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Recent Developments in Tough Hydrogels for Biomedical Applications

Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Massachusetts Amherst, Amherst, MA 01003, USA
FM Wound Care LLC, Hancock, MI 49930, USA
Department of Biomedical Engineering, Michigan Technological University, Houghton, MI 49931, USA
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 30 April 2018 / Revised: 14 May 2018 / Accepted: 17 May 2018 / Published: 22 May 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tough Hydrogels for Biomedical Applications)
A hydrogel is a three-dimensional polymer network with high water content and has been attractive for many biomedical applications due to its excellent biocompatibility. However, classic hydrogels are mechanically weak and unsuitable for most physiological load-bearing situations. Thus, the development of tough hydrogels used in the biomedical field becomes critical. This work reviews various strategies to fabricate tough hydrogels with the introduction of non-covalent bonds and the construction of stretchable polymer networks and interpenetrated networks, such as the so-called double-network hydrogel. Additionally, the design of tough hydrogels for tissue adhesive, tissue engineering, and soft actuators is reviewed. View Full-Text
Keywords: tough hydrogels; biomedical applications; tissue adhesives; tissue engineering; soft actuators tough hydrogels; biomedical applications; tissue adhesives; tissue engineering; soft actuators
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MDPI and ACS Style

Liu, Y.; He, W.; Zhang, Z.; Lee, B.P. Recent Developments in Tough Hydrogels for Biomedical Applications. Gels 2018, 4, 46.

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