Next Article in Journal
Sporothrix schenckii Cell Wall Proteins-Stimulated BMDCs Are Able to Induce a Th1-Prone Cytokine Profile In Vitro
Next Article in Special Issue
Susceptibility Testing of Fungi to Antifungal Drugs
Previous Article in Journal
Special Issue: Fungal Endophytes in Plants
Previous Article in Special Issue
Itraconazole, Voriconazole, and Posaconazole CLSI MIC Distributions for Wild-Type and Azole-Resistant Aspergillus fumigatus Isolates
Article Menu
Issue 3 (September) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessReview
J. Fungi 2018, 4(3), 105; https://doi.org/10.3390/jof4030105

Fungal Resistance to Echinocandins and the MDR Phenomenon in Candida glabrata

1
Department of Biology, William Paterson University, Wayne, NJ 07470, USA
2
Public Health Research Institute, New Jersey Medical School, Rutgers Biomedical and Health Sciences, Newark, NJ 07103, USA
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 16 August 2018 / Revised: 28 August 2018 / Accepted: 30 August 2018 / Published: 1 September 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Treatments for Fungal Infections)
Full-Text   |   PDF [1553 KB, uploaded 1 September 2018]   |  

Abstract

Candida glabrata has thoroughly adapted to successfully colonize human mucosal membranes and survive in vivo pressures. prior to and during antifungal treatment. Out of all the medically relevant Candida species, C. glabrata has emerged as a leading cause of azole, echinocandin, and multidrug (MDR: azole + echinocandin) adaptive resistance. Neither mechanism of resistance is intrinsic to C. glabrata, since stable genetic resistance depends on mutation of drug target genes, FKS1 and FKS2 (echinocandin resistance), and a transcription factor, PDR1, which controls expression of major drug transporters, such as CDR1 (azole resistance). However, another hallmark of C. glabrata is the ability to withstand drug pressure both in vitro and in vivo prior to stable “genetic escape”. Additionally, these resistance events can arise within individual patients, which underscores the importance of understanding how this fungus is adapting to its environment and to drug exposure in vivo. Here, we explore the evolution of echinocandin resistance as a multistep model that includes general cell stress, drug adaptation (tolerance), and genetic escape. The extensive genetic diversity reported in C. glabrata is highlighted. View Full-Text
Keywords: Candida glabrata; drug resistance; tolerance; FKS; MSH2; echinocandin; azole Candida glabrata; drug resistance; tolerance; FKS; MSH2; echinocandin; azole
Figures

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
SciFeed

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Healey, K.R.; Perlin, D.S. Fungal Resistance to Echinocandins and the MDR Phenomenon in Candida glabrata. J. Fungi 2018, 4, 105.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
J. Fungi EISSN 2309-608X Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top