Next Article in Journal
Epidemiological and Mycological Aspects of Onychomycosis in Dakar (Senegal)
Next Article in Special Issue
Candida/Staphylococcal Polymicrobial Intra-Abdominal Infection: Pathogenesis and Perspectives for a Novel Form of Trained Innate Immunity
Previous Article in Journal
Is the Insect Cuticle the only Entry Gate for Fungal Infection? Insights into Alternative Modes of Action of Entomopathogenic Fungi
Previous Article in Special Issue
The Spectrum of Interactions between Cryptococcus neoformans and Bacteria
Article Menu
Issue 2 (June) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessReview

Beyond Antagonism: The Interaction Between Candida Species and Pseudomonas aeruginosa

Department of Microbial, Biochemical and Food Biotechnology, University of the Free State, Bloemfontein 9301, South Africa
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
J. Fungi 2019, 5(2), 34;
Received: 19 March 2019 / Revised: 18 April 2019 / Accepted: 18 April 2019 / Published: 19 April 2019
PDF [685 KB, uploaded 8 May 2019]
  |     |  


There are many examples of the interaction between prokaryotes and eukaryotes. One such example is the polymicrobial colonization/infection by the various opportunistic pathogenic yeasts belonging to the genus Candida and the ubiquitous bacterium, Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Although this interaction has simplistically been characterized as antagonistic to the yeast, this review highlights the complexity of the interaction with various factors influencing both microbes. The first section deals with the interactions in vitro, looking specifically at the role of cell wall components, quorum sensing molecules, phenazines, fatty acid metabolites and competition for iron in the interaction. The second part of this review places all these interactions in the context of various infection or colonization sites, i.e., lungs, wounds, and the gastrointestinal tract. Here we see that the role of the host, as well as the methodology used to establish co-infection, are important factors, influencing the outcome of the disease. Suggested future perspectives for the study of this interaction include determining the influence of newly identified participants of the QS network of P. aeruginosa, oxylipin production by both species, as well as the genetic and phenotypic plasticity of these microbes, on the interaction and outcome of co-infection. View Full-Text
Keywords: Candida albicans; interaction; Pseudomonas aeruginosa Candida albicans; interaction; Pseudomonas aeruginosa

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Fourie, R.; Pohl, C.H. Beyond Antagonism: The Interaction Between Candida Species and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. J. Fungi 2019, 5, 34.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
J. Fungi EISSN 2309-608X Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top