Next Article in Journal
Xylose-Enriched Ethanol Fermentation Stillage from Sweet Sorghum for Xylitol and Astaxanthin Production
Next Article in Special Issue
The Second-Generation Biomethane from Mandarin Orange Peel under Cocultivation with Methanogens and the Armed Clostridium cellulovorans
Previous Article in Journal
Anhydrobiosis in Yeasts: Changes in Mitochondrial Membranes Improve the Resistance of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Cells to Dehydration–Rehydration
Previous Article in Special Issue
Food Wastes as a Potential New Source for Edible Insect Mass Production for Food and Feed: A review
Open AccessArticle

Deoxynivalenol (DON) Accumulation and Nutrient Recovery in Black Soldier Fly Larvae (Hermetia illucens) Fed Wheat Infected with Fusarium spp.

1
Faculty of Chemical and Metallurgical, Food Engineering Department, Istanbul Technical University, Istanbul 34469, Turkey
2
Department of Food and Bioproduct Sciences, University of Saskatchewan, 51 Campus Dr. Saskatoon, SK S7N5A8, Canada
3
Department of Plant Sciences, University of Saskatchewan, 51 Campus Dr. Saskatoon, SK S7N5A8, Canada
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Fermentation 2019, 5(3), 83; https://doi.org/10.3390/fermentation5030083
Received: 22 August 2019 / Revised: 13 September 2019 / Accepted: 16 September 2019 / Published: 19 September 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Food Wastes: Feedstock for Value-Added Products)
Fusarium head blight (FHB) is one of the most significant causes of economic loss in cereal crops, resulting in a loss of $50–300 million for Canadian agriculture. The infected grain (containing Fusarium-damaged kernels (FDKs)) is often both lower in quality and kernel weight, and it may be unsuitable for human and animal consumption due to mycotoxin presence. However, it still contains a considerable amount of nutrients. A method to recover the nutrients without the mycotoxins should be beneficial for the agricultural economy. In this study, our objective was to examine recovery methods of the nutrients in relation to mycotoxin accumulation in the insect. The FDKs were fermented with Aspergillus oryzae and/or Lactobacillus plantarum (solid-state fermentation (SSF)). The SSF kernels were then provided to 50 young, black soldier fly larvae (BSFL) for 12 days. Weight gain, chemical composition, and mycotoxin bioaccumulation of BSFL and spent feed were evaluated. After 12 days of insect culture, the BSFL grew 5–6 times their initial weight. While the overall weights did not significantly vary, the proteins and lipids accumulated more in SSF FDK-fed insects. During the active growth period, the larval biomass contained deoxynivalenol (DON), a mycotoxin, at detectable levels; however, by day 12, when the larvae were in the pre-pupal stage, the amount of DON in the insect biomass was nearly negligible, i.e., BSFL did not accumulate DON. Thus, we conclude that the combination of BSFL and SSF can be employed to recover DON-free nutrients from FHB-infected grain to recover value from unmarketable grain. View Full-Text
Keywords: insect culture; solid-state fermentation; mycotoxins; value-added processing; Fusarium head blight insect culture; solid-state fermentation; mycotoxins; value-added processing; Fusarium head blight
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

MDPI and ACS Style

Gulsunoglu, Z.; Aravind, S.; Bai, Y.; Wang, L.; Kutcher, H.R.; Tanaka, T. Deoxynivalenol (DON) Accumulation and Nutrient Recovery in Black Soldier Fly Larvae (Hermetia illucens) Fed Wheat Infected with Fusarium spp.. Fermentation 2019, 5, 83.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop