Next Article in Journal
Intake of Koji Amazake Improves Defecation Frequency in Healthy Adults
Previous Article in Journal
Insights into the Role of Fungi in Pine Wilt Disease
Article

Analysis of Stored Wheat Grain-Associated Microbiota Reveals Biocontrol Activity among Microorganisms against Mycotoxigenic Fungi

1
Volcani Center, Agricultural Research Organization, Institute of Postharvest and Food Sciences, Rishon LeZion 7528809, Israel
2
Institute of Environmental Biotechnology, Graz University of Technology, Petersgasse 12, A-8010 Graz, Austria
3
Agricultural Research Service, United States Department of Agriculture (USDA-ARS), 2217 Wiltshire Road, Kearneysville, WV 25430, USA
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Current address: Plant Cytogenetics and Molecular Biology Group, Faculty of Natural Sciences, Institute of Biology, Biotechnology and Environmental Protection, University of Silesia in Katowice, 40-032 Katowice, Poland.
Academic Editor: Kimiko Yabe
J. Fungi 2021, 7(9), 781; https://doi.org/10.3390/jof7090781
Received: 26 August 2021 / Revised: 9 September 2021 / Accepted: 17 September 2021 / Published: 20 September 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mycotoxins and Toxigenic Fungi)
Wheat grains are colonized by complex microbial communities that have the potential to affect seed quality and susceptibility to disease. Some of the beneficial microbes in these communities have been shown to protect plants against pathogens through antagonism. We evaluated the role of the microbiome in seed health: in particular, against mycotoxin-producing fungi. Amplicon sequencing was used to characterize the seed microbiome and determine if epiphytes and endophytes differ in their fungal and bacterial diversity and community composition. We then isolated culturable fungal and bacterial species and evaluated their antagonistic activity against mycotoxigenic fungi. The most prevalent taxa were found to be shared between the epiphytic and endophytic microbiota of stored wheat seeds. Among the isolated bacteria, Bacillus strains exhibited strong antagonistic properties against fungal pathogens with noteworthy fungal load reduction in wheat grain samples of up to a 3.59 log10 CFU/g compared to untreated controls. We also found that a strain of the yeast, Rhodotorula glutinis, isolated from wheat grains, degrades and/or metabolizes aflatoxin B1, one of the most dangerous mycotoxins that negatively affects physiological processes in animals and humans. The mycotoxin level in grain samples was significantly reduced up to 65% in the presence of the yeast strain, compared to the untreated control. Our study demonstrates that stored wheat grains are a rich source of bacterial and yeast antagonists with strong inhibitory and biodegradation potential against mycotoxigenic fungi and the mycotoxins they produce, respectively. Utilization of these antagonistic microorganisms may help reduce fungal and mycotoxin contamination, and potentially replace traditionally used synthetic chemicals. View Full-Text
Keywords: biocontrol; stored wheat grain microbiota; epiphytes; endophytes; mycotoxigenic fungi; mycotoxins biocontrol; stored wheat grain microbiota; epiphytes; endophytes; mycotoxigenic fungi; mycotoxins
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Solanki, M.K.; Abdelfattah, A.; Sadhasivam, S.; Zakin, V.; Wisniewski, M.; Droby, S.; Sionov, E. Analysis of Stored Wheat Grain-Associated Microbiota Reveals Biocontrol Activity among Microorganisms against Mycotoxigenic Fungi. J. Fungi 2021, 7, 781. https://doi.org/10.3390/jof7090781

AMA Style

Solanki MK, Abdelfattah A, Sadhasivam S, Zakin V, Wisniewski M, Droby S, Sionov E. Analysis of Stored Wheat Grain-Associated Microbiota Reveals Biocontrol Activity among Microorganisms against Mycotoxigenic Fungi. Journal of Fungi. 2021; 7(9):781. https://doi.org/10.3390/jof7090781

Chicago/Turabian Style

Solanki, Manoj K., Ahmed Abdelfattah, Sudharsan Sadhasivam, Varda Zakin, Michael Wisniewski, Samir Droby, and Edward Sionov. 2021. "Analysis of Stored Wheat Grain-Associated Microbiota Reveals Biocontrol Activity among Microorganisms against Mycotoxigenic Fungi" Journal of Fungi 7, no. 9: 781. https://doi.org/10.3390/jof7090781

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop