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J. Cardiovasc. Dev. Dis., Volume 9, Issue 12 (December 2022) – 60 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging has an established role in patients with coronary artery disease. Novel parametric mapping techniques and quantitative myocardial perfusion imaging show promise in the comprehensive evaluation of the multiple pathophysiological mechanisms that cause chronic coronary syndromes. Rest and stress T1 mapping can enable the simultaneous assessment of tissue characterization and myocardial ischemia. Automated perfusion mapping techniques provide accurate quantification of myocardial blood flow and myocardial perfusion reserve, facilitating the detection of epicardial coronary artery disease as well as microvascular dysfunction. This review will summarize the current evidence on the clinical applications and prognostic value of these constantly evolving techniques in the setting of chronic coronary syndromes. View this paper
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Article
Prognostic Value of Combined Radiomic Features from Follow-Up DWI and T2-FLAIR in Acute Ischemic Stroke
J. Cardiovasc. Dev. Dis. 2022, 9(12), 468; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcdd9120468 - 19 Dec 2022
Viewed by 619
Abstract
The biological pathways involved in lesion formation after an acute ischemic stroke (AIS) are poorly understood. Despite successful reperfusion treatment, up to two thirds of patients with large vessel occlusion remain functionally dependent. Imaging characteristics extracted from DWI and T2-FLAIR follow-up MR sequences [...] Read more.
The biological pathways involved in lesion formation after an acute ischemic stroke (AIS) are poorly understood. Despite successful reperfusion treatment, up to two thirds of patients with large vessel occlusion remain functionally dependent. Imaging characteristics extracted from DWI and T2-FLAIR follow-up MR sequences could aid in providing a better understanding of the lesion constituents. We built a fully automated pipeline based on a tree ensemble machine learning model to predict poor long-term functional outcome in patients from the MR CLEAN-NO IV trial. Several feature sets were compared, considering only imaging, only clinical, or both types of features. Nested cross-validation with grid search and a feature selection procedure based on SHapley Additive exPlanations (SHAP) was used to train and validate the models. Considering features from both imaging modalities in combination with clinical characteristics led to the best prognostic model (AUC = 0.85, 95%CI [0.81, 0.89]). Moreover, SHAP values showed that imaging features from both sequences have a relevant impact on the final classification, with texture heterogeneity being the most predictive imaging biomarker. This study suggests the prognostic value of both DWI and T2-FLAIR follow-up sequences for AIS patients. If combined with clinical characteristics, they could lead to better understanding of lesion pathophysiology and improved long-term functional outcome prediction. Full article
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Article
Infective Endocarditis: Predictive Factors for Diagnosis and Mortality in Surgically Treated Patients
J. Cardiovasc. Dev. Dis. 2022, 9(12), 467; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcdd9120467 - 19 Dec 2022
Viewed by 755
Abstract
Background: Diagnosis of infective endocarditis (IE) often is challenging, and mortality is high in such patients. Our goal was to characterize common diagnostic tools to enable a rapid and accurate diagnosis and to correlate these tools with mortality outcomes. Methods: Because of the [...] Read more.
Background: Diagnosis of infective endocarditis (IE) often is challenging, and mortality is high in such patients. Our goal was to characterize common diagnostic tools to enable a rapid and accurate diagnosis and to correlate these tools with mortality outcomes. Methods: Because of the possibility of including perioperative diagnostics, only surgically treated patients with suspected left-sided IE were included in this retrospective, monocentric study. A clinical committee confirmed the diagnosis of IE. Results: 201 consecutive patients (age 64 ± 13 years, 74% male) were finally diagnosed with IE, and 14 patients turned out IE-negative. Preoperative tests with the highest sensitivity for IE were positive blood cultures (89.0%) and transesophageal echocardiography (87.5%). In receiver operating characteristics, vegetation size revealed high predictive power for IE (AUC 0.800, p < 0.001) with an optimal cut-off value of 11.5 mm. Systemic embolism was associated with mortality, and N-terminal prohormone of B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) had predictive power for mortality. Conclusion: If diagnostic standard tools remain inconclusive, we suggest employing novel cut-off values to increase diagnostic accuracy and accelerate diagnosis. Patients with embolism or elevated NT-proBNP deserve a closer follow-up. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cardiac Surgery: Outcomes, Management and Critical Care)
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Article
Prognostic Value of Admission Peak NT-proBNP Combined with Culprit Plaque Types for Predicting Cardiovascular Risk in ST-Segment Elevated Myocardial Infarction: An Optical Coherence Tomography Study
J. Cardiovasc. Dev. Dis. 2022, 9(12), 466; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcdd9120466 - 18 Dec 2022
Viewed by 521
Abstract
Objective: Different culprit plaque phenotypes including plaque rupture (PR) and non-plaque rupture (NPR), and N-Terminal prohormone of brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) have been reported to influence clinical outcomes in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS). We aimed to investigate the prognostic implication of [...] Read more.
Objective: Different culprit plaque phenotypes including plaque rupture (PR) and non-plaque rupture (NPR), and N-Terminal prohormone of brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) have been reported to influence clinical outcomes in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS). We aimed to investigate the prognostic implication of the peak and baseline values at admission for NT-proBNP for major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) in ST-Segment Elevated Myocardial Infarction (STEMI) patients with different plaque phenotype. Methods: A total of 428 patients with STEMI undergoing optical coherence tomography (OCT) were enrolled and divided into four groups: PR/Tertile1-2 NT-proBNP (n = 132), PR/Tertile3 NT-proBNP (n = 65), NPR/Tertile1-2 NT-proBNP (n = 154), NPR/Tertlie3 NT-proBNP (n = 77). Baseline and Peak values of NT-proBNP were obtained in the admission period. The MACEs were defined as the composite of all-cause death, recurrence of myocardial infarction and stroke. Results: High levels for peak NT-proBNP were significantly associated with a higher incidence of MACE and death (Log rank p = 0.037 and 0.0012, respectively). In the subgroup with NPR, a high level for peak NT-proBNP was significantly associated with higher incidence of death (Log rank p = 0.0022) but this association was not significant in the subgroup of PR (Log rank p = 0.24). Though plaque types were not associated with adverse event, the combination of NPR and a higher peak value for NT-proBNP indicated higher incidence of death compared with other groups (Log rank p = 0.0017). The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve for predicting death to evaluate the diagnostic value of the peak value for NT-proBNP and plaque types combined with traditional risk factors was 0.843 (95% CI: 0.805–0.876), which is superior to solely traditional risk factors: NRI (26.8% [95% CI: 0.4–53.1%], p = 0.046) and IDI (5.1% [95% CI: 1.0–9.2%], p = 0.016). Conclusion: STEMI patients with NPR and a high level for peak NT-proBNP showed higher incidence of death. The peak value of NT-proBNP in combination with plaque types can be used in risk stratification and prediction of death in patients with STEMI. Full article
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Article
A Single-Cell Atlas of the Atherosclerotic Plaque in the Femoral Artery and the Heterogeneity in Macrophage Subtypes between Carotid and Femoral Atherosclerosis
J. Cardiovasc. Dev. Dis. 2022, 9(12), 465; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcdd9120465 - 16 Dec 2022
Viewed by 621
Abstract
Atherosclerosis of femoral arteries can cause the insufficient blood supply to the lower limbs and lead to gangrenous ulcers and other symptoms. Atherosclerosis and inflammatory factors are significantly different from other plaques. Therefore, it is crucial to observe the cellular composition of the [...] Read more.
