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Generation of Vortex Lattices at the Liquid–Gas Interface Using Rotating Surface Waves

Research School of Physics and Engineering, The Australian National University, Canberra ACT 2601, Australia
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Fluids 2019, 4(2), 74; https://doi.org/10.3390/fluids4020074
Received: 29 January 2019 / Revised: 9 April 2019 / Accepted: 10 April 2019 / Published: 16 April 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nonlinear Wave Hydrodynamics)
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Abstract

In this paper, we demonstrate experimentally that by generating two orthogonal standing waves at the liquid surface, one can control the motion of floating microparticles. The mechanism of the vortex generation is somewhat similar to a classical Stokes drift in linear progression waves. By adjusting the relative phase between the waves, it is possible to generate a vortex lattice, seen as a stationary horizontal flow consisting of counter-rotating vortices. Two orthogonal waves which are phase-shifted by π / 2 create locally rotating waves. Such waves induce nested circular drift orbits of the surface fluid particles. Such a configuration allows for the trapping of particles within a cell of the size about half the wavelength of the standing waves. By changing the relative phase, it is possible to either create or to destroy the vortex crystal. This method creates an opportunity to confine surface particles within cells, or to greatly increase mixing of the surface matter over the wave field surface. View Full-Text
Keywords: surface wave; surface flow; vortex lattices surface wave; surface flow; vortex lattices
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Xia, H.; Francois, N.; Gorce, J.-B.; Punzmann, H.; Shats, M. Generation of Vortex Lattices at the Liquid–Gas Interface Using Rotating Surface Waves. Fluids 2019, 4, 74.

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