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CNS Infections Caused by Brown-Black Fungi

Detroit Medical Center, Wayne State University, Detroit, MI 48201, USA
Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, Wayne State University, 3990 John R. Street, 5 Hudson, Detroit, MI 48201, USA
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
J. Fungi 2019, 5(3), 60;
Received: 10 June 2019 / Revised: 3 July 2019 / Accepted: 5 July 2019 / Published: 10 July 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fungal Infections of the Central Nervous System)
PDF [238 KB, uploaded 10 July 2019]


Central nervous system (CNS) infections caused by brown-black or dematiaceous fungi are distinctly rare and represent a small proportion of infections termed phaeohyphomycoses. However, these are becoming more commonly reported. Though many fungi have been implicated in disease, most cases are caused by only a few species, Cladophialophora bantiana being the most common. Most of the fungi described are molds, and often cause infection in immunocompetent individuals, in contrast to infection with other more common molds such as Aspergillus, which is usually seen in highly immunocompromised patients. Diagnosis is challenging, as there are no specific tests for this group of fungi. In addition, these infections are often refractory to standard drug therapies, requiring an aggressive combined surgical and medical approach to improve outcomes, yet mortality remains high. There are no standardized treatments due to a lack of randomized clinical trials, though guidelines have been published based on available data and expert opinion. View Full-Text
Keywords: dematiaceous; brain abscess; fungal meningitis; voriconazole; posaconazole; Cladophialophora; Rhinocladiella; Exserohilum dematiaceous; brain abscess; fungal meningitis; voriconazole; posaconazole; Cladophialophora; Rhinocladiella; Exserohilum
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Velasco, J.; Revankar, S. CNS Infections Caused by Brown-Black Fungi. J. Fungi 2019, 5, 60.

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