Atherosclerosis of femoral arteries can cause the insufficient blood supply to the lower limbs and lead to gangrenous ulcers and other symptoms. Atherosclerosis and inflammatory factors are significantly different from other plaques. Therefore, it is crucial to observe the cellular composition of the femoral atherosclerotic plaque and identify plaque heterogeneity in other arteries. To this end, we performed single-cell sequencing of a human femoral artery plaque. We identified 14 cell types, including endothelial cells, smooth muscle cells, monocytes, three macrophages with four different subtypes of foam cells, three T cells, natural killer cells, and B cells. We then downloaded single-cell sequencing data of carotid atherosclerosis from GEO, which were compared with the one femoral sample. We identified similar cell types, but the femoral artery had significantly more nonspecific immune cells and fewer specific immune cells than the carotid artery. We further compared the differences in the proportion of inflammatory macrophages, and resident macrophages, and the proportion of inflammatory macrophages was greater within the carotid artery. Through comparing one femoral sequencing sample with carotid samples from public datasets, our study reveals the single-cell map of the femoral artery and the heterogeneity of carotid and femoral arteries at the cellular level, laying the foundation for mechanistic and pharmacological studies of the femoral artery. Full article
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Article
Time Trends of Ventricular Reconstruction and Outcomes among Patients with Left Ventricular Thrombus and Aneurysms
J. Cardiovasc. Dev. Dis. 2022, 9(12), 464; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcdd9120464 - 15 Dec 2022
Viewed by 601
Abstract
Background: Clinical guidelines recommend surgical intervention when left ventricular thrombus (LVT) is complicated with left ventricular aneurysm (LVA). Objectives: This study aimed to review the changes in the treatment of LVT combined with LVA over the past 12 years at our center and [...] Read more.
Background: Clinical guidelines recommend surgical intervention when left ventricular thrombus (LVT) is complicated with left ventricular aneurysm (LVA). Objectives: This study aimed to review the changes in the treatment of LVT combined with LVA over the past 12 years at our center and to compare the efficacy of medical therapy and surgical treatment on patient outcomes. Methods: Between January 2009 and June 2021, 723 patients with LVT combined with LVA were enrolled, of whom 205 received surgical ventricular reconstruction (SVR) therapy and 518 received medical therapy. The following clinical outcomes were gathered via observation: all-cause death, cardiovascular death, and major adverse cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events (MACCEs; defined as the composite of cardiovascular death, ischemic stroke, and acute myocardial infarction). The median follow-up time was 1403 [707, 2402] days. Results: The proportion of SVR dropped yearly in this group of patients, from a peak of 64.5% in 2010 to 7.5% in 2021 (p for trend < 0.001). Meanwhile, the proportion of anticoagulant use increased quickly, from 8.0% in 2016 to 67.9% in 2021 (p for trend < 0.001). The incidence rates of all-cause mortality, cardiovascular death, and MACCEs were 12.9% (n = 93), 10.5% (n = 76), and 14.7% (n = 106), respectively. In the multivariable analysis, there were no significant differences in all-cause death (HR of 0.60, 95% CI of 0.32–1.13, p = 0.11), cardiovascular death (HR of 0.79, 95% CI of 0.41–1.50, p = 0.5), and MACCEs (HR of 0.82, 95% CI of 0.49–1.38, p = 0.5) between the two groups. The competing risk regression performed in the propensity score matching (PSM) and inverse probability of treatment weighting (IPTW) analyses was in line with the unmatched analysis. Conclusions: The rate of SVR dropped significantly among patients with both LVT and LVA, while there was an improvement in oral anticoagulant utilization. SVR with thrombus removal did not improve all-cause mortality and cardiovascular outcomes in patients with LVT and LVA. Ventricular aneurysm with thrombus may not be an indication for surgery. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cardiac Surgery: Outcomes, Management and Critical Care)
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Article
Effects of Home-Based Electrical Stimulation on Plasma Cytokines Profile, Redox Biomarkers, and Metalloproteinases in the Heart Failure with Reduced Ejection Fraction: A Randomized Trial
J. Cardiovasc. Dev. Dis. 2022, 9(12), 463; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcdd9120463 - 15 Dec 2022
Viewed by 623
Abstract
Background: Low-frequency electrical stimulation (LFES) is an adjuvant method for heart failure (HF) patients with restrictions to start an exercise. However, the impact on molecular changes in circulating is unknown. We investigated the effects of 10 weeks of home-based LFES on plasma cytokines [...] Read more.
Background: Low-frequency electrical stimulation (LFES) is an adjuvant method for heart failure (HF) patients with restrictions to start an exercise. However, the impact on molecular changes in circulating is unknown. We investigated the effects of 10 weeks of home-based LFES on plasma cytokines profile, redox biomarkers, metalloproteinases (MMPs) activity, and exercise performance in HF patients. Methods: Twenty-four HF patients (52.45 ± 9.15 years) with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) (EF < 40%), were randomly assigned to a home-based LFES or sham protocol. Plasma cytokines profile was assessed through interleukins, interferon-gamma, and tumor necrosis factor levels. Oxidative stress was evaluated through ferric reducing antioxidant power, thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances, and inducible nitric oxide synthase. The MMPs activity were analyzed by zymography. Cardiorespiratory capacity and muscle strength were evaluated by cardiopulmonary test and isokinetic. Results: LFES was able to increase the active-MMP2 activity post compared to pre-training (0.057 to 0.163, p = 0.0001), while it decreased the active-MMP9 (0.135 to 0.093, p = 0.02). However, it did not elicit changes in cytokines, redox biomarkers, or exercise performance (p > 0.05). Conclusion: LFES protocol is a promising intervention to modulate MMPs activity in HFrEF patients, although with limited functional effects. These preliminary responses may help the muscle to adapt to future mechanical demands dynamically. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Therapeutic Strategies for Heart Failure)
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Article
Exploring the Role of Obesity in Dilated Cardiomyopathy Based on Bio-informatics Analysis
J. Cardiovasc. Dev. Dis. 2022, 9(12), 462; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcdd9120462 - 15 Dec 2022
Viewed by 624
Abstract
(1) Background: Obesity is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD), contributing to increasing global disease burdens. Apart from heart failure, coronary artery disease, and arrhythmia, recent research has found that obesity also elevates the risk of dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM). The main [...] Read more.
