fires of Electrical Cables
Safety 2019, 5(3), 44; https://doi.org/10.3390/safety5030044 - 09 Jul 2019
Viewed by 1147
Abstract
Electricity is the most important form of household energy and one of the most important forms of energy for industry and transport. Electrical distribution in construction and transport is almost exclusively implemented using electrical cables. One of the unresolved problems associated with electrical [...] Read more.
Electricity is the most important form of household energy and one of the most important forms of energy for industry and transport. Electrical distribution in construction and transport is almost exclusively implemented using electrical cables. One of the unresolved problems associated with electrical cables is the release of smoke and the resulting reduction of visibility in case of fire in the area. In this study, a new approach was developed to assess the reduction of visibility in an area affected by an electrical cable fire. This approach is based on the determination of the critical ratio of smoke volume (in the smoke layer and exhausted from the fire compartment) to the length of the burning cable, through which the visibility of reflective and illuminated signs was reduced to a lower limit value (a standard of 10 m). The input data for this approach was the extinction area of the smoke released from one meter of burning cable and the length of the cables in the area. This approach was used to test two power cables (CHKE-V J3x1.5 and CHKE-R J3x1.5) and one signal cable J-H(St)H 1 × 2 × 0.8 with the B2ca, s1, d1, a1 fire reaction class. The smoke extinction area of the examined cables was determined using a cone calorimeter at a heat flux of 50 kW/m2. The obtained data showed that in order to maintain a visibility of 10 m for reflective signs, the critical ratio of smoke volume to length of burning cable was 7.5 m3/m. For illuminated signs, the critical ratio was 2.8 m3/m. The relationship between burning length and visibility allows the calculation of visibility in the fire compartment affected by cable fire only from cables length. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fire Safety 2019)
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Open AccessArticle
A Case Study in the Application of the Systematic Approach to Training in the Logging Industry
Safety 2019, 5(3), 43; https://doi.org/10.3390/safety5030043 - 08 Jul 2019
Viewed by 1089
Abstract
The purpose of this research was to develop and assess a targeted emergency first-aid and safety training program for professional loggers in Montana. There were two key objectives for the program: (1) participant demonstration of recall and retention of key concepts and (2) [...] Read more.
The purpose of this research was to develop and assess a targeted emergency first-aid and safety training program for professional loggers in Montana. There were two key objectives for the program: (1) participant demonstration of recall and retention of key concepts and (2) improved participant reception in comparison to the previous year’s training program. The Systematic Approach to Training provided the overall model for the development and conduct of the training program. Qualitative and quantitative analyses were used to assess the effectiveness of the training program. The training program was administered to 873 loggers. Pre-, post-, and follow-up examinations were used to assess recall and retention of key learning objectives, while surveys were used to assess learner reception of the updated training program. Post-training survey data indicated increases in training applicability, understanding of learning objectives, and overall course enjoyment of the updated program in comparison to the previous year’s training program. Participants scored significantly higher on the post-training exams, which demonstrated recall of key training objectives. The results obtained by the training evaluation will guide future research and the continued development of the training program to align with ongoing analysis activities and participant suggestions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Agricultural Safety and Health)
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Open AccessArticle
Predicting Traffic and Risk Exposure in the Maritime Industry
Safety 2019, 5(3), 42; https://doi.org/10.3390/safety5030042 - 01 Jul 2019
Viewed by 1203
Abstract
Maritime regulators, port authorities, and industry require the ability to predict risk exposure of shipping activities at a micro and macro level to optimize asset allocation and to mitigate and prevent incidents. This article introduces the concept of a strategic planning tool by [...] Read more.
Maritime regulators, port authorities, and industry require the ability to predict risk exposure of shipping activities at a micro and macro level to optimize asset allocation and to mitigate and prevent incidents. This article introduces the concept of a strategic planning tool by making use of the multi-layered risk estimation framework (MLREF), which accounts for ship specific risk, vessel traffic densities, and meets ocean conditions at the macro level. This article’s main contribution is to provide a traffic and risk exposure prediction routine that allows the traffic forecast to be distributed across the shipping route network to allow for predicting scenarios at the macro level (e.g., covering larger geographic areas) and micro level (e.g., passage way, particular route of interest). In addition, the micro level is introduced by providing a theoretical idea to integrate location specific spatial rate ratios along with the effect of the risk control option to perform sensitivity analysis of risk exposure prediction scenarios. Aspects of the risk exposure estimation routine were tested via a pilot study for the Australian region using a comprehensive and unique combination of datasets. Sources of uncertainties for risk assessments are described in general and discussed along with the potential for future developments and improvements. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Maritime Safety and Operations)
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Open AccessArticle
ATC Separation Assurance for RPASs and Conventional Aircraft in En-Route Airspace
Safety 2019, 5(3), 41; https://doi.org/10.3390/safety5030041 - 28 Jun 2019
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Abstract
Remotely-piloted aircraft systems (RPASs) present interesting and complex challenges for air traffic management. One of the most critical aspects of the integration of RPASs in non-segregated airspace is safety assessments. This paper lays out a methodology for estimating the minimum protection distance (MPD) [...] Read more.
Remotely-piloted aircraft systems (RPASs) present interesting and complex challenges for air traffic management. One of the most critical aspects of the integration of RPASs in non-segregated airspace is safety assessments. This paper lays out a methodology for estimating the minimum protection distance (MPD) that is required to avoid potential conflicts between RPASs and conventional aircraft. The MPD determines the final moment that air traffic control may instruct a RPAS to start climbing with a fixed rate of climb (ROC) to avoid separation minima infringement. The methodology sets out a conflict-resolution algorithm to estimate the MPD. It also models the impact of communication, navigation, and surveillance requirements on the MPD. The main difference between RPASs and conventional aircraft is that the former needs additional communication between the RPAS and pilot in the form of a required Comand and Control link performance (RLP). Finally, the authors carried out Monte Carlo simulations to estimate the value of the MPD only for the head-on encounter, which is the worst scenario. The results showed that the main factors affecting the MPD were RLP and ROC. By increasing RLP and decreasing ROC it was possible to reduce the MPD from 28 to 17 nautical miles; however, the variation in the MPD was not linear. Full article
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