Next Article in Journal
Prognosis and Remaining Useful Life Estimation of Lithium-Ion Battery with Optimal Multi-Level Particle Filter and Genetic Algorithm
Next Article in Special Issue
Factors Affecting the Effectiveness of Bioelectrochemical System Applications: Data Synthesis and Meta-Analysis
Previous Article in Journal
Untreated Natural Graphite as a Graphene Source for High-Performance Li-Ion Batteries
Article Menu
Issue 2 (June) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Batteries 2018, 4(2), 14;

On-Demand Micro-Power Generation from an Origami-Inspired Paper Biobattery Stack

Bioelectronics & Microsystems Laboratory, Department of Electrical & Computer Engineering, State University of New York-Binghamton, Binghamton, NY 13902, USA
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 9 February 2018 / Revised: 12 March 2018 / Accepted: 16 March 2018 / Published: 21 March 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bio-Batteries)
Full-Text   |   PDF [2487 KB, uploaded 22 March 2018]   |  


We use origami to create a compact, scalable three-dimensional (3-D) biobattery stack that delivers on-demand energy to the portable biosensors. Folding allows a two-dimensional (2-D) paper sheet possessing predefined functional components to form nine 3-D microbial fuel cells (MFCs), and connect them serially within a small and single unit (5.6 cm × 5.6 cm). We load the biocatalyst Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 in predefined areas that form the MFCs, and freeze-dry them for long-term storage. The biobattery stack generates a maximum power and current of 20 μW and 25 μA, respectively, via microbial metabolism when the freeze-dried cells are rehydrated with readily available wastewater. This work establishes an innovative strategy to revolutionize the fabrication, storage, operation, and application of paper-based MFCs, which could potentially make energy available even in resource-limited settings. View Full-Text
Keywords: microbial fuel cells; origami; paper battery stacks; on-demand power generation microbial fuel cells; origami; paper battery stacks; on-demand power generation

Graphical abstract

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Supplementary material


Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Mohammadifar, M.; Choi, S. On-Demand Micro-Power Generation from an Origami-Inspired Paper Biobattery Stack. Batteries 2018, 4, 14.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Batteries EISSN 2313-0105 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top