(1) Background: Obesity is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD), contributing to increasing global disease burdens. Apart from heart failure, coronary artery disease, and arrhythmia, recent research has found that obesity also elevates the risk of dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM). The main purpose of this study was to investigate the underlying biological role of obesity in increasing the risk of DCM. (2) Methods: The datasets GSE120895, GSE19303, and GSE2508 were downloaded from the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database. Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were analyzed using GSE120895 for DCM and GSE2508 for obesity, and the findings were compiled to discover the common genes. Gene Ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway enrichment analyses were conducted for the common genes in RStudio. In addition, CIBERSORT was used to obtain the immune cellular composition from DEGs. The key genes were identified in the set of common genes by the least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO) algorithm, the prognostic risk models of which were verified by receiver operator characteristic (ROC) curves in GSE19303. Finally, Spearman’s correlation was used to explore the connections between key genes and immune cells. (3) Results: GO and KEGG pathway enrichment analyses showed that the main enriched terms of the common genes were transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β), fibrillar collagen, NADPH oxidase activity, and multiple hormone-related signaling pathways. Both obesity and DCM had a disordered immune environment, especially obesity. The key genes NOX4, CCDC80, COL1A2, HTRA1, and KLHL29 may be primarily responsible for the changes. Spearman’s correlation analysis performed for key genes and immune cells indicated that KLHL29 closely correlated to T cells and M2 macrophages, and HTRA1 very tightly correlated to plasma cells. (4) Conclusions: Bio-informatics analyses performed for DCM and obesity in our study suggested that obesity disturbed the immune micro-environment, promoted oxidative stress, and increased myocardial fibrosis, resulting in ventricular remodeling and an increased risk of DCM. The key genes KLHL29 and HTRA1 may play critical roles in obesity-related DCM. Full article
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Systematic Review
Excessive Supraventricular Ectopic Activity and the Risk of Atrial Fibrillation and Stroke: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
J. Cardiovasc. Dev. Dis. 2022, 9(12), 461; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcdd9120461 - 15 Dec 2022
Viewed by 536
Abstract
Background: Excessive supraventricular ectopic activity (ESVEA) is correlated with the development of atrial fibrillation (AF) and is frequently observed in ischemic stroke patients. This meta-analysis aims to summarize the evidence on the association between ESVEA and the risk of AF and stroke. Methods: [...] Read more.
Background: Excessive supraventricular ectopic activity (ESVEA) is correlated with the development of atrial fibrillation (AF) and is frequently observed in ischemic stroke patients. This meta-analysis aims to summarize the evidence on the association between ESVEA and the risk of AF and stroke. Methods: PubMed and Embase databases were systematically searched to identify all publications providing relevant data from inception to 23 August 2022. Hazard ratio (HR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) were pooled using fixed-effect or random-effect models. Results: We included 23,272 participants from 20 studies. Pooled results showed that ESVEA was associated with an increased risk of AF in the general population (HR: 2.57; 95% CI 2.16–3.05), increased risk of AF in ischemic stroke patients (HR: 2.91; 95% CI 1.80–4.69), new-onset ischemic stroke (HR: 1.91; 95% CI 1.30–2.79), and all-cause mortality (HR: 1.41; 95% CI 1.24–1.59). Pooled analysis indicated that ESVEA was not associated with recurrent ischemic stroke/transient ischemic attack (TIA) (HR: 1.24; 95% CI 0.91–1.67). Conclusions: ESVEA is associated with AF, new-onset ischemic stroke, and all-cause mortality. Full article
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Editorial
Atherosclerotic Cardiovascular Disease: Risk Assessment, Prevention and Treatment Strategies
J. Cardiovasc. Dev. Dis. 2022, 9(12), 460; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcdd9120460 - 14 Dec 2022
Viewed by 434
Abstract
Despite enormous advances in both surgical and pharmacological treatment, cardiovascular diseases are still the most common cause of morbidity and disability in the western world [...] Full article
Review
Molecular Mechanism Underlying Role of the XBP1s in Cardiovascular Diseases
J. Cardiovasc. Dev. Dis. 2022, 9(12), 459; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcdd9120459 - 14 Dec 2022
Viewed by 471
Abstract
Spliced X-box binding protein-1 (XBP1s) is a protein that belongs to the cAMP-response element-binding (CREB)/activating transcription factor (ATF) b-ZIP family with a basic-region leucine zipper (bZIP). There is mounting evidence to suggest that XBP1s performs a critical function in a range of different [...] Read more.
Spliced X-box binding protein-1 (XBP1s) is a protein that belongs to the cAMP-response element-binding (CREB)/activating transcription factor (ATF) b-ZIP family with a basic-region leucine zipper (bZIP). There is mounting evidence to suggest that XBP1s performs a critical function in a range of different cardiovascular diseases (CVDs), indicating that it is necessary to gain a comprehensive knowledge of the processes involved in XBP1s in various disorders to make progress in research and clinical therapy. In this research, we provide a summary of the functions that XBP1s performs in the onset and advancement of CVDs such as atherosclerosis, hypertension, cardiac hypertrophy, and heart failure. Furthermore, we discuss XBP1s as a novel therapeutic target for CVDs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Gene Regulation in Cardiac Development and Disease)
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Article
In Silico Modelling to Assess the Electrical and Thermal Disturbance Provoked by a Metal Intracoronary Stent during Epicardial Pulsed Electric Field Ablation
J. Cardiovasc. Dev. Dis. 2022, 9(12), 458; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcdd9120458 - 14 Dec 2022
Viewed by 495
Abstract
Background: Pulsed Electric Field (PEF) ablation has been recently proposed to ablate cardiac ganglionic plexi (GP) aimed to treat atrial fibrillation. The effect of metal intracoronary stents in the vicinity of the ablation electrode has not been yet assessed. Methods: A 2D numerical [...] Read more.
Background: Pulsed Electric Field (PEF) ablation has been recently proposed to ablate cardiac ganglionic plexi (GP) aimed to treat atrial fibrillation. The effect of metal intracoronary stents in the vicinity of the ablation electrode has not been yet assessed. Methods: A 2D numerical model was developed accounting for the different tissues involved in PEF ablation with an irrigated ablation device. A coronary artery (with and without a metal intracoronary stent) was considered near the ablation source (0.25 and 1 mm separation). The 1000 V/cm threshold was used to estimate the ‘PEF-zone’. Results: The presence of the coronary artery (with or without stent) distorts the E-field distribution, creating hot spots (higher E-field values) in the front and rear of the artery, and cold spots (lower E-field values) on the sides of the artery. The value of the E-field inside the coronary artery is very low (~200 V/cm), and almost zero with a metal stent. Despite this distortion, the PEF-zone contour is almost identical with and without artery/stent, remaining almost completely confined within the fat layer in any case. The mentioned hot spots of E-field translate into a moderate temperature increase (<48 °C) in the area between the artery and electrode. These thermal side effects are similar for pulse intervals of 10 and 100 μs. Conclusions: The presence of a metal intracoronary stent near the ablation device during PEF ablation simply ‘amplifies’ the E-field distortion already caused by the presence of the vessel. This distortion may involve moderate heating (<48 °C) in the tissue between the artery and ablation electrode without associated thermal damage. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Catheter Ablation of Cardiac Arrhythmias: Practices and Outcomes)
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Case Report
Novel Hybrid Treatment for Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension with or without Eisenmenger Syndrome: Double Lung Transplantation with Simultaneous Endovascular or Classic Surgical Closure of the Patent Ductus Arteriosus (PDA)
J. Cardiovasc. Dev. Dis. 2022, 9(12), 457; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcdd9120457 - 14 Dec 2022
Viewed by 626
Abstract
Patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) become candidates for lung or lung and heart transplantation when the maximum specific therapy is no longer effective. The most difficult challenge is choosing one of the above options in the event of symptoms of right ventricular [...] Read more.
Patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) become candidates for lung or lung and heart transplantation when the maximum specific therapy is no longer effective. The most difficult challenge is choosing one of the above options in the event of symptoms of right ventricular failure. Here, we present two female patients with PAH: (1) a 21-year-old patient with Eisenmenger syndrome, caused by a congenital defect—patent ductus arteriosus (PDA); and (2) a 39-year-old patient with idiopathic PAH and coexistent PDA. Their common denominator is PDA and the hybrid surgery performed: double lung transplantation with simultaneous PDA closure. The operation was performed after pharmacological bridging (conditioning) to transplantation that lasted for 33 and 70 days, respectively. In both cases, PDA closure effectiveness was 100%. Both patients survived the operation (100%); however, patient no. 1 died on the 2nd postoperative day due to multi-organ failure; while patient no. 2 was discharged home in full health. The authors did not find a similar description of the operation in the available literature and PubMed database. Hence, we propose this new treatment method for its effectiveness and applicability proven in our practice. Full article
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Article
Glucose-Induced Hemodynamic and Metabolic Response of Skeletal Muscle in Heart Failure Patients with Reduced vs. Preserved Ejection Fraction—A Pilot Study
J. Cardiovasc. Dev. Dis. 2022, 9(12), 456; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcdd9120456 - 13 Dec 2022
Viewed by 611
Abstract
(1) Background: Insulin resistance (IR) is a characteristic pathophysiologic feature in heart failure (HF). We tested the hypothesis that skeletal muscle metabolism is differently impaired in patients with reduced (HFrEF) vs. preserved (HFpEF) ejection fraction. (2) Methods: carbohydrate and lipid metabolism was studied [...] Read more.
(1) Background: Insulin resistance (IR) is a characteristic pathophysiologic feature in heart failure (HF). We tested the hypothesis that skeletal muscle metabolism is differently impaired in patients with reduced (HFrEF) vs. preserved (HFpEF) ejection fraction. (2) Methods: carbohydrate and lipid metabolism was studied in situ by intramuscular microdialysis in patients with HFrEF (59 ± 14y, NYHA I-III) and HFpEF (65 ± 10y, NYHA I-II) vs. healthy subjects of similar age during the oral glucose load (oGL); (3) Results: There were no difference in fasting serum and interstitial parameters between the groups. Blood and dialysate glucose increased significantly in HFpEF vs. HFrEF and controls upon oGT (both p < 0.0001), while insulin increased significantly in HFrEF vs. HFpEF and controls (p < 0.0005). Muscle tissue perfusion tended to be lower in HFrEF vs. HFpEF and controls after the oGL (p = 0.057). There were no differences in postprandial increases in dialysate lactate and pyruvate. Postprandial dialysate glycerol was higher in HFpEF vs. HFrEF and controls upon oGL (p = 0.0016); (4) Conclusion: A pattern of muscle glucose metabolism is distinctly different in patients with HFrEF vs. HFpEF. While postprandial IR was characterized by impaired tissue perfusion and higher compensatory insulin secretion in HFrEF, reduced muscle glucose uptake and a blunted antilipolytic effect of insulin were found in HFpEF. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Heart Failure: Clinical Diagnostics and Treatment)
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Review
A Critical Evaluation of Patient Pathways and Missed Opportunities in Treatment for Heart Failure
J. Cardiovasc. Dev. Dis. 2022, 9(12), 455; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcdd9120455 - 12 Dec 2022
Viewed by 521
Abstract
Background: Heart failure (HF) is a global problem responsible for significant morbidity and mortality. Methods: This review describes the patient pathways and missed opportunities related to treatment for patients with HF. Results: The contemporary management strategies in HF, including medical therapies, device therapy, [...] Read more.
Background: Heart failure (HF) is a global problem responsible for significant morbidity and mortality. Methods: This review describes the patient pathways and missed opportunities related to treatment for patients with HF. Results: The contemporary management strategies in HF, including medical therapies, device therapy, transplant, and palliative care. Despite the strong evidence base for therapies that improve prognosis and symptoms, there remains a large number of patients that are not optimally managed. The treatment of patients with HF is highly influenced by those who are caring for them and varies widely across geographical regions. HF patients can be broadly classified into two key groups: those who have known HF, and those who are incidentally found to have reduced left ventricular systolic dysfunction or other cardiac abnormality when an echocardiogram is performed. While all patients are under the care of a general practitioner or family doctor, in other instances, non-cardiologist physicians, cardiologists, and specialist HF nurses—each will have varying levels of expertise in managing HF—are part of the broader team involved in the specialist management of patients with HF. Conclusions: There are many potential missed opportunities in HF treatment, which include general opportunities, medications, etiology-specific therapy, device therapy, therapies when initial treatments fail, and palliative care. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Heart Failure: Clinical Diagnostics and Treatment)
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Case Report
Acquired von Willebrand Syndrome Secondary to Normally Functioning Mechanical Aortic Valve and High-Output Cardiac State
J. Cardiovasc. Dev. Dis. 2022, 9(12), 454; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcdd9120454 - 12 Dec 2022
Viewed by 479
Abstract
Acquired von Willebrand syndrome (AVWS) is caused by an acquired deficiency of von Willebrand factor (VWF), a multimeric protein required for primary hemostasis. For patients with heart valve diseases, high gradient across the malfunctioning valves could cause elevated shear stress and damage the [...] Read more.
Acquired von Willebrand syndrome (AVWS) is caused by an acquired deficiency of von Willebrand factor (VWF), a multimeric protein required for primary hemostasis. For patients with heart valve diseases, high gradient across the malfunctioning valves could cause elevated shear stress and damage the most effective large VWF, eventually resulting in AVWS. However, AVWS has not been reported in association with normally functioning mechanical valves. Herein, we reported a 74-year-old female who suffered from recurrent gastrointestinal bleeding with a history of mechanical aortic and mitral valve replacement. This patient’s function/antigen ratio of VWF was decreased and gel electrophoresis revealed the loss of large VWF, which confirmed the diagnosis of AVWS. Echocardiogram showed that the function of the prostheses was normal. However, the gradient across aortic valve was increased due to a high cardiac state which is secondary to chronic anemia, resulting in the disruption of large VWF multimers and exacerbation of gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding. After managing the patient’s anemia with transfusion, the gradient across the aortic valve had improved, with the resolution of GI bleeding. This is the first case report of AVWS that is associated with a normally functioning mechanical valve. AVWS should be considered one of the differential diagnoses if patients present with unexplained GI bleeding on the background of having prosthetic heart valves. The management of the underlying condition is essential. Full article
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Review
Cardiac Biomarkers in Sports Cardiology
J. Cardiovasc. Dev. Dis. 2022, 9(12), 453; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcdd9120453 - 11 Dec 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 675
Abstract
Sustained physical activity induces morphological and functional changes in the cardiovascular system. While mostly physiological, they can also become a trigger for major adverse cardiovascular events, the most severe of which are sudden cardiac arrest and sudden cardiac death. Therefore, any novel method [...] Read more.
Sustained physical activity induces morphological and functional changes in the cardiovascular system. While mostly physiological, they can also become a trigger for major adverse cardiovascular events, the most severe of which are sudden cardiac arrest and sudden cardiac death. Therefore, any novel method which can help more accurately estimate the cardiovascular risk should be considered for further studying and future implementation in the standard protocols. The study of biomarkers is gaining more and more ground as they have already established their utility in diagnosing ischemic cardiac disease or in evaluating cardiac dysfunction in patients with heart failure. Nowadays, they are being implemented in the screening of apparently healthy individuals for the assessment of the cardiovascular risk. The aim of this paper is to gather published data regarding the measurements of cardiac biomarkers in athletes, i.e., troponins, myoglobin, CK-MB, NT-proBNP, and D-Dimers, and their potential use in the field of sports cardiology. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Sports Cardiology)
Systematic Review
Remnant-Like Particle Cholesterol and the Risk of Major Adverse Cardiovascular Events: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
J. Cardiovasc. Dev. Dis. 2022, 9(12), 452; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcdd9120452 - 11 Dec 2022
Viewed by 409
Abstract
Background: The remnant-like particle cholesterol (RLP-C) has been demonstrated to be associated with residual cardiovascular risk. The meta-analysis aimed to evaluate the impact of baseline RLP-C on the incidence of major cardiovascular adverse events (MACEs) in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). Methods: [...] Read more.
Background: The remnant-like particle cholesterol (RLP-C) has been demonstrated to be associated with residual cardiovascular risk. The meta-analysis aimed to evaluate the impact of baseline RLP-C on the incidence of major cardiovascular adverse events (MACEs) in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). Methods: A systematic literature search was performed in PubMed and Embase electronic databases from the inception of the databases through 1 October 2022. Studies evaluating the association between baseline RLP-C and the risk of MACEs in patients with CAD were included. Hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were pooled by a random-effect method (RLP-C analyzed as a categorical variable) and a fixed-effects model (RLP-C analyzed as a continuous variable). Results: Ten studies including 18,053 subjects were finally included in this meta-analysis. In our pooled analysis, compared to CAD patients with the lowest RLP-C category, the CAD patients with the highest RLP-C category had a significantly higher risk of future MACEs during follow-up (HR 1.79, 95% CI, 1.42–2.26, I2 = 60.31%, p < 0.01), which was consistent with outcomes of meta-analysis with the RLP-C analyzed as a continuous variable (HR 1.40, 95% CI, 1.28–1.53, I2 = 38.20%, p < 0.01). The sensitivity analysis confirmed the robustness of the results, and no significant publication bias was identified. Conclusion: The present meta-analysis suggests that the RLP-C was associated with an increased risk of long-term MACEs in patients with CAD at baseline. It is necessary to conduct randomized controlled trials to explore whether reducing the RLP-C level is conducive to reducing residual cardiovascular risk, even coronary plaque regression. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Biomarkers in Cardiovascular Disease - Chances and Risks)
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Article
Healthcare Utilization and Outcomes in Atrial Fibrillation Patients Treated by Drug Therapy versus a Catheter Ablation Strategy—A Middle European Propensity Score Matched Cohort Study
J. Cardiovasc. Dev. Dis. 2022, 9(12), 451; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcdd9120451 - 10 Dec 2022
Viewed by 504
Abstract
Background and Aims: Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most prevalent arrhythmia, associated with increased mortality and morbidity and causing relevant costs. Treatment options consist of catheter ablation (PVI) and rate or rhythm control drugs (non-PVI). Methods: We analyze inpatient and outpatient data from [...] Read more.
Background and Aims: Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most prevalent arrhythmia, associated with increased mortality and morbidity and causing relevant costs. Treatment options consist of catheter ablation (PVI) and rate or rhythm control drugs (non-PVI). Methods: We analyze inpatient and outpatient data from the Upper Austrian Health Insurance Fund. Data of patients with a first hospitalization for AF in the years 2005 to 2018 were examined, using propensity score matching (PSM) including all CHA2DS2-VASc variables and working “collar”. Results: Out of 21,791 AF patients, PSM identified 1013 well-matching pairs (PVI and non-PVI). Over a ten-year period, the PVI treatment strategy group reveals significantly higher inpatient and outpatient expenditures (€2200/year). Positive economic effects can be demonstrated by a 5.1 percentage points (pp) higher employment rate and fewer retirements (7.6pp). Of utmost important is the 5.8pp all-cause mortality reduction over 10 years in the PVI treatment strategy. Conclusions: A PVI based treatment strategy results in higher healthcare expenditures vs. drug therapy alone. Most of these higher costs were caused by the PVI procedures during this period. Thus, more effective and efficient methods are needed to further reduce costs for the intervention and prevent repeat procedures. The benefit of a PVI treatment strategy is seen in higher employment rates, which are crucial from a societal perspective and should be a strong argument for caregivers. We show a significant reduction in all-cause mortality, which we partly attribute to the PVI procedure itself, to a stricter risk factor assessment and treatment, and a tighter medical adherence. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Catheter Ablation of Cardiac Arrhythmias: Practices and Outcomes)
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Article
Developing a Novel Immune-Related Seven-Gene Signature and Immune Infiltration Pattern in Patients with COVID-19 and Cardiovascular Disease
J. Cardiovasc. Dev. Dis. 2022, 9(12), 450; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcdd9120450 - 09 Dec 2022
Viewed by 421
Abstract
Background: patients with pre-existence of cardiovascular disease (CVD) are vulnerable to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), and COVID-19 will cause long-term burden of CVD. However, the common pathogenic mechanisms are not fully elucidated. More detailed knowledge of linking biological molecules and the role of [...] Read more.
Background: patients with pre-existence of cardiovascular disease (CVD) are vulnerable to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), and COVID-19 will cause long-term burden of CVD. However, the common pathogenic mechanisms are not fully elucidated. More detailed knowledge of linking biological molecules and the role of immune signature would allow more valuable and specific clinical management. Methods: the gene expression profiles of CVD and COVID-19 were retrieved from the GEO database. Common differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were screened with the Limma R package and the WGCNA algorithm, and then functional enrichment analysis, protein-protein interaction network, hub genes, and small therapeutic molecules analyses were performed. The hub immune-related genes (HIRGs) were intersected, and their associations with immune cells, expressional correlation, evaluated performance, and potential signal pathways were further investigated. Results: In total, 57 common DEGs were identified as a shared transcriptional signature between CVD and COVID-19, and 12 hub genes were screened using five topological algorithms. There are common altered immune responses in the response of these two diseases, and seven HIRGs, including C5AR1, MMP9, CYBB, FPR2, CSF1R, TLR2, and TLR4, were identified, with positive correlation to altered macrophages and neutrophils. Nine small molecular agents (SMAs) were detected as promising therapeutic drugs. These seven HIRGs mainly participated in the inflammatory immune response through activation of Il2 stat5 signaling and Tnfa signaling via nfκb pathways, and ROC curves confirmed their good discriminatory capacity in the two diseases. Conclusions: this study established the co-expression network and identified a new immune-related seven-gene signature as therapeutic targets, which may provide new insights into pathogenic mechanisms and novel clinical management strategies. Full article
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Case Report
Early Obliterated Cabrol Shunt: Culprit of Aortopulmonary Fistula in Large Pseudoaneurysm after Bentall Procedure
J. Cardiovasc. Dev. Dis. 2022, 9(12), 449; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcdd9120449 - 09 Dec 2022
Viewed by 420
Abstract
Aortopulmonary fistula secondary to a large pseudoaneurysm after a Bentall procedure is a rare but complex complication. Herein, we report a case of Cabrol shunt obliteration and pseudoaneurysm formation three months after a Bentall procedure. The patient also presented with congestive heart failure [...] Read more.
Aortopulmonary fistula secondary to a large pseudoaneurysm after a Bentall procedure is a rare but complex complication. Herein, we report a case of Cabrol shunt obliteration and pseudoaneurysm formation three months after a Bentall procedure. The patient also presented with congestive heart failure due to an aortopulmonary fistula six years later. Surgery was successfully performed to repair the dehiscence of the biliteral coronary ostia and the aortopulmonary fistula, and to replace the ascending aorta. Postoperatively, the patient recovered uneventfully. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cardiac Surgery: Outcomes, Management and Critical Care)
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Article
Barth Syndrome: Psychosocial Impact and Quality of Life Assessment
J. Cardiovasc. Dev. Dis. 2022, 9(12), 448; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcdd9120448 - 09 Dec 2022
Viewed by 549
Abstract
Background: Barth syndrome (BTHS) is a rare X-linked genetic disease that affects multiple systems and leads to complex clinical manifestations. Although a considerable amount of research has focused on the physical aspects of the disease, less has focused on the psychosocial impact and [...] Read more.
Background: Barth syndrome (BTHS) is a rare X-linked genetic disease that affects multiple systems and leads to complex clinical manifestations. Although a considerable amount of research has focused on the physical aspects of the disease, less has focused on the psychosocial impact and quality of life (QoL) in BTHS. Methods: The current study investigated caregiver- (n = 10) and self-reported (n = 16) psychological well-being and QoL in a cohort of BTHS-affected patients and families. Participants completed the depression and anxiety components of the Patient-Reported Outcomes Information System (PROMIS) Short Form 8A and Health-related quality of life (HRQoL) surveys at enrollment and again during a follow-up period ranging from 6 to 36 months after baseline. Results: Quality of life changed significantly over time and the various domains with some improvement and some decline. Among the available caregiver-patient dyad data, there was a trend toward discordance between caregiver and self-reported outcomes. Most notably, patients reported improvement in HRQoL, while caregivers reported declines. This suggests that there may be differences in perceived quality of life between the patients and parents, though our study is limited by small sample size. Conclusion: Our study provides valuable insights into the impacts of psychosocial and mental health aspects of BTHS. Implications of these findings include incorporating longitudinal assessment of QoL and screening for psychological symptoms in BTHS care to identify interventions that may drastically impact health status and the course of the disease. Full article
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Article
H-Type Hypertension among Black South Africans and the Relationship between Homocysteine, Its Genetic Determinants and Estimates of Vascular Function
J. Cardiovasc. Dev. Dis. 2022, 9(12), 447; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcdd9120447 - 09 Dec 2022
Viewed by 512
Abstract
Elevated homocysteine (Hcy) increases cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. Our objective was to emphasize Hcy’s contribution in hypertension and CVD management by determining H-type hypertension (hypertension with Hcy ≥ 10 µmol/L) and associations between Hcy, blood pressure (BP) and estimates of vascular function among [...] Read more.
Elevated homocysteine (Hcy) increases cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. Our objective was to emphasize Hcy’s contribution in hypertension and CVD management by determining H-type hypertension (hypertension with Hcy ≥ 10 µmol/L) and associations between Hcy, blood pressure (BP) and estimates of vascular function among Black South Africans. We included 1995 adults (63% female). Plasma Hcy and cardiovascular measures (systolic and diastolic BP (SBP, DBP), pulse pressure, heart rate (HR), carotid-radialis pulse wave velocity (cr-PWV), intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1) were quantified. Five Hcy-related polymorphisms (cystathionine β-synthase (CBS 844ins68, T833C, G9276A); methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR C677T) and methionine synthase (MTR A2756G)) were genotyped. Hcy was >10 µmol/L in 41% (n = 762), and of the 47% (n = 951) hypertensives, 45% (n = 425) presented with H-type. Hcy was higher in hypertensives vs. normotensives (9.86 vs. 8.78 µmol/L, p < 0.0001, effect size 0.56) and correlated positively with SBP, DBP, cr-PWV and ICAM-1 (r > 0.19, p < 0.0001). Over Hcy quartiles, SBP, DBP, HR, cr-PWV and ICAM-1 increased progressively (all p-trends ≤ 0.001). In multiple regression models, Hcy contributed to the variance of SBP, DBP, HR, cr-PWV and ICAM-1. H-type hypertensives also had the lowest MTHFR 677 CC frequency (p = 0.03). Hcy is positively and independently associated with markers of vascular function and raised BP. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in the Treatment of Hypertension)
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Review
Intravenous Thrombolysis for Acute Ischemic Stroke in Patients with End-Stage Renal Disease on Hemodialysis: A Narrative Review
J. Cardiovasc. Dev. Dis. 2022, 9(12), 446; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcdd9120446 - 09 Dec 2022
Viewed by 458
Abstract
Objectives: Acute ischemic stroke (AIS) is a significant and devastating complication in patients with end-stage renal disease on hemodialysis (ESRD/HD). Since one-third of AIS in ESRD/HD patients occurs during or soon after dialysis, patients are more likely to present within the time window [...] Read more.
Objectives: Acute ischemic stroke (AIS) is a significant and devastating complication in patients with end-stage renal disease on hemodialysis (ESRD/HD). Since one-third of AIS in ESRD/HD patients occurs during or soon after dialysis, patients are more likely to present within the time window when intravenous thrombolysis (IVT) can be performed. IVT may improve prognosis in ESRD/HD patients with AIS. However, ESRD/HD patients have been excluded from large trials and may have been withheld from IVT due to concerns about bleeding complications. To date, there is no clear evidence and firm guidance on the safety and efficacy of IVT in ESRD/HD patients with AIS. This narrative review aimed to evaluate critical scientific data on the benefits and risks of IVT use in patients with ESRD/HD and AIS. Materials and Methods: We searched the electronic database of PubMed for studies evaluating the relationship between AIS, ESRD/HD, and IVT. Reference sections and additional publications were also searched manually. Studies on AIS in patients with ESRD/HD requiring maintenance dialysis that referred to IVT were included. Results: In total, 560 studies were found in the PubMed electronic database during the period covered, of which 10 met the selection criteria. IVT for AIS in ESRD/HD patients could improve neurological outcomes and be safely performed even with the possibility of hemorrhagic complications associated with hypertension. Despite the high complication and mortality rates in ESRD/HD patients with AIS after IVT, the association with IVT was unclear. Conclusions: IVT for AIS in ESRD/HD patients may improve outcomes and should not be withheld based solely on ESRD/HD status. Full article
Article
Intravascular Ultrasound Guidance Is Associated with a Favorable One-Year Target Vessel Failure Rate and No Residual Myocardial Ischemia after the Percutaneous Treatment of Very Long Coronary Artery Lesions
J. Cardiovasc. Dev. Dis. 2022, 9(12), 445; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcdd9120445 - 09 Dec 2022
Viewed by 488
Abstract
Background: Studies have shown that percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in long coronary artery lesions (≥30 mm) is associated with more frequent target vessel failure (TVF), and a significant proportion of patients have lesions that continue to induce ischemia after PCI (FFR ≤ 0.8). [...] Read more.
Background: Studies have shown that percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in long coronary artery lesions (≥30 mm) is associated with more frequent target vessel failure (TVF), and a significant proportion of patients have lesions that continue to induce ischemia after PCI (FFR ≤ 0.8). We investigated the impact of intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) on the functional PCI result and one-year TVF rate after the percutaneous treatment of long coronary artery lesions. Methods: A total of 80 patients underwent IVUS-guided PCI in long coronary artery lesions. The PCI results were validated with IVUS and FFR. Procedural outcomes were the proportion of patients with: (1) optimal physiology result (post PCI FFR value ≥ 0.9); (2) optimal anatomy result (all IVUS PCI optimization criteria met); and (3) optimal physiology and anatomy result. The clinical outcome was TVF during a one-year follow-up (target vessel (TV)-related death, TV myocardial infarction, ischemia-driven TV revascularization). Results: The mean stented segment length was 62 mm. The target vessel (TV) was the left anterior descending artery in 82.5% of cases. There were no patients with residual ischemia (FFR ≤ 0.8) after PCI. Optimal coronary flow (FFR ≥ 0.9) was achieved in 37.5%; optimal anatomy, as assessed by IVUS, was achieved in 68.4%; and both optimal flow and anatomy were achieved in 25% of patients. Target vessel failure during the 12-month follow-up was 2.5%. Conclusions: In the percutaneous treatment of very long coronary artery lesions, the use of IVUS guidance is associated with a low TVF rate during a one-year follow-up and no residual myocardial ischemia, as assessed by FFR. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Interventional Therapies and Management in Coronary Artery Disease)
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Article
Right Ventricular Septal Versus Apical Pacing: Long-Term Incidence of Heart Failure and Survival
J. Cardiovasc. Dev. Dis. 2022, 9(12), 444; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcdd9120444 - 09 Dec 2022
Viewed by 427
Abstract
The clinical benefits of right ventricular septal (RVS) pacing compared to those of right ventricular apical (RVA) pacing are still in debate. We aimed to compare the incidence of heart failure (HF) and all-cause mortality in patients submitted to RVS and RVA pacing [...] Read more.
The clinical benefits of right ventricular septal (RVS) pacing compared to those of right ventricular apical (RVA) pacing are still in debate. We aimed to compare the incidence of heart failure (HF) and all-cause mortality in patients submitted to RVS and RVA pacing during a longer follow-up. This a single-center, retrospective study analysis of consecutive patients submitted to pacemaker implantation. The primary outcome was defined as the occurrence of HF during follow-up. The secondary outcome was all-cause death. A total of 251 patients were included, 47 (18.7%) with RVS pacing. RVS pacing was associated to younger age, male gender, lower body mass index, ischemic heart disease, and atrial fibrillation. During a follow-up period of 5.2 years, the primary outcome occurred in 89 (37.1%) patients. RVS pacing was independently associated with a 3-fold lower risk of HF, after adjustment. The secondary outcome occurred in 83 (34.2%) patients, and pacemaker lead position was not a predictor. Fluoroscopy time and rate of complications (rarely life-threatening) were similar in both groups. Our study points to a potential clinical benefit of RVS positioning, with a 3.3-fold lower risk of HF, without accompanying increase in procedure complexity nor complication rate. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Heart Failure: Clinical Diagnostics and Treatment)
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Review
Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance Parametric Mapping Techniques for the Assessment of Chronic Coronary Syndromes
J. Cardiovasc. Dev. Dis. 2022, 9(12), 443; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcdd9120443 - 09 Dec 2022
Viewed by 498
Abstract
The term chronic coronary syndromes encompasses a variety of clinical presentations of coronary artery disease (CAD), ranging from stable angina due to epicardial coronary artery disease to microvascular coronary dysfunction. Cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging has an established role in the diagnosis, prognostication [...] Read more.
The term chronic coronary syndromes encompasses a variety of clinical presentations of coronary artery disease (CAD), ranging from stable angina due to epicardial coronary artery disease to microvascular coronary dysfunction. Cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging has an established role in the diagnosis, prognostication and treatment planning of patients with CAD. Recent advances in parametric mapping CMR techniques have added value in the assessment of patients with chronic coronary syndromes, even without the need for gadolinium contrast administration. Furthermore, quantitative perfusion CMR techniques have enabled the non-invasive assessment of myocardial blood flow and myocardial perfusion reserve and can reliably identify multivessel coronary artery disease and microvascular dysfunction. This review summarizes the clinical applications and the prognostic value of the novel CMR parametric mapping techniques in the setting of chronic coronary syndromes and discusses their strengths, pitfalls and future directions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance in Cardiology Practice)
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Perspective
Endocardium in Hypoplastic Left Heart Syndrome: Implications from In Vitro Study
J. Cardiovasc. Dev. Dis. 2022, 9(12), 442; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcdd9120442 - 08 Dec 2022
Viewed by 500
Abstract
Endocardium lines the inner layer of the heart ventricle and serves as the source of valve endothelial cells and interstitial cells. Previously, endocardium-associated abnormalities in hypoplastic left heart syndrome (HLHS) have been reported, including endocardial fibroelastosis (EFE) and mitral and aortic valve malformation. [...] Read more.
Endocardium lines the inner layer of the heart ventricle and serves as the source of valve endothelial cells and interstitial cells. Previously, endocardium-associated abnormalities in hypoplastic left heart syndrome (HLHS) have been reported, including endocardial fibroelastosis (EFE) and mitral and aortic valve malformation. However, few mechanistic studies have investigated the molecular pathological changes in endocardial cells. Recently, the emergence of a powerful in vitro system—induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs)—was applied to study various genetic diseases, including HLHS. This review summarized current in vitro studies in understanding the endocardial pathology in HLHS, emphasizing new findings of the cellular phenotypes and underlying molecular mechanisms. Lastly, a future perspective is provided regarding the better recapitulation of endocardial phenotypes in a dish. Full article
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Article
Prevalence, Predictors and Mechanisms of Steam Pops in Ablation Index-Guided High-Power Pulmonary Vein Isolation
J. Cardiovasc. Dev. Dis. 2022, 9(12), 441; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcdd9120441 - 07 Dec 2022
Viewed by 485
Abstract
Despite the good cooling effect of the contact-force porous catheter, the risk of steam pops (SP) remains one of the major concerns in high-power circumferential pulmonary vein isolation (CPVI). This study aimed to investigate the prevalence, predictors and possible mechanisms of SPs in [...] Read more.
Despite the good cooling effect of the contact-force porous catheter, the risk of steam pops (SP) remains one of the major concerns in high-power circumferential pulmonary vein isolation (CPVI). This study aimed to investigate the prevalence, predictors and possible mechanisms of SPs in CPVI. Patients experiencing SPs in de novo high-power CPVI were 1:3 matched by non-SP patients with gender, age (±5 years) and left atrial diameter (LAD) (±5 mm) to compare the ablation parameters of SP and non-SP lesions. Catheter tip displacement (Tipdisp) was compared between “edge-of-ridge” and “PV-side-of-ridge” placement at anterior and roof segments of the left pulmonary vein (PV). SPs occurred in 11 (1.57%) of 701 patients, including 6 at the antero-superior left PV, 2 at the roof, 1 at the postero-superior left PV, 1 at the bottom left PV and 1 at the antero-superior aspect of the right PV. There was significantly shorter RF delivery duration (13.9 ± 6.3 vs. 23.3 ± 6.0 s), greater Δimpedance (17.6 ± 6.7 vs. 6.7 ± 4.1 Ω) and lower ablation index (357.7 ± 68.8 vs. 430.2 ± 30.7) in SP patients than those in non-SP patients. Δimpedance >12 Ω during ablation could predict SP occurrence. Tipdisp was greater in “PV-side-of-ridge” than that in “edge-of -ridge” placement (3.2 ± 1.6 mm vs. 2.0 ± 0.8 mm) at antero-superior and roof segments of the left PV. The prevalence of SP was 1.57% in high-power CPVI procedures, with the most common site at the antero-superior segment of the left PV. Δimpedance was a significant predictor of SP occurrence. “PV-side-of-ridge” ablation at antero-superior and roof segments of left PV might predispose to SP occurrence due to excessive tissue coverage. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Electrophysiology and Cardiovascular Physiology)
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Article
Blood Pressure Prediction Using Ensemble Rules during Isometric Sustained Weight Test
J. Cardiovasc. Dev. Dis. 2022, 9(12), 440; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcdd9120440 - 07 Dec 2022
Viewed by 574
Abstract
Background: Predicting beat-to-beat blood pressure has several clinical applications. While most machine learning models focus on accuracy, it is necessary to build models that explain the relationships of hemodynamical parameters with blood pressure without sacrificing accuracy, especially during exercise. Objective: The aim of [...] Read more.
Background: Predicting beat-to-beat blood pressure has several clinical applications. While most machine learning models focus on accuracy, it is necessary to build models that explain the relationships of hemodynamical parameters with blood pressure without sacrificing accuracy, especially during exercise. Objective: The aim of this study is to use the RuleFit model to measure the importance, interactions, and relationships among several parameters extracted from photoplethysmography (PPG) and electrocardiography (ECG) signals during a dynamic weight-bearing test (WBT) and to assess the accuracy and interpretability of the model results. Methods: RuleFit was applied to hemodynamical ECG and PPG parameters during rest and WBT in six healthy young subjects. The WBT involves holding a 500 g weight in the left hand for 2 min. Blood pressure is taken in the opposite arm before and during exercise thereof. Results: The root mean square error of the model residuals was 4.72 and 2.68 mmHg for systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure, respectively, during rest and 4.59 and 4.01 mmHg, respectively, during the WBT. Furthermore, the blood pressure measurements appeared to be nonlinear, and interaction effects were observed. Moreover, blood pressure predictions based on PPG parameters showed a strong correlation with individual characteristics and responses to exercise. Conclusion: The RuleFit model is an excellent tool to study interactions among variables for predicting blood pressure. Compared to other models, the RuleFit model showed superior performance. RuleFit can be used for predicting and interpreting relationships among predictors extracted from PPG and ECG signals. Full article
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Article
Pulmonary Vascular Remodeling and Prognosis in Patients Evaluated for Heart Transplantation: Insights from the OCTOPUS-CHF Study
J. Cardiovasc. Dev. Dis. 2022, 9(12), 439; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcdd9120439 - 06 Dec 2022
Viewed by 550
Abstract
Objective: In patients with advanced heart failure, the intravascular optical coherence tomography (OCT) of subsegmental pulmonary artery measurements is correlated with right heart catheterization parameters. Our aim was to study the prognostic value of pulmonary OCT, right heart catheterization data, and the echocardiographic [...] Read more.
Objective: In patients with advanced heart failure, the intravascular optical coherence tomography (OCT) of subsegmental pulmonary artery measurements is correlated with right heart catheterization parameters. Our aim was to study the prognostic value of pulmonary OCT, right heart catheterization data, and the echocardiographic estimation of pulmonary pressure in patients studied for elective heart transplants. Methods: This research is an observational, prospective, multicenter study involving 90 adults with a one-year follow-up. Results: A total of 10 patients (11.1%) died due to worsening heart failure before heart transplantation, 50 underwent a heart transplant (55.6%), and 9 died in the first year after the transplant. The patients with and without events (mortality or heart failure-induced hospitalization) had similar data regarding echocardiography, right heart catheterization, and pulmonary OCT (with a median estimated pulmonary artery systolic pressure of 42.0 mmHg, interquartile range (IQR) of 30.3–50.0 vs. 47.0 mmHg, IQR 34.6–59.5 and p = 0.79, median pulmonary vascular resistance of 2.2 Wood units, IQR 1.3–3.7 vs. 2.0 Wood units, IQR 1.4–3.2 and p = 0.99, and a median pulmonary artery wall thickness of 0.2 ± 0.5 mm vs. 0.2 ± 0.6 mm and p = 0.87). Conclusion: Pulmonary vascular remodeling (evaluated with echocardiography, right heart catheterization, and pulmonary OCT) was not associated with prognosis in a selected sample of adults evaluated for elective heart transplants. Pulmonary OCT is safe and feasible for the evaluation of these patients. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Imaging)
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